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        • KCI등재

          QZSS-CLAS의 Compact SSR을 이용한 다중 위성항법 기반의 Code-PPP 개발

          이해창,박관동,Lee, Hae Chang,Park, Kwan Dong 한국측량학회 2020 한국측량학회지 Vol.38 No.6

          QZSS (Quasi-Zenith Satellite System)는 위성의 L6 밴드를 통해서 CLAS (Centimeter Level Augmentation Service)를 제공한다. CLAS는 현재 GPS (Global Positioing System), Galileo 그리고, QZSS 위성군에 대한 보정정보를 제공하며, 이러한 보정정보를 C-SSR (Compact - Space State Representation)라고 한다. 본 연구에서는 L6 밴드를 수신할 수 있는 GPS 수신기인 Septentrio의 AsteRx4를 이용하여 CLAS 메시지를 수신하고, 그 메시지를 디코딩하여 C-SSR을 획득하였다. 그리고, GPS, Galileo, QZSS의 코드의사거리 관측치에 Compact SSR을 적용하여 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) 오차를 보정하고, 비선형 최소제곱법으로 수신기의 3차원 위치 및 위성군의 시계오차들을 추정하는 다중 위성항법 기반의 Code-PPP (Precise Point Positioning)를 개발하였다. 개발한 알고리즘의 정확도를 평가하기 위해서 IGS (International GNSS Service) 사이트 중 하나인 TSK2 (Tsukuba)를 대상으로 정지측위를 수행하고, 일본의 가와니시(Kawanishi)시의 이나강(Ina river) 주변을 주행하며 이동측위를 수행하였다. 그 결과, 정지측위의 경우 모든 데이터셋의 평균 RMSE (Root Mean Squared Error)는 수평방향으로 0.35 m, 수직방향으로 0.57 m의 정확도를 나타냈다. 그리고 이동측위의 경우 VRS의 RTK-FIX 값과 비교해 봤을 때 수평방향은 약 0.82 m, 수직방향은 약 3.56 m의 정확도를 나타냈다. QZSS (Quasi-Zenith Satellite System) provides the CLAS (Centimeter Level Augmentation Service) through the satellite's L6 band. CLAS provides correction messages called C-SSR (Compact - State Space Representation) for GPS (Global Positioning System), Galileo and QZSS. In this study, CLAS messages were received by using the AsteRx4 of Septentrio which is a GPS receiver capable of receiving L6 bands, and the messages were decoded to acquire C-SSR. In addition, Multi-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Code-PPP (Precise Point Positioning) was developed to compensate for GNSS errors by using C-SSR to pseudo-range measurements of GPS, Galileo and QZSS. And non-linear least squares estimation was used to estimate the three-dimensional position of the receiver and the receiver time errors of the GNSS constellations. To evaluate the accuracy of the algorithms developed, static positioning was performed on TSK2 (Tsukuba), one of the IGS (International GNSS Service) sites, and kinematic positioning was performed while driving around the Ina River in Kawanishi. As a result, for the static positioning, the mean RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) for all data sets was 0.35 m in the horizontal direction ad 0.57 m in the vertical direction. And for the kinematic positioning, the accuracy was approximately 0.82 m in horizontal direction and 3.56 m in vertical direction compared o the RTK-FIX values of VRS.

        • KCI등재

          딸기의 휘발성 향기성분의 초임계 유체 추출

          이해창(Hae-Chang Lee),서혜영(Hye-Young Seo),신동빈(Dong-Bin Shin),박용곤(Yong-Kon Park),김윤숙(Yoon-Sook Kim),지중룡(Joong-Ryong Ji),최희돈(Hee-Don Choi) 韓國食品科學會 2009 한국식품과학회지 Vol.41 No.6

