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We previously reported the development of a neutralizationassay system for evaluating Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV)neutralizing antibody (NAb) using pseudotyped-JEV (JEVPV). JEV-PV-based neutralization assay offers several advantagescompared with the current standard plaque-reductionneutralization test (PRNT), including simplicity, safety,and speed. To evaluate the suitability of the JEV-PV assayas new replacement neutralization assay, we compared itsrepeatability, reproducibility, specificity, and correlated itsresults with those obtained using the PRNT. These analysesshowed a close correlation between the results obtained withthe JEV-PV assay and the PRNT, using the 50% plaque reductionmethod as a standard for measuring NAb titers toJEV. The validation results met all analytical acceptancecriteria. These results suggest that the JEV-PV assay couldserve as a safe and simple method for measuring NAb titeragainst JEV and could be used as an alternative approachfor assaying the potency of JEV neutralization.
Cervical cancer is strongly associated with chronic human papillomavirus infections, among which HPV16 is the most common. Two commercial HPV vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix are effective for preventing HPV infection, but cannot be used to treat existing HPV infections. Previously, we developed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-enveloped recombinant baculovirus capable of delivering the L1 genes of HPV types 16, 18, and 58 (AcHERV-HP16/18/58L1, AcHERV-HPV). Intramuscular administration of AcHERVHPV vaccines induced a strong cellular immune response as well as a humoral immune response. In this study, to examine the therapeutic effect of AcHERV-HPV in a mouse model, we established an HPV16 L1 expressing tumor cell line. Compared to Cervarix, immunization with AcHERVHPV greatly enhanced HPV16 L1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in C57BL/6 mice. Although vaccination could not remove preexisting tumors, strong CTL activity retarded the growth of inoculated tumor cells. These results indicate that AcHERV-HPV could serve as a potential therapeutic DNA vaccine against concurrent infection with HPV 16, 18, and 58.
Insects represent the largest class within the animal kingdom in terms of species number. Humans had been utilized insect in the broad area, including food, agriculture, industry, pharmaceuticals and so on. At present, insects are emerging as a leading group for identifying and extracting novel bioactive substances due to enormous number and a high nutritional value. Insects rely on a suite of systemic response to resist infection such as immune cells, hemocytes, activation of enzymes cascades, and antimicrobial peptide/protein. Among the substances, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are main components of potent antimircrobial innate defense system into the insect hemolymph. AMPs raise influential candidate as avenue to resolve the development of antibiotic-resistant microbial organism. Insect AMPs are classified into four main classes: cecropins, insect defensins, glycine/proline-rich peptides. Insect AMPs have been purified, over 150. In this review, AMPs derived from several insects were summarized including honey bee, dung beetle, butterfly and longicorn beetle. These peptides almost exhibited potent antimicrobial activities against human microbial pathogens without causing remarkable hemolysis to erythrocytes excluding melittin, and their mode of action(s) are based on disruption of the plasma membrane or fungal apoptosis. Therefore, study of insect AMPs is expected to be useful for designing novel therapeutic antimicrobial applications.
The focus of this research is directed at investigating the structure of psychic distance to provide scholars and industry managers with better understanding of psychic distance. This study is also provides a scale for measuring psychic distance, which can be specifically applied to overseas holiday market in practical. Data were collected from an online panel of a research company in South Korea. A total of 438 complete and usable responses were used. An exploratory PCA using an oblique rotation was undertaken. To achieve a rigorous scale development, this study has conducted confirmatory factor analysis for the stricter interpretation of dimensionality. Multiple measurement indices were reviewed to find the best model that represents the structure of psychic distance. This study suggested that a single second-order model with three first-order factors is the most valid framework for the psychic distance construct. The three first-order factors are “Knowledge”, “Trust’, and “Attractiveness”. Regardless of geographical distance, tourists are likely to feel close(or far) towards a destination based on prior knowledge, attractiveness, and trust towards a destination. These dimensions should be considered in a holistic way and action them through integrating to manage psychic distance. This study employed panel members obtained from an online research company in South Korea, which may draw some concerns from researchers. It would be valuable if future study included potential travellers as well as the experienced. The results may differ if potential travellers are included in the survey, as this study only included those who have travelled overseas for leisure. Future studies are recommended to include various destinations when investigating the role of psychic distance in tourism. This study contributes the body of knowledge on psychic distance as it provides a scale that measures individuals’ subjective gaps between two cultures, which have rarely been provided in prior research. Besides, this study imply that psychic distance have a possibility that one of the most important study theme in distribution area.
