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A sewage treatment plant built with water plants and gravels in an open field has been operated for 3 years with a daily average flow of 50 m3. The quality of treated water was regularly analysed and the economic assesment of the process has been investigated. Seasonal performance of the plant has been investigated with emphasis on treatment efficiency, shock loading responses, effects of sewage evaporation rate, effects of high and low ambient temperature, long term shutdown and start-up. Analyses of sewage indicated that the quality and quantity of the sewage generated in farming and fishing villages depend mainly on the life pattern of the residents. A sewage treatment plant with mechanical equipments may have high operating costs and low treatment efficiency to treat this type of sewage.However, the sewage treatment plant suggested in this study employs natural purification processes and has showed stable long term treatment efficiency even with shock loading and ambient temperature variation. Treatment of phosphorus with mechanical processes may need high operating costs but the suggested processes using water plants and gravels removes phosphorus in natural ways resulting in high removal efficiency and low costs. The natural sewage treatment plant showed good efficiency for all year around to meet the discharge guide-lines of drinking water protection area with respect to BOD, COD, TN. TP and SS. The high treatment efficiency may be due to the action of microorganisms living attached on the surface of the gravels. However, the water plants showed limited treatment performance.
Water is man's most important resources. In highly developed countries, to secure and manage the water source, it is the top priority among political issues. From 1971 to 1994, a research was done by the government. According to this research, after 1988, the amount being used and supplied was balanced in the industrial and agricultural areas. We do not have any research record after that. And now the government is trying to estimate the needed amount of water without understanding how much is being used currently, because the water supplied was not taken care of properly. the river are contaminated which causes the ecosystem to be disrupted. Not only that, about 25 percent of the supplied water is also leaking underground. In spite of all these facts, The Construction and Traffic Division is planing to build a huge dam to provide 480L of water per person. This amount is 3.5 ties higher than european consumption. The amount of water used has decreased about 20% over 15 years in U.S.A. and 17% over 7 years in germany. It is hard to understand the reason why the korean government continues trying to provide this high amount of water. This study contains the forms of individual water use which is very important to correct this inconsistent policy, the possible ways to save water, and the daily used amount of water per person in 15 different ares through a research. This research has been done by occupations, income, residences, and members of family. The cost of water compared to income has also been analyzed, and the acceptable cost is been suggested by comparing to the european leading countries.
Recent environmental factors surrounding the structure of hospitals are changing, so that the hospital can provide medical treatment which is centered around patients. Environmental elements that threaten the medical sphere can be divided into two parts; consumer factors, political factors, social and environmental factors. As stated above, the changes in the environment at the hospital invokes the hospital to make efforts such as improving and expanding facilities, introducing new equipment or acquiring additional manpower to fulfill the patients' aspirations and expectations. Today's general hospitals are comprised of medical and subsidiary manpower who operate under certain conduct norms in order to provide citizens with medical services which are compatible to the changing environment. Therefore, the complexity and diversity of professional manpower makes hospitals the most labor and technologically intensive organization, when compared to existing organization. The expensive medical equipment and facilities also makes hospitals a Capital-intensive organization. When we look at the environmental management strategy centered around general hospitals in Korea, not only should hospital management put emphasis on patient satisfaction, but the hospital should also establish information systems, specialize the medical field, ensure the of transparency of insurance fee levels and alleviate various governmental regulations, Professional business administrators should also reform the management, Personnel management should be improved to lower expenses by securing superior medical manpower and by positioning the right man in the right place. The hospital should give special attention in order to prevent the transfer of medical personnel, It Should, in the long run, introduce a merit system and boldly induce those who have the ability into the hospital setting. Responsibilities for administration and employment should be clarified for proper management of hospital equipment, facilities and inventory. A hospital financial affairs management system should be made induce a scientific method in inventory management.