          SFE법을 이용하여 딸기의 휘발성 향기성분을 추출하기 위한 시료의 적정 전처리 및 SFE 작동조건을 검토하였으며 SDE법 및 SE법 등의 추출방법과 휘발성 향기성분 조성을 비교하였다. 딸기 생시료 동결건조시료 그리고 생시료에 celite를 30 70%를 혼합하여 제조한 시료를 이용하여 SFE 처리후 향기성분을 분석한 결과 생시료에 celite를 70% 첨가하는 방법이 향기성분을 추출하는데 가장 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. 온도(40 55℃)와 압력(3,000 6,000 psi)을 달리하여 SFE 처리한 결과 3000 psi 55℃ 조건에서 alcohol류와 acid류의 추출효율이 증가하였으며 γ-dodecalactone의 함량도 3배 정도 높은 수준으로 나타났다. SDE법 SFE법 및 SE법 등의 추출방법별 딸기의 휘발성 향기성분을 분석한 결과 SFE법은 SDE법에 비해 추출한 휘발성 향기성분의 종류는 적지만 추출량이 비슷하면서 열분해 및 열변성이 발생하지 않아 딸기 고유의 향기에 가까운 향기패턴을 나타내었으며 기호적으로 우수한 acid류가 다량 함유된 향기성분을 추출하기에 적합한 것으로 나타났다. In order to optimize the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) conditions of volatile components from the strawberry we conducted an evaluation of the sample preparation and SFE operating conditions. The analysis of the volatile components extracted by a variety of sample preparation protocols led to the identification of 30 26 30 and 34 volatile components in fresh freeze-dried 30% celite and 70% celite treatments respectively. The 70% celite treatment was the most effective in extracting the volatile components from strawberry via SFE. Analysis of the volatile components extracted by a variety of SFE operating conditions yielded identifications of 34 35 34 and 35 volatile components at 3,000 psi (40 50℃) and 6,000 psi (40 50℃) respectively. The extraction yield of alcohols and acids and the total volatile component contents were highest under conditions of 3,000 psi and 55℃. Volatile components from the strawberry were extracted via SFE simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and solvent extraction (SE). The analysis of the volatile components extracted via different extraction methods resulted in the identification of 56 34 and 32 volatile components in the SDE SFE and SE extracts respectively. The total volatile component contents identified in the SDE SFE and SE extracts were 20.268±1.144 21.627±1.215 and 2.476±0.177 mg/kg respectively. The SFE extract evidenced higher contents of sweet flavors such as 2-methylbutanoic acid 2-methylpropanoic acid and hexanoic acid than the SDE and SE extracts. SFE proved to be the most appropriate method for the extraction of fresh volatile components from the strawberry.

        • KCI등재

          증례보고 : 다량의 복수를 동반하면서 CA 125가 상승한 난소의 경화성 간질종양 1예

          이해창 ( Hae Chang Lee ),김병륜 ( Byoung Ryun Kim ),이준석 ( Jun Seok Lee ),임법인 ( Beob In Lim ),김흥곤 ( Heung Gon Kim ),문형배 ( Hyung Bae Moon ),김훈영 ( Hoon Young Kim ) 대한산부인과학회 2009 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.52 No.1

          난소의 경화성 간질종양은 난소에 발생하는 매우 드문 양성종양으로 모든 기질세포종양의 2~6%를 차지한다. 경화성 간질종양은 섬유종, 난포막종, 황체화종, 스테로이드 종양과 구분되어지고, 특징적인 임상 증상이 없으며 종양 표지자도 대부분 정상소견을 보이고 다량의 복수가 동반된 경우는 매우 드물다. 저자들은 다량의 복수를 동반하면서 CA 125가 증가된 경화성 간질종양을 경험하였기에 간단한 문헌고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is an uncommon benign tumor of the ovary, representing 2~6% of all stromal ovarian tumors. It is a distinct benign neoplasm that differs from fibromas, thecomas, luteinized tumors and steroid cell tumors. It presents most often with non-specific symptoms and tumor markers usually remain normal. However massive ascites is a rare symptom. We report a case of sclerosing stromal tumor with massive ascites and elevated CA 125 with brief review of literature.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          파라미터 불확실성 및 시간지연을 갖는 레이더 김벌 안정화 시스템의 지연종속 퍼지 H<sub>∞</sub> 제에

          김태식,이해창,이갑래,Kim, Tae-Sik,Lee, Hae-Chang,Lee, Kap-Rai 제어로봇시스템학회 2005 제어·로봇·시스템학회 논문지 Vol.11 No.11

          This paper presents controller design method for nonlinear radar gimbal system with parameter uncertainty and time delay. In order to consider nonlinearity of gimbal bearing frictional torque, we firstly represent fuzzy model for the nonlinear gimbal system, which is achieved by fuzzy combination of linear models through nonlinear fuzzy membership functions. And secondly we propose a delay dependent fuzzy $H_\infty$ controller design method for the delayed fuzzy model with parameter uncertainty and design radar gimbal controller. The designed controller stabilize gimbal system and guarantee $H_\infty$ performance. A computer simulation is given to illustrate stabilized control performances of the designed controller.

