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Background: The preparation of conventional smears (CS) from mucoid samples, despite mucolysis, can pose difficulties for cytotechnologists or cytopathologists. In recent years, liquid-based cytology (LBC) devices have been developed in attempts to improve the cytopreparation process. LBC improves both sample collection and sample preparation. Cell block preparations (CB) can be made from residual tissue fluids, and are a useful adjunct to smears. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 3 preparations from 209 patients whose diagnosis was later confirmed via bronchoscopic biopsy, fine needle aspiration, gun biopsy or operation. Each case was categorized into one of three groups: “negative,” “atypical or suspicious” and “malignant.” Results: When conflating the “atypical” and “malignant” categories into a “positive” category, the sensitivity of each preparation was 74.4% in LBC, 72.9% in CS, and 76.5% in CB preparations. Specificity was 98.7%, 94.7% and 98.7%, respectively. By combining LBC and CB, the sensitivity is 78.2%. Conclusions: Among three different preparation methods, sensitivity is highest in the CB method. LBC has many advantages in evaluating cell morphology and by combining CB method, the sensitivity can be improved slightly. The application of all three methods may prove helpful when one or another method proves diagnostically inconclusive.
Nocardia, aerobic members of the order of Actinomycetaceae, produces infections in human lung. Nocardial infection is associated with underlying diseases of immuno-suppression or treatment with corticosteroid. It is difficult to detect Nocardia by sputum examination or histologic sections and it has rarely been diagnosed by fine needle aspiration of the lung. We describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis in a 72 year-old man, diagnosed by fine needle aspiration, which was confirmed by culture of aspirates. The aspirates showed neutrophil-predominant inflammatory cells with microorganisms demonstrated by Gomori methenamine silver and Gram stain. The organisms had characteristic long blanching filamentous structures. The lesions on chest X-ray were in resolution with antimicrobial therapy.
Intraoperative cytologic examination of intracranial tumors using crush preparation provides useful information in operative decision making. The diminutive nature of many biopsy specimens, particularly those obtained by stereotactic neurosurgical procedures emphasizes the importance of combining the cytologic smear method with conventional frozen section interpretation. The great advantage of the cytologic smear method resides in its suitability for the study of minute fragments of tissue, allowing retention of the majority of the specimen for optimal processing. We present the cytologic features of 3 cases of intracranial germ cell tumors(2 germinomas and 1 endodermal sinus tumor), using crush preparation during intraoperative diagnosis and compare them with histologic findings. The cytologic features of the germ cell tumors were similar to those of the respective gonadal counterparts. The cytologic differential diagnosis of both types of germ cell tumors is described.
Phyllodes tumor of the breast, especially malignant, is a rare tumor which has characteristic cytologic features. We recently experienced a case of fine needle aspiration cytology of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast metastatic to the lung. The aspirate showed cellular smear with biphasic population of epithelial and stromal cells. Many individual large cells with round hyperchromatic nuclei were found in the necrotic background and stromal cell atypia was also present. Chondrosarcomatous fragments were also seen in cytologic specimens.
Meningioma is the most common neoplasm of central nervous system which is hardly diagnosed by cytologic examination. However, preoperative cytologic diagnosis can be easily made in the case of extracranial meningioma, especially in head and neck lesion. We recently experienced a case of fine needle aspiration cytology of meningioma in sub-mandibular area of a 24 year-old male patient. The smear revealed high cellularity in the clean background. individual tumor cell of nests or syncytium had round or oval nuclei with fine chromatin and moderate amount of lightly stained cytoplasm with indistinct margin. Characteristic cellular whorls, intranuclear inclusions and scattered psammoma bodies made it easy to diagnose a meningioma.
Angiomyolipoma(AML) of the liver is a rare benign tumor; about 50 cases, almost solitary, have been reported. We present here a extremely rare case of multiple AML in the liver diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC). Two large masses were found in a 51 year-old woman complaining of abdominal discomfort by computed tomography and several smaller masses are scattered in the liver. FNAC was performed, showing bundles of spindle shaped smooth muscle cells intermingled with mature fat cells. FNAC may be a valuable method for definitive diagnosis of hepatic AML. The diagnosis was further confirmed by histologic examination with immunohistochemical studies.
최근 패션마켓은 소비자들의 각기 다른 개개인의 취향을 반영하여 더욱 세분화되고 있으며, 다양한 컨셉과 디자인을 선보 이고 있다. 패션과 패션색채는 사회⋅문화 맥락에서 상징성과 의미를 가지는 대표적 문화 기호이며, 인간의 근원적 욕구인 미적 아름다움을 추구하는 자기표현과 차별화 수단으로 ‘지속적으로 변화하는 상징적 가치를 전달하는 시각기호’로서 패션 색채가 변화하는 의미를 지닌 가치대상이며, 동시에 사회적 승인을 기반으로 새로운 상징적 가치를 창출하는 가치행위로 패션마켓에서 사회현상과 함께 패션색채의 변화에 대한 지속적인 관심은 매우 중요하다. 이에 본 논문에서는 Barthes의 신화론과 Baudrillard의 소비이론에 근거하여 현재 패션마켓에서 색채의 기준이 되고 있는 중세에서 현대에 이르는 시기적 구분을 14 ~ 16세기 르네상스 전후, 18세기 중반 ~ 19세기 초반까지의 산업혁명 전후, 제 1,2차 세계대전, 20세기 이후로 나누어 특징적인 색채 5가지를 선정하여 기호학 관점으로 패션색채의 변화를 분석하였 다. 패션과 패션색채의 변화에 대한 이론적 고찰과 선행이론을 토대로 심층인터뷰를 통해 패션의 소비가치 변화, 패션색채 변화의 기호학적 함의, 현대 패션색채 변화에 영향력을 미치고 있는 요인은 어떠한 것이 있는지 정성적 조사를 하였다. Recently, fashion market is more subdivided by reflecting the individual taste of each individual and presents various concepts and designs. Fashion and fashion color is a representative symbol of culture with symbolism and meaning in the social and cultural context As a representative means of self-expression and differentiation that pursue aesthetic beauty as a desire, it is a value object that has a meaning that changes the fashion color as a visual symbol that conveys a symbolic value that continuously changes. At the same time, it is very important to keep a close eye on the social phenomenon and the change of fashion color in the fashion market. In this study, based on Barthes ‘mythologies’ and Baudrillard ‘La société de consommation: ses mythes, ses structures’. The period from medieval to modern which is the standard of color in fashion market, From the mid ~ Renaissance, 19th century to the post ~ Industrial Revolution, after World War I, II and after the 20th century, five characteristic colors were selected and analyzed in terms of semiotics. Based on the theoretical review on fashion and fashion color changes. I conducted qualitative research on the factors affecting modern fashion consumption value, semiotic meaning of fashion color and change of modern fashion color through ‘Depth Interview’.
We report a case of pulmonary endodeimal tumor resembling fetal lung in a 35 year-old woman, who complained of cough with sputum for 6 months. Pulmonary endodermal tumor is a very rare neoplasm of the lung and it is exclusively composed of complex branching tubules resembling the canalicular stage of fetal lung, lacking sarcomatous component of pulmonary blastoma. Prognosis of this tumor after adequate resection appears to be better than that for biphasic pulmonary blastoma.