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This paper aims at finding a relationship between Oh Jang-hwan's poetry and Baek Seok's poetry, clarifying Oh Jang-hwan poetry's thematic consciousness, and characterizing the inner logic of Oh Jang-hwan's early poetry. This kind of work helps finding out the logical reasons for the complex aspects of Oh Jang-hwan's early poetry. A desirable poem for Oh Jang-hwan is the one that reveals a poet's emotion, opinions, and visions. The 'sentimentalism' for him is the emotion that a true person has to feel when he confronts with the real life and the natural effect of the contents over the forms. On the one hand, Oh Jang-hwan's criticism for Baek, Seok is caused by this kind of reason. On the other hand, Oh tries to find Baek Seok poetry's good points, the characteristics of returning family and hometown and refinding a value of the present reality and the future directionality. The thematic tendency of Oh Jang-hwan's early poetry is perceiving the past with the present perspective and narrating the past with the vision for future. This kind of tendency is embodied in <Jongga [the head family]>. However, Oh Jang-hwan does not reveal his commentary and critical attitude in the poems depicting the low class whom he empathizes or feels sympathy. This kind of tendency proves that Oh Jang-hwan's critical voice is not his own voice but an intentional one resulted by his poetic theory. The reason why he shows a critical attitude in his many poems in spite of this tendency is that he thinks criticizing the old customs, the false consciousness and the deceptive attitude of the Yangban [the upper class], human alineation of the capitalistic society, and the small businessmen is more important than sympathizing with the lower class. This kind of attitude tells that Oh Jang-hwan does not deny all aspects of the contemporary reality and tradition but negate them selectively differentiating between the objects of negation and the objects of empathy. The reason why the critical poems are more visible than the empathizing poems is that the object of denial is the structure of reality itself.
Oh, Jang-Hwan is the poet who demonstrated the contemporary social reality and its contradictions obviously through his literary practice living through the Japanese colonial period, the emancipation and the division. Oh, Jang-Hwan’s perspective covers such a broad range as the denial of old customs, a firm belief in progress, the criticism on the capitalistic modern urban civilization, a decadent experience of sailing, an ambivalent emotion on his hometown, which is regarded as an exceptionally broad spectrum comparing his contemporary poets. This paper aims at grasping an inner logic that can explain Oh, Jang-Hwan poetry’s heterogeneous and contradictory characteristics, which are produced by its complex and various aspects. The inner logic is the doubleness of Oh, Jang-Hwan’s consciousness of denial, in other words, an irony emergedby negating both reality and self and the attitude of romantic disillusionment. First of all, this paper analyzes that Oh, Jang-Hwan’s consciousness of denial is expressed with the double aspects. Oh, Jang-Hwan is the poet who revealed a strong interest on the social reality. While he wrote poems that sympathize the lives of the low-class, he also created the poems that criticize the social reality. They negate tradition and old customs and criticize their fakeness. When this consciousness of the denial is toward his interiority, Oh, Jang-Hwan’s poems reveal the artificial pose and the decadent aspects. This paper regards the double negation and the contradictory attitude as the conspicuous characteristics of Oh, Jang-Hwan’s early poetry and named it as ‘the Irony of Denial.’ Second, this paper analyzes the characteristics of Oh, Jang-Hwan’s early poetry as the transformation from the romantic disillusionment to lyricism. This paper named this character as the ‘Romantic Disillusionment’ in that the emotions of self disillusionment are expressed with the romantic spaces. The frequent expressions in this early period such as ‘tears,’ ‘regret’, ‘sorrow’, and ‘death’ are the results of the lyric attitude that poetic subject inevitably had to arrive after getting through the disillusionment.