        • VDL Mode 2 시스템 검증을 위한 운용시험장비 설계

          배중원,김태식,이해창,Bae, Joong-won,Kim, Tae-sik,Lee, Hae-chang 항공우주시스템공학회 2008 항공우주시스템공학회지 Vol.2 No.3

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          VDL Mode 2 is one of air-to-ground VHF digital data link technologies. The VDL Mode 2 system is designed to be an air-to-ground subnetwork of the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) using the AM(R)S band and it is organized according to the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model (defined by ISO). It can be used in ATS Applications especially for ATC communication such as CPDLC and ADS as well. And It is expected VDL Mode 2 replaces ACARS(Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System) which has broadly been used for over 20 years. This paper presents the result of design of operational test equipments for the validation of VDL Mode 2 system under development in KARI.

        • 중형수송기 Aircraft Classification Number 예측

          정진덕,배중원,이해창,Chung, Jin-Deog,Bae, Joong-Won,Lee, Hae-Chang 항공우주시스템공학회 2010 항공우주시스템공학회지 Vol.4 No.3

          ACN(Aircraft Classification Number) is allocated by marketing group during early stage of aircraft design phase and is a critical parameter to decide whether the designed aircraft can be landed or not in a certain airport. The loading on the main landing gear wheels, selection of main landing gear tire and estimation of ACNs for flexible and rigid pavements were done for the proposed medium-class aircraft. The estimated ACN values are compared with the similar class aircraft. And PCN(Pavement Classification Number) values of airport in Korea are surmmarized. Results showed that the currently proposed medium-class aircraft can land any airport in Korea.

        • KCI등재후보

          Kefir 배양용 기능성 복합 Starter 개발

          이봄이 ( Bomee Lee ),이해창 ( Hae-chang Yi ),문용일 ( Yong-ii Moon ),오세종 ( Sejong Oh ) 한국유가공기술과학회 2018 한국유가공기술과학회지 Vol.36 No.3

          Kefir, which originates in the Caucasian mountains, is a cultured milk beverage produced by a combination of acidic and alcoholic fermentation. Kefir products are commonly used as food vehicles to deliver health-promoting materials including kefran and lactic acid bacteria to consumers. The aim of this study was to develop a freeze-dried starter culture without yeast and assess the suitability of kefir-like dairy products for the growth of lactic acid bacteria and the acidification of milk. Pasteurized whole milk (SNF 8.5%) stored at 25℃ was aseptically inoculated with starter cultures (0.002% w/v); it was kept at 25℃ until the pH attained a value of 4.6. Ten grams of the kefir-like product sample was diluted with 90 mL of 0.15% peptone water diluent in a milk dilution bottle, followed by uniform mixing for 1 min. Viable cells of Lactobacillus species were enumerated on modified-MRS agar (pH 5.2), with incubation at 37℃ for 48 h. Viable cells of Lactococcus species were enumerated on M17-lactose agar, with incubation at 32℃ for 48 h. The pH attained a value of 4.6 after fermentation for 9 h 30 min (Starter 1), 9 h 45 min (Starter 2), and 12 h (Starter 3). The viable cell count of Lactobacillus sp. and Lactococcus sp. was initially 10<sup>5</sup>∼10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g; it increased significantly to 10<sup>9</sup> CFU/g after 12 h of incubation. During the storage of the kefir-like products at 4℃ for 1 4 days, the total viable cell numbers were unchanged, but the pH decreased slightly. The consistency of the kefir products increased gradually during the storage. The organoleptic properties of the kefir products fermented using the new starter culture are more desirable than those of commercial kefir. These results suggest that the newly developed starter culture without yeast could be suitable for kefir fermentation.

