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법원은 일반적으로 법률뿐 아니라 그 상위규범인 헌법에 따라 궁극적으로 헌법을 실현하고 관철시키는 재판을 하여야 한다는 점에서, 또한 광의의 헌법재판에 속하는 위헌법률심판제청, 명령ㆍ규칙의 위헌심사, 선거소송과 기관소송을 담당하는 기관이라는 점에서 헌법재판기관이다. 과거 법원이 헌법상 책무를 충실히 완수하지 못한 것은 사실이나, 이에 대한 반성을 토대로 헌법적 쟁점을 실질적으로 심리하고 헌법적 가치를 확인하기 위해 노력해 왔으며, 이는 일반재판에서 헌법을 투영하여 합헌적 법률해석을 한 사례, 합헌적 법률해석이 가능하지 않은 경우 위헌법률심판제청을 한 사례, 명령ㆍ규칙에 대한 규범통제권을 행사하여 명령ㆍ규칙을 위헌ㆍ무효로 본 사례 등을 통해 확인할 수 있다. 하지만 사법부에 대한 국민의 신뢰가 크게 향상되었다고 볼 수만은 없는 현재, 법원이 기본권 보장 및 공권력 통제기관으로서의 위상을 확고히 하기 위해서는, 개개 법관의 헌법에 대한 관심과 이해도를 높이는 방안이 필요하고, 대법원이 헌법적 쟁점에 대하여 보다 충실한 논증을 하여야 하며, 법원의 헌법적 관심이 민주주의와 관련된 주요한 자유권적 기본권의 최대한 보장과 사회적 기본권의 실질적 보장으로 이동하여야 하고, 법원에 부여된 명령ㆍ규칙에 대한 규범통제권을 적극적으로 행사하여야 한다 또한, 법원과 헌법재판소 두 기관 모두 헌법재판기관으로서 상호 존중하면서도 국민의 기본권 보장이라는 관점에서 그 논증의 타당성과 설득력을 바탕으로 헌법 내지 법률해석의 차이를 조정해 나가는 발전적 경쟁관계가 정립되어야 한다. The court, at a trial, reviews not only legal issues regarding certain cases but also ultimately implements the constitution following the provisions of the Constitution as a superior norm to other ones. In a broad sense, it serves as a constitutional court because it reviews request for reviewing the constitutionality, which is belong to the main work of the constitutional court, unconstitutionality of order or regulation, legal conflict over election, and cases involving organizations and government agencies. In the past, the court failed to faithfully carry out its role of interpreting constitutionality, however it has made utmost effort to hear constitutional issues and confirm values of constitution based on reflect on its short comings. Endeavors that the court has made could be confirmed through some examples; in a normal trial, it interpreted legal issues based on the constitution; in case of interpretation of constitutionality is not feasible, it asked for adjudication on the constitutionality of statutes; it declared nullification of and unconstitutionality of a rule or order by doing judicial review. However, considering the fact that the general public trust in the judiciary has not been significantly improved, it is required judges for enhancing their understanding of the constitution and interests further so that the court enhances its status as an institution of protecting the fundamental rights of people and controlling the governmental power. At the same time, the Supreme Court should thoroughly reviews and examines issues over constitutionality while the court should put its focus on ensuring free constitutional rights closely related to realizing democracy at a maximum level and substantially promoting social constitutional rights. In addition, the court may exercise its authority over judicial review on order or rule, which is solely invested to it. The court and the constitutional court should respect each other as constitutional institutions and develop a relationship which is mutually beneficial by narrowing differences in the way of interpreting the constitution and other laws based on rationality and reasoning so that they carry out fundamental role of ensuring people's fundamental rights.
Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the effects of music therapy on anxiety, sedation, and stress responses of patients during surgery with spinal anesthesia. Methods: A quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group pre-post test was used. There were 55 adults over 19 years of age scheduled for a lower leg surgery with spinal anesthesia: 27 in the treatment group and 28 in the comparison group. Each subject in the treatment group identified their music preference which was used during the period of surgery which usually lasted, 61 minutes. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Fisher"s exact test, independent t-test and repeated measured ANOVA. Results: There were significant reported differences in levels of anxiety, sedation, and stress responses which were measured by plasma cortisol levels, heart rate, and respiratory rate. The findings of all the variables were effectively decreased among those in the treatment group than the comparison group. Conclusion: The preference based music therapy may be useful as a non-pharmacological intervention.