이 논문은 오장환의 해방기 시문학에 관한 연구이다. 해방 후 발간된 『病든 서울』을 중심으로 한 해방기 시편들과 필자가 새롭게 발굴한 월북 이후 오장환의 시를 통해 해방에서 월북에 이르는 오장환의 시적 이력과 정치적 행보 사이의 연관성을 파악하고자 하였다. 특히 필자가 찾아낸 오장환의 시 「탑」과 번역시 「튀스터-氏」, 한효의 오장환 관련 평문은 해방을 맞이한 순간부터 월북에 걸친 시기의 오장환의 시를 이해하는 데 새로운 시각을 제공할 것으로 기대한다. 오장환은 식민지 시기의 행적에 대한 철저한 자기반성을 일회성의 차원에서가 아니라 지속적으로 수행하고 있었고 이 점에서 오장환의 자기반성은 새롭게 조명될 필요가 있다고 판단된다. 그의 해방기 시편들은 피식민의 역사를 건너 온 한 시인의 자기반성과 머뭇거림을 당대 어느 시인보다 선명하게 보여주고 있으며, 이를 바탕으로 한 ``개아적(個我的) 진정성``을 보여주고 있었다. 월북 후 오장환은 「탑」을 발표하는데 이 시는 식민지 시기 「絶頂의 노래」와 상호 참조적인 성격을 보여주고 있다. 그는 「탑」을 통해 새로운 세계에 대한 희망과 다짐을 노래하였지만 북한 내에서 이 시는 봉건적이며 재래적인 시라는 비판을 받게 된다. 두 시의 대상인 ``탑``의 거리는 오장환 개인에게 있어 피식민의 억압으로부터 새로운 세상을 기약하고자 한 바람의 거리였지만, 해방기 시문학사로 보면 해방기 남과 북, 또는 정치와 시의 거리를 보여주는 것이기도 하다. This paper examines the relationship between Oh, Jang-hwan`s career as a poet and political practices from the liberation to detection to North Korea through his poems of the liberation period in ``Byeong-deun Seoul``(Diseased Seoul) published after the liberation and poems written after his detection to North Korea, newly unearthed by the author. Especially, his poem ``T`ap``(Pagoda) and translated poem ``Mister Twister`` newly unearthed and Han, Hyo`s criticism related to Oh, Jang-hwan are expected to offer new perspectives on the understanding of Oh`s poems. It seems that Oh, Jang-hwan had been thoroughly and consistently reflecting on his whereabouts in the colonial period not as a one-off thing and in this respect, we needs to shed new light on Oh`s self-reflection. His poems in the liberation period much more clearly showed self-reflection and hesitation of a poet who had passed the history of colonized nation than any other poets in that period and displayed ``individual sincerity`` based on this. After detection to North Korea, Oh wrote ``Pagoda``, which showed the cross-referential characteristics with poem ``Song of Zenith`` written in the colonial period. He expressed his hope and promise for a new world in poem ``Pagoda``, however, it was criticized as feudal and conventional in North Korea. To Oh, Jang-hwan, the distance between two ``Pagodas``, objects of poems, was the distance of his hope and promise for a new world, free from the suppression due to the colonization, but it also showed the distance between South and North Korean, or politics and poetry in the liberation period from the perspective of poetic history back then.
이 글은 해방기 시에 형상화된 공간의 양상을 고찰하여 해방기 시문학에 나타나는 공간 표상을 살피고자 하였다. 이를 통해 당대의 현실 상황이 시적 주체의 인식과 상상력을 통해 어떻게 변용되는가를 살펴보고자 한 것이 이 논문의 목적이다. 해방공간의 서울은 식민지 시기의 ‘경성’이 지녔던 식민성을 재삼 확인하는 공간이며, 새로운 역사와 국가를 정립해야 하는 시발점으로 인식되었다. 대표적으로 오장환과 임화는 ‘서울’을 과거의 삶에 대한 반성과 ‘다가올 미래’에 대한 실천적 의지의 장으로 표상한다. 그러나 이후 다른 시인들의 시에서 서울은 구체적 공간성을 상실하고 ‘사건’이 발생한 ‘현장’으로 등장하거나 해방된 조선의 당대 현실을 제유하는 것으로 표현된다. 서울이라는 ‘해방기의 중심 공간’은 그 실감과 구체성을 상실하고 사건의 배경으로 등장하거나 하나의 관념적인 대상으로 성립되는 것이다. 서울이라는 공간이 시적 주체들이 삶을 영위하고 사회 · 정치 제도의 변화에 직간접적으로 관여하는 실제적인 공간이었다면 아시아, 소련, 미국 등의 공간은 일정 부분 지리학 및 언론 매체를 통해 습득한 간접 지식을 바탕으로 형상화된 ‘상상’의 공간이라 할 수 있다. 직접 체험하거나 거주하지 못한 장소나 공간을 문학적 대상으로 포섭하고자 할 때 필연적으로 개입되는 것이 시인의 상상력과 그 장소 및 공간의 특징들이다. 이런 점에서 이 공간들은 시적 주체의 상상력과 문화, 문학, 지리, 역사 등 실제 공간에 대한 예비적인 지식과 정치적 지향의 총체라고 할 수 있다. 