        • KCI등재

          학교급식에서 제공되는 튀김식품의 원료별 이용실태 및 관리공정

          김은미(Eun-Mi Kim),이해창(Hae-Chang Yi),김선아(Suna Kim),이민아(Min-A Lee),김재원(Jae-Won Kim) 한국식품영양과학회 2009 한국식품영양과학회지 Vol.38 No.2

          조사대상교(n=141)는 모두 직영급식교로 조리 관리형태는 단독조리 134개교, 공동조리 5개교, 공동관리 2개교였으며, 급식 장소는 교실배식 86개교, 식당배식 47개교, 교실배식과 식당배식의 혼합형태가 8개교였다. 급식제공형태는 자율배식 12개교, 정량배식 99개교, 자율과 정량배식의 혼합형태가 20개교였으며 급식인원수는 1,001~1,500인이 46.8%로 나타났다. 학교급식에서 제공되는 튀김식품에 대한 기호도는 매우 높았고 튀김식품 이용의 가장 큰 장점은 ‘급식 만족도 향상’> ‘칼로리 급원’> ‘조리공정의 용이성’의 순으로 나타났다. 튀김식품의 제공빈도는 ‘2회/1주’> ‘3회/1주’> ‘1회/1주’의 순으로, 튀김식품의 제공빈도 결정시 가장 고려하는 요인은 ‘튀김식품에 대한 기호도 편중’과 ‘지나친 지방섭취’가 가장 높았다. 튀김음식 선정 시 가장 고려하는 사항으로는 ‘기호도’와 ‘칼로리와 영양적 가치’였으며 튀김공정에서 가장 주의를 요하는 단계는 ‘튀김조리 후 보관’이 가장 높았으며 사유는 ‘적정온도 및 품질 유지 위한 용기 부족’과 ‘시간소요’로 조사되었다. 학교급식의 튀김식품에 대한 원료별 선호도 및 제공빈도는 ‘닭고기’와 ‘돼지고기’가 매우 높았으며, 학교급식에서 제공되는 튀김식품에 대한 선호도와 제공빈도를 순위법으로 조사·분석한 결과, 원료별 선호도 및 제공빈도와 일치하는 것으로 분석되었다. 학교급식에서 주로 제공되는 튀김식품의 조리공정별 소요시간에서 각 식품별 총소요시간은 약 237±99분~291±141분으로 총소요시간은 원료와 상관없이 유사한 것으로 분석되었다. 공정별 비교 분석 결과, 야채류는 육류에 비해 해동시간과 튀김 소요시간이 짧으나 튀김 전 전처리에 소요되는 시간이 많아 번거로운 것으로 분석되었다. 주요 튀김식품별로 중요 관리공정은 원료가 육류나 어패류인 경우 튀김공정이, 원료가 야채류인 경우 튀김 후 보관이 가장 주의를 기울이는 조리공정으로 분석되었다. All of the subjects of the investigation (n=141) were schools that have food services under direct management. The number of students who get food services at the schools were 1,001~1,500 students with 46.8% investigation. In school food services, fried foods were highly preferred and the biggest merits of fried foods were (in order of highest importance) ‘improvement of food services satisfaction’> ‘source of calories supply’> ‘easiness of cooking process’. Service frequency of fried food were in the order of ‘twice a week’> ‘three times a week’> ‘once a week’, and for the factors to decide service frequency of fried food, ‘preference leaning on fried food’, and ‘excessive fat intake’ were the most considered. The most considered factors in the case of choosing fried food were ‘preference’ and ‘calories and nutritional value’. For the cautious steps during the frying process, ‘keeping after frying’ was picked the most, and the reasons were ‘lack of containers to keep in appropriate temperature and quality’ and ‘time consuming’. For preference and service frequency of ingredients in fried foods, ‘chicken’ and ‘pork’ were very high. As the result, it was analyzed that preference by ingredients matched service in school lunches by using a ranking test. Total cooking and processing time of fried foods required in school lunches were approximately 237±99 minutes~291±141 minutes which showed total required time was about same no matter what ingredients were used. As the result of comparing and analyzing the processes, vegetables took less thawing and frying time, but the processing time for vegetables was more complicated since handling time before frying was longer compared to meat. In the important management process by the main groups of fried foods, the frying process was the most cautious cooking process in the category of meat or fish and shellfish used as ingredients. In addition, if vegetables were used as ingredients, storing it after frying was the process that needed the most care.

        • KCI등재
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