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        • KCI등재

          이중모음 ‘여'의 변화와 산포 효과

          이희두 대한언어학회 2015 언어학 Vol.23 No.4

          /jə/ and /ə/ after consonants were perceptually confused with each other in Middle Korean because the articulatory domain of /ə/ was placed in the front area of the phonetic vowel system and so was overlapped with the auditory domain of /jə/. For escaping this perceptual confusion the dispersion effects work here. Therefore the falling glide /j/ was inserted to the end of /jə/ in order to increase F2. As the result of the glide epenthesis, /jəj/ was maximally contrasted with /ə/ by the minimization of perceptual confusion and /jəj/ developed diachronically through the process of /jəj/>/je/>/e/. Also /jə/ has synchronically been alternated with /e/ by the dispersion effects in some dialects in which /jə/ is articulated in the front area.

        • 공동주택 관리비 항목별 영향요인 분석에 관한 연구

          이희두,손정환,김진호,임남기 대한건축학회 2001 대한건축학회 학술발표대회 논문집 - 계획계/구조계 Vol.21 No.2

          In this research, I have analyzed apartment management expenses notice to discover what affect the items of management expenses, and what is affected by them. The results of this research are listed below. (1) management expenses per area by self management is less than that by management on commission when I focused cm management method. (2) The more the floors of apartment are, the less elevator maintenance cost is. (3) Percentage of personnel expenditure out of management expenses is very large, 32.14%. And The more the stories of apartment are, the less per unit area personnel expenditure is. (4) The older apartment is, the higher the sum of special repair of cost and repair maintenance cost propositional to used the year is. I aimed to supply with data which can help building repair by the analysis of influence factors on items of management expenses with regard to management method and special quality of apartments.

        • 日本語條件表現에 관한 考察 : 「ば」「と」「たら」를 중심으로

          이희두 원광대학교 1994 論文集 Vol.28 No.1

          This article is concerned about conditional expressions in Japanese such as BA, TO, and TARA. The aim of this study is to give clear explanations of the meaning and usage of the words in conditionals by observing the actual usage. The followings are the major results of the study. First, the words in conditional expressions such as BA, TARA, and TO are further categorized in terms of the usage.Conditional expressions with BA are igrouped into 2 categories such as “General Conditionals”and “Individual Conditionals”, and the “Individual Conditionals”are further divided into two types “Individual Hypothetical Conditionals,” and “ Individual Definite Conditions.”Conditional expressions with TARA are grouped into 2 categories such as “Individual Hypothetical Conditionals”and “Individual Definite Conditionals.” “Since TO is weak in ” “Conditionality”, this study uses not the term “conditional”“but the term of” “predication.” “TO expressions shows two types”“CAUSEEFFECT predication”“and SITUATIONAL predication.” Second, the combinatory types of each conditional expression are discussed. I argue that BA is used when there is a “CAUSE- and- EFFECT”relation between a conditional clause and a main clause , that TO is used when there is a sequential relation in time between a conditional clause and a main clause. On tge other hand, TARA is argued to be used when the clause of TARA connotes the meaning of “completeness”or “results”of a conditional clause. Third, characteristics and semantic differences of the conditional expressions are discussed. Generally, BA- and TARA- sentences connotestrong “subjectivity”while To sentences has strong “objectivity.”It is argued that the generalization is always true because there are some instances run counter to it. Fourth, it explains the difference between BA and TO in “general CAUSEEFFECT conditionals.”Ba desinates logical truth while TO refers to “CAUSE-EFFECT predication” relation between a conditional clause and a main clause, but there is no such a close relation between them as in BA. The TO sentences are characterized by the fact that are not limited to the “tense”or “time”, and that they connote “commonness” and “convention”rather than “speaker's subjectivity”and “temporal sequence.” Finally, it explains the difference between BA and TARA in the usage of “General Hypothetical Conditionals.” There is a necessary relation between a conditional clause and a main clause if BA is used, but there is no such relation between them if TARA is used because it implies strong “individuality”and “temporariness”and the results derived by TARA is limited to the situation only. Since TARA, unlike BA, implies “completeness”, there are some instances in which TARA-sentences may be translated into BA-sentences.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          The ADAM15 ectodomain is shed from secretory exosomes

          이희두,김연향,구본훈,김두식 생화학분자생물학회 2015 BMB Reports Vol.48 No.5

          We demonstrated previously that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 15 (ADAM15) is released into the extracellular space as an exosomal component, and that ADAM15-rich exosomes have tumor suppressive functions. However, the suppressive mechanism of ADAM15-rich exosomes remains unclear. In this study, we show that the ADAM15 ectodomain is cleaved from released exosomes. This shedding process of the ADAM15 ectodomain was dramatically enhanced in conditioned ovarian cancer cell medium. Proteolytic cleavage was completely blocked by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, indicating that a serine protease is responsible for exosomal ADAM15 shedding. Experimental evidence indicates that the ADAM15 ectodomain itself has comparable functions with those of ADAM15-rich exosomes, which effectively inhibit vitronectininduced cancer cell migration and activation of the MEK/extracellular regulated kinase signaling pathway. We present a tumor suppressive mechanism for ADAM15 exosomes and provide insight into the functional significance of exosomes that generate tumor-inhibitory factors.

        • KCI등재
        • 연산증폭기와 온도보상 다이오드에 의한 D-A 변환기의 특성개선

          이희두,안수길 대한전자공학회 1970 전자공학회지 Vol.7 No.2

          같은 특성의 다이오드를 스위칭 용과 기준 전원 온도보상에 사용하여 온도특성을 개선한 디지탈-아나로그변환기를 연구하였다. 연산 증폭기를 사용함으로써 가산용 체형회로망을 제거금하고 담선된 직선성을 얻었다. Slewing rate 증가를 꾀하여 1.5 mega bit 속도의 디지트 정보를 수신하여 출력전과의 안정된 신호부분이 전주간의 80% 이상 특매도록 하였다. A Possibility of improving the temperature behavior by the use of a balanced diode compensation circuit in a Digital to Analogue converter is studied. Better linearity is achieved by eliminating the ladder network for the summation by means of an operational amplifier. Speed Consideration are taken to achieve 1.5 mesa bits per second with more than 80% useful plateau.

        • KCI등재

          활용에서의 모음 탈락 현상에 대하여

          이희두 한국언어문학회 2003 한국언어문학 Vol.50 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        • 공동주택 유지관리 비용 분석 연구

          이희두,임남기 동명정보대학교 2002 건축도시연구소 저널 Vol.1 No.-

          In this research, I have analyzed apartment management expenses notice to discover what affect the items of management expenses, and what is affected by them. The results of this research are listed below. (1) management expenses per area by self management is less that by management on commission when Ifocused on management method. (2) The more the floors of apartment are, the less elevator maintenance cost is. (3) Percentage of personnel expenditure out of management expenses is very large, 32.14%. And the more the stories of apartment are, the less per unit area personnel expenditure is. (4) The older apartment is, the higher the sum of special repair of cost and repair maintenance cost propositional to used they year is. Iaimed to supply with data which can help building repair by the analysis of influence factors on items of management expenses with regard to management method and special quality of apartments.

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