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Under similar initial condition of economic, social and cultural circumstances, Korea and Taiwan could expand their exports and achieve the high performance of economic growth in the process of export-oriented industrialization. In Korea, they let big firms primarily undertake the export, expecting the economies of scale, and faced the structural inequilibrium at the cost of economic growth. However, Taiwan let the small firms mainly undertake the export and made a rapid economic development without any cost of unequal structure. After all, it is necessary to avoid the excessively artificial policy ignoring the market mechanism in excecuting trade policy.
This study was a basic research for developing a computer program which could be used for designing the optimum systems of diversified farming by region. The objective of study was to model the diversified farming systems including the regional characteristics and applicable to the central regions of Korea. For this purpose, the three villages of plain, hilly and mountainous region were selected, and farming survey and systems analysis were conducted for mainly 1984 agriculture. Surveys were carried out on January and July 1985 for the following villages: 1) Plain regionJungjungRi, BuyeorEup, Buyeor Contry, Chungnam Province 2) Hilly regionBonggiRi, KumnamMyon, Yunki Country, CHungnam Province 3) Mountainous regionSungsanRi, OhchangMyon, Chungwon Country, Chungbuk Province The surveyed data were analyzed by systems analysis. Then, the diversified farming systems were modeled for three areas not only with the analyzed results, but also with the modeling objectives, the crop selection criteria and assumptions. They consist of cropping systems and farm machinery system. The former includes four cropping patterns for paddy, six cropping patterns for upland, two kinds of fruit crop and three kinds of livestock. The latter comprises seven farm machinery for each work system. The basic cropping systems was “Rice(Barley) + Special crop + Supplementary crop”. The special crops were selected by the nature of the optimum cultivating conditions and the supplementarys were choosed and combined with the specials to increase their mutual benefits. The introducing priority of the selected crops was decided by their profitability and the cropping patterns were modeled by the combination methods emphasizing the maximum utilization of agricultural resources. Agricultural machinery system was modeled that the major machinery was included for each work system as follows: 1) Plowing and harrowing Power tiller 2) Transplanting Power transplanter 3) Pest control Power sprayer 4) Irrigation and drainage Water pump 5) Harvesting Binder 6) Threshing Power thresher 7) Drying Continous dryer
A classical school and scholars like J. Viner and G. Haberler among modern scholars says that international division based on the principle of comparative production cost is still useful for underdeveloped countries. They contends a country which has the comparative advantage of agriculture doesn't need to seek industrialization with sacrifice of agriculture, but must specialize in agriculture. In contrast with this R. Nurkse and R. Prebisch oppose to traditional trade theory and inisist the industrialization of underdeveloped countries. Owing to decreasing demand of the primary product of underdeveloped countries and protection policy of developed countries, they believe that they cannot expect the economic development through agriculture specialization. I think Nurkse' and prehisch's industrialization theory is more realistic in overpeopled backward countries. Because the traditional international trade theory supposing general equilibrium under perfect competitution and perfect movement of factors among industries is not suitable to underdeveloped countries which unemployment is serious, and the importance of dynamic factors is large. In this way if the industrialization of underdeveloped countries is inevitable, which way is more desirable, balanced growth or unbalanced growth? When we think over the situation that capital and resources are insufficient in underdeveloped countries, I think the method of Hirschman's unbalanced approach is more realistic. Even so, in underdeveloped countries which linkage effect among industries is small, the effect of the development of one leading sector may not spread over other industries and bring about the waste of resources. Accordingly it is difficult to try only unbalanced growth.