박인환, 임화, 김기림 등은 아시아, 소련, 미국의 문화적 아이콘들을 호명하고 나열함으로써 해당 국가(공간)을 형상화하고 있는데, 나열의 방식을 통해 공간을 표상한다는 점에서 이 시들의 공간 표상 방식은 다분히 ‘환유적’ 방식에 기대고 있다고 할 수 있다. This paper aims to examine the spatial representation in poems by investigating the aspects of space in poems of the liberation period. Through this, it will look into how the reality of the period was transfigured with perception and imagination of the poetic subject. During the liberation period, Seoul was the space where people reconfirmed coloniality once Kyungseong had and had to be the starting point for the establishment of new history and nation. Oh, Jang-hwan and Im, Hwa represented Seoul as the space of self-reflection of the past life and practical will for the coming future. In poems of other poets after them, however, Seoul lost the concrete spatiality and was described as the site of events or as the synecdoche of the liberated Joseon’s reality. Seoul, the central space of the liberation period, lost its reality and concreteness and was appeared as the background of events or became an ideological object. While Seoul was the real space where poetic subjects lived their lives and directly and indirectly related to the change of social and political systems, Asia, the Soviet Union, the United States of America were imagined spaces formed with indirect knowledge attained through geography and mass media. When spaces or places where the poet has never been to or lived in were to be included into literary world, the poet's imagination and features of the spaces and places are necessarily intervened. In this respect, these spaces could be called as the whole of poetic subjects’ imagination, preliminary knowledges on real space such as culture, literature, geography and history, and political orientation. Park, In-hwan, Im, Hwa, Kim, Gi-rim embodied those nations(spaces) by calling and listing cultural icons of Asia, the Soviet Union and the United States of America. In that they represented spaces with enumeration, the way of spatial representation in their poems seems to be relied upon metonymic method.
이 논문은 김용호 시에 나타나는 ‘고향’의 형상과 그 변모과정을 통해 김용호 시의 특징을 확인하고자 하였다. 김용호의 시에 등장하는 고향의 형상과 그 변모 과정은 초기에는 원형적 공간이자 자기정체성의 장소, 그 장소의 상실과 이로부터 유래하는 노스탤지어와 멜랑콜리적 감성의 소환으로 이어지며, 후기에는 현대인의 모순적인 삶을 극복할 수 있는 이상향이자 대안 공간으로 나타난다. 「낙동강」으로 대표되는 초기시에서 고향은 유년의 체험과 공동체의 행복이 깃든 장소로 등장하며, 일제의 수탈과 자연 재해로 인해 상실된 공간으로 형상화된다. 그럼에도 고향의 상실이 단순한 패배가 아니라 새로운 시작이며 이향 역시 건설과 창조적 행위임을 발견하고자 노력하고 있었다는 점이 이 시기의 중요한 성과라 할 수 있다. 이후 김용호 시의 시적 주체는 회복불가능하며 귀환불가능한 곳으로서의 고향에 집착하며 스스로를 멜랑콜리의 상태로 몰아간다. 도달할 수 없는 곳에 대한 강한 집착은 멜랑콜리를 유발하며, 멜랑콜리의 심화는 다시 노스탤지어의 대상을 고향만이 아니라 ‘너’와 ‘그대’ 등 부재하는 타자에게 전이시키는 결과를 낳고 있었다. 이후 『날개』나 『의상세례』로 대표되는 후기시에서는 비판적 시각을 통해 현실의 문제를 진단하고 새로운 고향의 모습을 형상화한다. 현실에 대한 비판의식과 응전의 태도를 취함으로써 고향을 상실된 것이 아닌 추구해야 할 이상향으로 전환시킨 것이다. 이처럼 김용호의 시에 등장하는 ‘고향’의 변모는 김용호의 시의 전반적인 변화와 직접적인 연관관계를 갖는다. 나름 의욕적인 기획이었던 장시 「낙동강」의 창작, 감상적 서정성의 추구, 나아가 현실 비판과 새로운 대안의 모색이라는 김용호 시의 큰 줄기는 ‘고향’에 대한 다양한 형상화와 의미 부여를 통해 구체화될 수 있었다고 볼 수 있다. This thesis tried to confirm the characteristics of Kim Yong-ho"s poetry through the shape of ‘hometown’ and its transformation process. The shape of hometown in Kim Yong-ho"s poems and the transformation process lead to the loss of the original space and place of self-identity in the beginning and the summoning of nostalgia and melancholic sensibility derived therefrom. It appears as an utopia and an alternative space to overcome the hostile life. In the early poetry represented by 「Nakdonggang」 the hometown appears as a place where childhood experiences and community happiness reside, and is shaped as a space lost due to Japanese exploitation and natural disasters. Nevertheless, the fact that the loss of one"s hometown was not a simple defeat but a new beginning, and that relocation was also a construction and creative act was an important achievement during this period. Afterwards, the poetic subject of Kim Yong-ho"s poetry is obsessed with his hometown as an irrecoverable and non-returnable place, driving himself into a state of melancholy. A strong obsession with unreachable places causes melancholy, and the deepening of melancholy has resulted in transferring the object of nostalgia not only to the hometown but also to others who are absent, such as ‘you’. In later poems, represented by Wings and Baptism of Costumes, they diagnose the problems of reality through a critical perspective and shape the appearance of a new hometown. By adopting a critical awareness of reality and an attitude of response, he transformed his hometown into an utopia to be pursued rather than lost. As such, the transformation of ‘hometown’ in Kim Yong-ho"s poetry has a direct relationship with the overall change of Kim Yong-ho"s poetry. It can be seen that the main stems of Kim Yong-ho"s poems, such as the creation of the long poem 「Nakdonggang」r criticism of reality and the search for new alternatives, could be embodied through various shapes and meanings of ‘hometown’.
이 글은 1961년 9월에 결성된 『육십년대사화집』 동인의 이념과 문학사적 의의를 파악하는 데 그 목적을 두었다. 1960년대는 많은 잡지들의 폐간과 통폐합, 검열의 강화로 인해 문인들이 발표난에 시달렸던 시기이다. 이로 인해 수많은 동인지들이 출간되었는데, 『육십년대사화집(六十年代詞華集)』 은 1960년대의 ‘동인지 열풍’을 이끈 동인지로서의 선구적 의의를 지닌다. 이들 동인들의 주된 관심사는 언어에 대한 실험과 모색이었다고 할 수 있다. 우리말이 지니는 무한한 가능성을 위해 최대한의 언어적 실험을 감행한다는 것, 한국시의 산문적 성격을 지양하기 위해 시의 자율성을 여러모로 모색 실현해 나간다는 것이 이들의 목표였다. 그러나 이 같은 목적은 특정 문학 집단의 결속력으로 작용하기에는 다소 공소한 면이 있었으며, ‘느슨한’ 지향은 동인으로서의 결속을 다질 수 있는 공통의 이념과 지향이 부재했다고 평가될 수 있는 여지가 있었다. 그럼에도 다음과 같이 『육십년대사화집』 의 의의를 부여할 수 있다. 이들은 1960년대 동인지들이 활성화될 수 있는 계기를 만들었다. 또한, 1960년대 문학의 다양성 확보에 기여했다. 많은 동인지들이 『육십년대사화집』 과의 거리 조정을 통해 자신들의 위상을 정립하고자 하였기 때문이다. 무엇보다 ‘에꼴’의 요구를 촉발시킴으로써 새로운 문단 질서의 모색을 가능케 했다. <창작과 비평>이나 <문학과 지성>과 같은 ‘에꼴’은 이들을 전제하고 가능할 수 있었다고 판단된다. The purpose of this study is to understand the ideology and literary significance of coterie 60"s anthology which was organized in September, 1961. 1960"s was a period when the writers faced difficulties in publishing due to the discontinuance and consolidation of many magazines and reinforcement of inspection. Therefore, various literary coterie magazines were published. 60"s anthology(六十年代詞華集) has its significance as the first literary coterie magazine which stirred the hot air of coterie magazine in 1960"s. The major interests of such coterie were experiment and groping of the language. Carrying out the experiment for the infinite possibility of our language and groping autonomy of poem to sublate prosaic characteristic of Korean poem were their objective. However, it is a question whether the coterie had performed the best linguistic experiment. In addition, the purpose to grope the autonomy of poem was insufficient to unite specific literary group. Rather, such "loose" direction has a room to be evaluated as lack of common ideology and direction which can solidate as coterie. In spite of pioneering organization of 『60"s anthology』, they didn"t reveal their own colors cleary nor showed efforts of self-renewal, remaining incomplete. Yet. it is possible to impart the meaning of 『60"s anthology』 as follows. They made an opportunity to activate 60"s literary coterie magazines and also contributed to secure diversity of 60"s literature. It was because that most literary coterie magazines tried to established their own status by adjusting the distance from 『60"s anthology』 . Above all, by creating requirement for "Ecole", the literary world began to agonize new order of literary world. It is judged that these were the base that "Ecole" such as 〈Creation and Criticism〉 and 〈Literature and Intelligence〉 could be formed.
This paper aims to study the concept and theory of prose poem of Korea and to examine the awareness of prose poem by the people in charge of early modern poetry. For a long time, prose poem was not properly understood by people. From the beginning of modern literature, prose poem was introduced and written with free verse at the same time, however, meaningful poetics or studies has not been accumulated. Until today, prose poem occupies an important place in contemporary poetry, without being precisely defined nor the aesthetic rules being laid down. Prose poem has been developed through antagonism with free verse and this is not just the problem of prose poem, but it is also deeply related to the various quests and experiments of Korean poetry. Free verse has been continuously developed, on the other hand, prose poem has showed the aspect of reduction and expansion. This means that prose poem is the form in which we can confirm the reduction and expansion of the horizon of Korean modern and contemporary history of poetry. In other word, how prose poem has been created and through which process it settled down as a concrete form become not only the concern of prose poem but the concern of Korean poetry. In this aspect, the question on prose poem can, over the question of 'what is prose poem?', be the indirect answer to question on the birth and self-confirmation of Korean poetry, that is, the fundamental question of 'What was poetry and what was the poetic thing?' This paper is planned as a preparatory study to clarify this question and critical mind and paid attention especially to comments and works of 이광수(Lee, Kwangsoo), 최학송(Choi, Haksong) and 김억(Kim, Eok). This paper tries to examine that prose poem was what kind of form at that time and how it was understood within the practical writings and comments on prose poem by them. It is because 이광수 and 김억 greatly influenced on the formation of modern literature and stated their own theory of literature and poetics. In conclusion, prose poem at that time was variously used not as a fixed form, but as a prose literature, the same concept with free verse. Writings by 최학송(Choi, Haksong) were very close to aesthetical sentence rather than poetry and 김억(Kim, Eok) possessed a form of contemporary prose poem and created ‘님’, a part of Korean literary tradition, however, this ended as a one-time and fragmentary, especially exceptional attempt. There could be various reasons for these disorder and confusion, but most of all, the emphasis on musicality, that is, poetry is to recite was rooted. When 'to recite' and 'emphasis on musicality' are perceived as the essence of poetry, poetry with the form of prose poem and prose poem which would be understood as not being possessed with a fixed form as a poetry become estranged from the interest of people in charge of literature in this period.
이 글은 최남선과 안확, 두 國學者의 시조론을 살피고 국학의 이념이 시조라는 장르에 어떠한 방식으로 접목되었는가를 고찰하고자 하였다. 이들은 시조를 조선의 대표적인 문학 장르로 인식하고 시조 부흥을 주장하였다. 이들에게 시조는 詩歌였다는 점에서 노래를 좋아한 조선 민족의 특성이 구현된 형식으로 이해되었다. 중국 문화의 영향을 받지 않았다고 간주된다는 점에서 조선적 독자성을 주장할 수 있는 장르라고 생각하였다. 시조는 또한 조선문으로 씌어진 것이며 당대에도 창작되는 장르였다는 점에서 전통을 현재화할 수 있는 것이었으며, 최소한 조선왕조 이전으로 그 발생 시기를 잡을 수 있다는 점에서 그 기원을 순수한 것으로 만들 수 있었다. 이처럼 시조는 ‘조선적인 것’을 재구성하고, 당대에 조선적인 것을 재현하고자 했던 두 국학자의 조선학이 적절하게 적용될 수 있는 문학 장르였던 것이다. 시조를 조선적인 형식으로 규정함으로써 세계문학의 한 부분으로 편입시키고자 한 최남선의 시조론과 시조의 과학성을 규명함으로써 조선적인 것의 우월성을 강조하고자 한 안확의 시조론은 식민지 시기 두 국학자의 조선적인 것 에 ‘ ’ 대한 시각의 편차를 보여준다. 최남선이 “조선으로 세계에”라는 구호를 통해 특수성의 획득이 보편성에 이르는 것이라고 주장한 반면, 안확은 ‘조선 속에 내재된 세계’, 혹은 ‘세계를 넘어선 조선’이라는 인식을 통해 특수성의 우월함을 강조한 것이다. 이 같은 편차에도 불구하고 이들은 ‘新詩’(자유시)에 대해서는 유사한 입장을 보여주었는데, 신시는 ‘조선적’이지 않은 것, 외래적인 것, 열등한 것이라는 인식이 있었기 때문이다. 일제 강점기 하에서 ‘自國’을 알고자 하는 학문으로서의 國學이 국수주의로 흐를 수 있는 위험을 이들의 시조론은 보여주고 있었다. This study inquired into Sijo theories of 2 scholars of Korea literature such as Choi Nam-Sun and An Whak, and watched on how the Korean study’s ideology was grafted to the genre called Sijo. They recognized Sijo as the representative literature genre of Joseon Dynasty, and insisted Sijo’s restoration. Sijo was understood as forms in which Joseon ethnic’s characteristics of liking songs were implemented in that Sijo was poetry to them. They considered Sijo as a genre that could insist on originality of Joseon because it was regarded such like being unaffected from the Chinese culture. Also, Sijo was a thing that could actualize the tradition in that it was written by Joseon characters, and also a genre created at contemporary times, and its origin was able to be made as a pure matter because its developing period could be taken to pre-Joseon Dynasty. In this way, Sijo was a literature genre that could be applied properly from Joseon studies of 2 Korea literature scholars who tried to revive ‘Joseon’s uniqueness’ at the contemporary times while recomposing it. Sijo theories of 2 scholars on ‘Joseon uniqueness’ in the colonial period show visual deviations such like Choi Nam-Sun tried to transfer it into a part of international literatures by regulating Sijo as Joseon uniqueness forms, and An Whak intended to focus on superiority of Joseon uniqueness. Choi Nam-Sun insisted that acquisition of specificity through a slogan “To Joseon, toward the world”reached to universality, but An Whak focused on specificity’s superiority through recognitions such like ‘Inherent world in Joseon’ or ‘Joseon beyond the world’ in contrast. In spite of these deviations, they showed similar stances on ‘modern poems (free verse),’ and it was derived from thoughts such like modern poems were dissimilar to ‘Joseon uniqueness,’ foreign things, and inferior ones. Sijo theories of them were showing risks such like the Korean study as a learning for intending to know about ‘self country’ under Japanese colonization could be inclined to ultra nationalism.
