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The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of mixed circuit exercise program on physical fitness, body composition, and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. We studied 19 obese postmenopausal women, aged 52.6±1.1 years, who had not exercised regularly, volunteered to participate in a mixed circuit exercise program as a subject. The subjects completed a 16 weeks exercise program consisting of mixed circuit exercise performed 3times/week at 60~70 HRmax. and They had supervised program consisting of 75 min circuit exercise program. The mixed circuit exercise training was composed of circuit exercise, thera band, and gymball exercise. The measurement items included Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose(FPG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max), Muscle strength, Muscle endurance, power, flexibility, agility, and balance. Therefore, the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were estimated by computed tomography. Sixteen weeks of combined exercise training produced significant improve on physical fitness, body composition, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome (p<0.05). In conclusion, mixed exercise program did showed positive effect in postmenopausal women and exercise participation may be protective against developed of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.
It has been reported that combining both hydraulic resistance exercise and aerobic exercise (PACE) improves cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength in non‐obese individuals. This study examined the effect of PACE training in obese women on energy expenditure during moderate self‐selected intensity exercise. We tested the hypothesis that PACE training would elicit greater energy expenditure than stationary cycle exercise. Ten obese women completed a maximal exercise test. On separate days, all participants performed a submaximal PACE and a stationary cycle exercise trial. Submaximal energy expenditure (6.2±0.4 vs. 5.5±0.4 kcal/min), oxygen uptake (20.3±0.75 vs. 18.1±0.57 ml/kg/min), heart rate (142±5 vs. 136±6 bpm), percentage of oxygen uptake reserve (64.5±5 vs. 55.4±3 %), and percentage of maximal heart rate 79±4 vs. 76±4 %) were significantly higher during PACE compared to cycling exercise. Results suggest that self‐selected PACE training optimizes energy expenditure during submaximal intensity exercise in obese individuals.
It has been reported that exaggerated blood pressure is mediated by exercise increase the development of future hypertension. However, it has not been investigated cardiovascular responses in offspring with a positive family history of hypertenstion during exercise. Therefore, this study was to compare the physiological responses in normotensive offspring with or without family history of hypertension during dynamic exercise. Twelve normotensive subjects with a known family history of hypertension and ten subjects without a family history of hypertension aged between 20 and 25 years were recruited for this study. All subjects were continuously instrumented to measure stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output, total vascular conductance, and arterial blood pressure with increasing workloads (40%, 60%, 80% of VO2max). The results showed that systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure significantly increased in both groups with increasing workloads, but there was significantly higher in subjects with a family history of hypertension. There were no differences in heart rate, stroke volume, and total vascular conductance between both groups with increasing exercise intensity. Cardiac output was significantly higher in subjects with a family history of hypertension at rest, but there was no difference in both groups across workloads. This study suggests that there was an exaggerated exercise blood pressure response in people with positive family history of essential blood pressure during dynamic exercise and there may be higher risk of future hypertension development.
Pressurization training (PT) is designed to perform short term training using exclusive pneumatic belt applying pressure on upper parts of arms and legs to reduce blood flow to limbs. It has not completely been proved whether PT could improve the cardiorespiratory fitness and skeletal muscle function. Subjects were divided into two groups, which were 8 PT group (21.6±1.7 years) and 8 control group without pressurization (23.4±0.6 years). All subjects completed 2 week walk training program. PT group performed walk training with specially designed elastic band wrapped around upper parts of both legs. Pressure was maintained with 220 ㎜Hg for the rest of training period. Control group performed walk training program without pressure on leg's blood flow. The result showed that VEmax and strength of knee flexor were significantly increased in PT group and cross sectional areas of quadriceps on both right and left leg were increased by 2.0 and 1.4%, respectively. VO₂max tended to increase (6%), but there was no significant difference. There were no significant differences in resting levels of IGF-1, testosterone, growth hormone, and myoglobin. It is concluded that short-term walk PT could improve cardiorespiratory function at low intensity and may also be useful method to improve skeletal muscle function such as muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy.