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Biological conservation is to maintain the diversity of living organism, their habitats and the interrelationships between organisms and their environment. Within ecological and genetic conservation, this study plans to develop of an overall system for genetic conservation that includes both in situ and ex situ strategies. Several characteristics, such as breeding system, geographical range, genetic mobility, are known to be associated with significant differences in the distribution of genetic variation of rare or endangered plant species. Genetic variability in the nationally endangered plants, Leontice microrhyncha S. Moore and Berchemia berchemiaefolia (Makino) Koidz. were assessed in five and four populations using starch gel electrophoresis. Overall levels of genetic variation was very low for both species, but the proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was fairly large for both species. The presumed self-pollinating species, Leontice microrhyncha showed the high ratio of among-population to total variation and probably reflecting both the breeding system and restriction of these plants to discrete, and isolated populations. Populations in the northern populations were more variable than those in the southward. Allozyme data seemed to provide the evidence of founder events associated with gradual migration from north to south. From a conservation perspective, the high genetic diversity maintained among populations of Leontice microrhyncha is encouraging. Genetic variation within southern populations of Berchemia berchemiaefolia was very low and no heterozygous individuals were detected. The diminished genetic diversity found within these southern populations was probably attributable to human disturbances. In subsequent generations, the loss of heterozygosity that resulted from the massive cutting during the Korean War, inbreeding was likely to lead to diminished fitness in these plants which typically outcrossed. On the other hand, since several genotypes were found within Mt. Sok-ri population, expedient sampling should permit the capture of the high genetic diversity found within these taxa for ex situ safeguarding. Hybridization between individuals from Korean and Japanese populations may be the only possibly way to lead to greater genetic diversity, given the high potential for heterozygosity in Japanese populations, although a possible harmful consequence is outbreeding depression. Inventory, survey and monitoring; assessment of population structure and genetic variability; maintenance and reconstruction of essential habitat are all important approaches for rare and endangered species in Korea.
This essay explores how the early Zhe School manner was introduced and received in 15th- and 16th-century Korea by closely examining the style and theme of Snowy Sky attributed to the great master An Gyeon (active ca. 1440-1470), now in the National Museum of Korea. Snowy Sky is currently included in an album of paintings by various painters both Chinese and Korean. The painting shows a bleak winter landscape at dusk with a twisting and turning mountain, an empty pavilion, buildings under pines, and distant peaks. The lonely and desolate atmosphere, the cold weather, and the evening sky and landscape blanketed by snow in Snowy Sky strongly recall the scene of “River and Sky in Evening Snow” or “River and Sky, Evening Snow,” one of the “Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers.” In style, this painting bears a striking similarity to “River and Sky in Evening Snow,” one leaf from the Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers album, attributed to An Gyeon, in the National Museum of Korea. In all likelihood, Snowy Sky, once part of the Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers album, has been transmitted as a single landscape painting since the album was split up. As a result, the painting has lost its identity as one of the “Eight Views of the Xiao and Xiang Rivers.” It is interesting to note that the sharply defined and angular peaks in the distance in Snowy Sky are often found in landscape paintings by early Zhe school masters such as Dai Jin (1388-1462). The landscape motif is one of the stylistic hallmarks of Dai Jin. Although An Gyeon’s stylistic influence is clearly manifested in Snowy Sky, the appearance of Dai Jin’s pictorial manner is noteworthy. Snowy Sky shows the transition from the dominance of the An Gyeon School manner to the growing popularity of the Chinese Zhe School style. 현재 국립중앙박물관에 소장되어 있는 안견(安堅, 15세기 중반에 주로 활동) 전칭(傳稱)의 〈설천도(雪天圖)〉는 흑백 도판으로 소개되었을 뿐 그동안 전혀 학술적으로 논의되지 못했다. 이 그림 옆에 붙어 있는 별지(別紙)에는 안견의 이름이 적혀 있다. 한편 화면 오른쪽 중간의 가장자리 부분에는 ‘안견(安堅)’이라는 도장이 찍혀 있다. 이 도장은 후날(後捺)된 것이다. 〈설천도〉는 안견의 진작(眞作)은 아니지만 조선 초기 안견파 산수화의 전형적인 양식적 특징인 편파이단구도(偏頗 二段構圖)와 단선점준(短線點皴)을 뚜렷하게 보여주고 있다. 〈설천도〉는 구도, 경물 표현 방식, 모티프들에 있어 국립중앙박물관 소장의 《소상팔경도(瀟湘八景 圖)》 중 〈강천모설도(江天暮雪圖)〉와 매우 흡사하다. 따라서 〈설천도〉는 단순히 겨울 풍경을 그린 동경산수도(冬景山水圖)가 아니라 소상팔경(瀟湘八景) 중 한 장면인 ‘강천모설(江天暮雪)’을 그린 〈강천모설도〉라고 생각된다. 이 그림은 《소상팔경도》 화첩 중 1엽이었는데 화첩이 해체되면서 단독 그림으로 유전(流傳)되어 후대에 〈설천도〉로 명명되었다. 한편 화면 오른쪽 상단에 보이는 끝이 뾰족하고 각이 진 첨형(尖形) 원산(遠山)은 대진(戴進, 1388-1462) 및 전기(前期) 절파 (浙派) 화가들의 산수화에 자주 등장하는 모티프이다. 조선 초기 산수화 작품들 중 대진 화풍의 특징인 원경에 배치된 첨형 암봉들이 나타난 최초의 예는 전(傳) 안견 필(筆) 〈사시팔경도(四時八景圖)〉의 ‘만동(晩冬)’이다. 〈설천도〉를 포함해 16 세기 전반에 제작된 산수화 작품들 중에는 첨형 암봉을 보여주는 몇 가지 예가 존재한다. 첨형 암봉은 대진 화풍이 15세기 후반에 조선에 소개된 후 16세기 전반에 점차적으로 확산되고 있었음을 보여주는 시각적 증거이다. 결국 〈설천도〉는 안견파 화풍에서 절파 화풍으로 전환되던 과도기적 화풍의 양상을 명료하게 보여주는 작품이다.