Purpose: This study was designed to explore the influencing factors on communication skill of nursing students and to investigate the relationship between learning style, critical thinking disposition and communication skill, Methods: The study sample was composed of 559 nursing students. Data was collected from 1st to 30th, May 2012 used a questionnaire which included Kolb's learning style inventory, critical thinking disposition inventory, communication skill inventory. The SPSS 18.0 Window program was used for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson"s correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression. Results: Learning styles of subjects were diverging 39.5%, accommodating 32.6%, assimilating 22.7%, and converging 5.2%. The total mean score of critical thinking disposition and communication skill was 3.58 and 3.39 respectively. The score of Critical thinking disposition(t=3.06, p=.002) and Communication skill(t=3.25, p=.002) significantly differed between clinical practice satisfaction. Communication skill was the most significant predictor and accounted for 41.3% of the variance in critical thinking disposition in nursing students. Conclusion: It is important for students to use all four learning styles rather than to rely on one style. There should be more emphasis placed on the development of positive critical thinking disposition and communication skill of nursing students.
본 연구는 간호대학생의 운동수행여부, 건강에 대한 생각에 따른 자기효능감, 자아존중감 및 활력의 차이를 알아보기 위해 수행되었다. 연구 디자인은 서술적 조사연구로, 자료분석은 SPSS 22.0을 이용하였으며 카이제곱-test, t-test가 사용되었다. 자료수집 기간은 2019년 5월 1일부터 6월 30일까지로 K시에서 수집되었다. 대상자의 평균 나이는 23.7살이었다. 대상자 중 187명(85.0%)은 여자, 99명(45.0%)은 운동을 수행하고 있었으며, 138명(62.7%)은 자신들이 건강하다고 생각하고 있었다. 변수들에 대한 점수는; 건강자기효능감 2.93±0.35점; 신체자기효능감 3.16±0.37점; 자아존중감2.94±0.43; 활력 3.78±0.52이다. 운동을 수행하는 경우 신체자기효능감(t=3.68, p =<.001); 운동적 기능(t=5.39, p <.001); 정신적 기능(t=2.10, p =.037), 영양적 기능(t=2.50, p =.013); 건강관리 효능감(t=2.37, p =.019) 그리고 활력(t=12.63, p =<.001)에서 유의한 차이를 나타냈다. 자신이 건강하다고 생각하는 경우 건강자기효능감(t=3.73, p =<.001), 운동적 기능(t=3.29, p =.001); 정신적 기능(t=4.01, p <.001); 영양적 기능(t=2.62, p =.009), 건강관리 효능(t=2.51, p =.013); 건강자기효능감(t=2.59, p =.010); 자아존중감(t=3.91, p =<.001) 그리고 활력(t=2.92, p =.004)에서 유의한 차이를 나타냈다. 운동 수행이 건강자기효능감과 활력을 높이는데 기여하였으며, 자신이 건강하다고 생각하는 것이 신체자기효능감, 자아존중감 및 활력을 높이는데 기여하였다. This study was conducted to investigate differences in self-efficacy, self-esteem, and vitality related to physical exercise and health consciousness. A descriptive research design, χ² test, and t test were used. Data were collected from May 1 to June 30, 2019, at K city. Participants were 220 nursing students of mean age 23.7 years; 187 (85.5%) were women, 99 (45.0%) exercised regularly; 138 (62.7%) were positive about their health Ed. Note: Please confirm that these edits convey your intended meaning. The scores Ed. Note: This is not clear. Here, do you mean "mean scores of all participants"? of self-efficacy of health and body were 2.93±0.35 and 3.16±0.37, respectively; self-esteem, 2.94±0.43; and vitality, 3.78±0.52. There were significant differences in self-efficacy of health (t=3.68, p=<.001), motor function (t=5.39, p<.001), psychological function (t=2.10, p=.037), nutritional function (t=2.50, p=.013), efficacy of health management (t=2.37, p=.019), and vitality (t=12.63, p=<.001) related to physical exercise. Self-efficacy of health (t=3.73, p=<.001), motor function (t=3.29, p=.001), psychological function (t=4.01, p<.001), nutritional function (t=2.62, p=.009), efficacy of health management (t=2.51, p=.013), self-efficacy of body (t=2.59, p=.010), self-esteem (t=3.91, p=<.001), and vitality (t=2.92, p=.004) were related to health consciousness. Physical exercise and previous experience of body weight loss contributed to enhanced self-efficacy of health and vitality and health consciousness contributed to enhanced self-efficacy of health and body, self-esteem, and vitality.
Purpose: This study was conducted to exam the effect of listening to preferred music on patients' anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate, and glucose levels during spinal anesthesia. Methods: A quasi-experimental research design was used. The participants were divided into an experimental group (n=30) and a control group (n=30) undergoing lower leg operations using spinal anesthesia. The mean age was 35.1 years and the mean time of listening to the music was 71.33 minutes. The experimental group was provided with their preferred music selected by each of the participants; the control group was not provided with any music. Results: The state of anxiety was decreased significantly in the experimental group(F=4.14, p=.046). Anxiety (VAS) was also significantly lower in the experimental group (F=4.62, p=.036). Conclusion: The results of the study show that listening to preferred music is an effective method for reducing peri-operative anxiety for patients during spinal anesthesia.
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the differences of the Code of Ethics, level of application of the Code of Ethics and consciousness of biomedical ethics of nurses about clinical practice experience, ethical values and biomedical ethics education experience of nursing students. Methods: A descriptive research design, t-test and one-way ANOVA were used. The data were collected 1st June to 31st August 2016 from two large cities. The participants were 246 nursing students with a mean age of 22.57 years. Among them, 209 (84.6%) were female, 94 (38.2%) had clinical practice experience, 155 (63.0%) listed their ethical value as different depending on the situation, and 127 (51.6%) had biomedical ethics education experience. Results: The scores were: awareness of the Code of Ethics of Nurses 4.29±0.60; application of the Code of Ethics of Nurses 4.24±0.64; and consciousness of biomedical ethics 2.91±0.19. There were significant differences in application of the Code of Ethics of Nurses (t=-1.97, p=.050); consciousness of biomedical ethics (t=-2.25, p=.025) related to clinical practice experience; and consciousness of biomedical ethics related to biomedical education experience (t=2.67, p=.007). Conclusion: Clinical practice and biomedical ethics education experience contributed to enhance the level of application of the Code of Ethics of Nurses and consciousness of biomedical ethics of nursing students.
본 연구의 목적은 일개 대학 간호대학생의 생명의료윤리의식 정도를 검증하기 위한 연구이다. 연구대상은 간호학생 총 266명이며, 자료수집은 2012년 9월 10일부터 10월 5일까지였다. 생명의료윤리의식의 총점 평균은 4점 만 점을 기준으로 2.98(±0.2)점이었으며, ‘태아생명권' 점수가 3.27(±0.5)로 가장 높은 점수를, ‘장기이식'에서 2.70(±0.4)로 가장 낮은 점수를 보였다. 윤리적 가치관이 매우 확고한 경우 3.06점으로 가장 높았으며(F=3.936, p=.021), 인공임신이 3.21점으로 가장 높은 점수를 나타냈다(F=5.001, p=.007). 성별과 생명의료윤리의식 점수(r=0.180, p=.003), 윤리적 가 치관은 정적 상관관계를 보였다(r=0.170, p=.005). 간호대학생의 생명의료윤리의식에 대한 예측 요인은 성별(β=0.205, t=3.399, p=<.001)생명과학 발달에 따른 윤리적문제점 증가에 대한 우려(β=0.142, t=2.261, p=0.025)와 윤리적 가치관 (β=0.189, t=3.119, p=0.002)이었다. 본 연구결과를 토대로 간호학생들의 생명의료윤리의식을 높이기 위한 교육 프로 그램을 마련하는 데 기초자료가 될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. The aim of this study was to test the correlation of ethical values and perception of biomedical ethics in nursing students. Data was collected from September 10th to October 5th 2012, was analyzed using the t-test, the one-way ANOVA, the Scheffe, the Multiple regression and Pearson's correlation. The average point of consciousness of biomedical ethics was 2.98(±0.2). The highest score of 3.27(±0.5) was seen in the category of the ethics for 'right to life of the fetus', the lowest score of 2.70(±0.4) was seen in the 'organ transplantation'. As a result of analyzing on general and specific aspects, the difference was found in gender and ethical values(F=6.148, p=<.001). In gender, the score of biomedical ethics(r=0.108, p=.003) and ethical values(r=-0.185, p=.002) were showing a positive correlation. The predictors of biomedical ethics was gender(β =0.205, t=3.399, p=<.001), the possibility of biomedical ethics problems depend on the development of science (β=0.142, t=2.261, p=0.025) and ethical values(β=0.189, t=3.119, p=0.002). These results can provide a basic data to enhance the consciousness of biomedical ethics and establish a educational program of biomedical ethics for nursing students.