해방기 경남 진주 지역을 중심으로 활동을 전개한 설창수는 지역 문학과 문화 수립의 필요성을 역설하고 이의 실천을 위해 노력한 문인이었다. 그는 좌익과의 ‘투쟁’, 지역문학의 ‘정진’이라는 두 가지 방법론을 통해 해방기 지역문단을 수립하고자 하였으며, 이 방법은 민족문학 건설의 방법이기도 했다. 그는 또한 ‘전인문학론’을 주장하였는데, 이는 부분과 전체, 개인과 집단을 유기적으로 연결하고자 한 문학관이었다. 사회적 공리와 윤리적 감각을 바탕으로 하는 ‘문학의 기회균등’을 목표로 하는 문학론이었던 셈이다. 설창수 시의 특징 중 하나는 의인화를 통해 자신의 신념과 의지를 대상에 투사하는 것이라 할 수 있다. 이 같은 방식을 통해 설창수는 ‘전인’으로서의 삶을 시화하고자 노력하였으며, 불의와 타협에 항거하고자 하였다. 또한 연대의식을 부각시키며, 억압과 위험에 대해 투쟁함으로써만 존재의 의미를 구체화할 수 있는 정신의 공동체를 그리고자 하였다. 그러나 자신의 삶을 철저하게 정치․사회적 상황과 연계하고자 했던 까닭에 그의 시는 시대의 변화에 따라 대결에서 ‘회한’의 감정으로 전환되는 모습을 보여주었다. The activities undertaken by Paseong Seol, Chang-Soo have produced some of the most valuable material to study the local literature of the period of liberation. He undertook several projects, mostly in the Jinju area in Kyungnam province, during liberation stressing the need for improving regional literature, and in connection with this established various activities to promote regional literature. In comparison with the literature movement of other regions, which did not show significant theoretical deployment to establish local literature, Seol, Chang-Soo’s efforts can be an example in representing and establishing the theory of local literature in the Jinju region during the liberation period. He reasoned that regional literature was a microcosm of national literature because he considered that in “whole-person literature”, “whole-person” represented the ethnic, human, and the divine and organically connected the individual with the collective and made it an integral part of the whole. His literary theory was one that insisted ‘JeonSeonChamHweok’ and one that rejected the purity in the opposite position ’CheongMunHyeop’s national literature. One of the characteristics of Seol, Chang-Soo poems is that he projected his beliefs and willingness to the objects through anthromorphization. Like this, Seol, Chang-Soo tried to express the ‘whole person’s life as poetry and to resist against injustice and negotiation. Also, Seol emphasized awareness of unity and tried to depict a spiritual community that can embody the meaning of being by struggling against oppression and danger. However, Seol’s poems were transformed into the emotion of ‘regret’ from confrontation following the changes of times as Seol tried to connect his life with sociopolitical situation thoroughly.
This paper examines 박문(B’akmoon), the first magazine specialized in essay and the spread of essay in Joseon literary world at the end of 1930s through the relation with journalism of those days. Through this, this paper aims to clarify that as essay was actively written and circulated at the request of commercialized journalism, essay was developed as a literary genre and according to this, literary field changed at the end of 1930s. Various names designating similar type of writing began to be fixed as single name between late 1920s and early 1930s. Hereafter, literary magazines, all-around magazines, newspapers and etc. began to publish essays in full-scale and essays was spreading in 1930s. And the first magazine specialized in essay was born. This magazine was published by well-known publishing company B’akmoon Seogwan. The company published essays mainly and inserted advertisements of their publications in between them. It adapted the way of inserting the advertisements of their books between essays subscribers could easily read. The reason B’akmoon chose essays as its public relations magazine is because it did not take long time to write essay compared to novel, drama or poem. It was easy to ask writers and researchers to write essay and to receive essays from them. Other reason is that since readers could easily access and understand essay, the company could enhance the magazine’s readability and accessibility Most important point is that essay was very close to advertisements of its publications such as book review, book report, preface, personal criticism, etc in the aspect that materials for and form of essay is free. Essay was most suitable genre when the publishing company wanted to dilute their intention of its advertisements while achieving results of advertising by arranging similar type of writings. Not only P’akmoon but most of media companies of late 1930s preferred and mass-produced essay. The characteristics of essay is in that specialist of academic world, doctor, lawyer and ordinary person could become essayist and this contributed to the expansion of authors in literature of those period. Group of specialists with knowledge of their fields, cultured persons with contemplative view on life and culture were incorporated into author group. The expansion of author group necessarily leads to the diversity of contents and materials of writings. This phenomenon could be called as ‘appropriation of culture through literature’. Ultimately, essay of late 1930s was developed with the request of journalism and this leaded to the expansion of author group in literature and changed literary filed of those period.