Although Betula is a small genus of ca. 60 species in the world, relatively little systematic work has been done on Asian birch, apparently due to the difficulties of working with wide distributed taxa in China, Korea, Rusia and Japan, Fifteen flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of seven Korean birch taxa, representing one section (Betula) and five subsections (Costatae, Chinenses, Betula, Fruticosae and Davuricae) according to Kuang and Li's classificiation. Two chemical groups were evident: one producing only flavonols, and a second producing flavonols and flavones. These two chemical groups did not correspond to any of the sectional groups based on morphology. Flavonoid data support to the hypothesis that sect. Betula, subsect. Costatae originated from the ancestor of Betula. Also, by combining existing flavonoid data, it is possible to develop a phylogenetic scheme illustrating the relationship between sect. Betulaster and subsects. Betula, and Fruticosae including subsect. Davuricae of sect. Betula. Flavonoid chemistry supports the treatment of subsects. Costatae and Chinense as a unified group rather than as two different subsections and further favored the elevation of subsections of sect. Betula to all sectional rank including sect. Betulaster sensu Kuang and Li.
The threatened species categories, the 2000 IUCN Red List, proposed by SSC (Species Survival Commission) of IUCN have become widely recognized internationally. On the other hand, the criteria by Ministry of Environment and Korea Forest Services were applied to the whole taxa by regional boundaries, especially in south Korea. An evaluation of taxa in Korea has been carried out by the very limited number of taxonomists only based on their personal experience and subjective views without objective and scientific data. We have applied the IUCN Red list criteria to seven taxa [Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai, Stewartia koreana Nakai ex Rehder (sensu stricto, s.s.) or S, pseudocamellia Maxim. (sensu lato, s.l.), Elethroccocus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Maxim., Kirengeshoma koreana Nakai (s.s.) or K. palmata Yatabe (s.l.), Megaleranthis saninculifolia Ohwi, Deutzia paniculata Nakai, and Leontice microrhyncha S. Moore] and the categories of threat for all taxa were determined respectively. Since some taxa of Kirengeshoma and Stewartia in Korea were treated as an endemic (sensu stricto) or synomized taxa to Japanese species (sensu lato), we applied these sensu lato and sensu stricto concepts to these taxa. This current study showed that Abeliophyllum distichum, Deutzia paniculata, Kirengeshoma koreana (s.s.) and K. palmata (s.l.) were evaluated as Critically Endangered (CR), and Megaleranthis saninculifolia and Stewartia koreana (s.s.) were Endangered (EN), while S. pseudocamelia (s.l.) and Elethroccocus senticosus turned out to be Least Concern (LC). Finally Leontice microrhyncha was evaluated as Vunerable (VU) based on our limited information. All list of rare and endangered taxa including the categorization proposed by the two Korean government institutes had been different each other and their evaluations were not concordant with those by the IUCN Red List evaluation. Although each species should be evaluated against all the criteria of IUCN Red List, meeting any of criterion is sufficient for listing. Many
Fraxinus chiisanensis Nakai, an endemic species to Korea and the related taxa from North America were analyzed to determine phenetic similarity and to make phylogenetic inferences. Eighty one specimens from sect. Fraxinus, subsect. Melioides [F. americana L., F. caroliniana Mill., F. pennsylvanica Marsh., F. profunda (Bush) Bush, F. velutina Torr, F. papillosa Lingelsh.] as well as F. chiisanensis were compared to evaluate the phenetic affinity using 22 morphological characters. The strong discontinuity existed between F. chiisanesis and other taxa of subsect. Melioides with respect to the shape of winter bud, the degree of leaf pubescence, and the number of leaflet serration. Foliar flavonoids were examined from subsection Melioides and F. chiisanensis. A total of 16 compounds was isolated and identified, mainly with flavonol and flavone. The analyzed flavonoid profiles were relatively uniform, and showed no distinct differentiation among taxa of subsect. Melioides except F. velutina. Comparing the result of Nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and morphology, however, it was concluded that F. chiisanensis seems to be a highly primitive species within subsect. Melioides by traits unusual for this section : no petal and androdioecious flower with calyx. F. chiisanensis was probably differentiated from the ancestor group a long time ago and reflected no related extant species within this subsection.