Objectives: Buxus Microphylla var. Koreana Nakai Extract (BMKNE) is used as a folk remedy for malaria and veneral disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BMKNE in the growth and the survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of BMKNE. Analyses of the sub G1 peak, the caspase-3 and -9 activities, and the mitochondrial depolarization were conducted to determine whether AGS cell death occured by apoptosis. Also, to identify the role of transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 7 channels in AGS cell growth and survival, we used human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressed with TRPM7 channels. Results: Experimental results showed that the sub G1 peak, the caspase-3 and -9 activities, and the mitochondrial depolarization were increased. Therefore, BMKNE was found to induce the apoptosis of these cells, and this apoptosis was inhibited by SB203580 (a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor), and by a c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) II inhibitor. Furthermore, BMKNE inhibited TRPM7 currents and TRPM7 channel over-expressions in HEK 293 cells, exacerbating BMKNE-induced cell death. Conclusions: These findings indicate that BMKNE inhibits the growth and the survival of gastric cancer cells due to a blockade of the TRPM7 channel’s activity and MAPK signaling. Therefore, BMKNE is a potential drug for treatment of gastric cancer, and both the TRPM7 channel and MAPK signaling may play an important role in survival in gastric cancer cells.
This study explored the whole process of developing task-based English speaking materials based on the Nuri Curriculum which is Korea’s national curriculum for kindergartners. The project was composed of four stages; needs analysis, developing a first draft, piloting in classrooms, and developing a final draft. As the first stage of developing materials, a needs analysis was conducted to the possible stakeholders such as kindergarten English teachers and parents by using four research methods: questionnaires, semi structured interviews, an evaluation of materials, and classroom observations. The results showed that teachers and parents have positive opinions about the effectiveness of task-based instruction in integration with the Nuri Curriculum; however, the results from the evaluation of published materials showed that most of the current English kindergarten programs or materials did not provide speaking tasks which can encourage learners to use the language in meaningful contexts. The first draft, therefore, was developed based on the needs of the stakeholders and piloted in the classrooms with real students. Grounded on the feedback from the piloting, the final draft was developed. As further studies, developing teacher training programs and teacher’s guide books for task-based language teaching were suggested for an active implementation of English speaking tasks using the Nuri Curriculum.
We analyze again, within the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) sum rule, whether the scalar meson f0(980) can be understood as a pure bound state of K and ¯K mesons. We calculate the direct instanton contributions to the QCD sum rule from the two quarks and the three quarks in the correlator consisting of the local interpolating current of a K ¯K type for f0(980). We analyze the QCD sum rule with the direct instanton contributions and the contributions from the operator expansion product (OPE), and find that the direct instanton contribution from the two quarks is dominant in the QCD sum rule with a definite negative. As a result, understanding f0(980) as a pure bound state of K and ¯K mesons seems to be difficult. This result is the same as the previous result from the analysis of the QCD sum rule with the contributions from the OPE only. QCD 합규칙을 이용해 스칼라 중간자 f0(980)를 K 중간자와 ¯K 중간자의 순수 구속 상태로 이해할 수 있는지 다시 분석한다. f0(980)에 대한 KbarK의 형태의 국소 전류로 구성되는 상관자에 있는 두 쿼크와 세 쿼크로부터 생기는 단일 인스탄톤에 의한 기여를 계산한다. 인스탄톤에 의한 기여와 연산자 곱 전개 (OPE)에 의한 기여가 모두 포함된 QCD 합규칙을 분석해, 두 쿼크에서 생기는 인스탄톤에 의한 기여가 음의 값을 가지며 QCD 합규칙에 주요하다는 것을 보였다. 분석 결과, f0(980)를 K 중간자와 ¯K 중간자의 순수 구속 상태로 이해하기는 어려워 보인다. 이 결과는 OPE에 의한 기여만을 고려해 QCD 합규칙를 분석해서 얻어졌던 결과와 같다.