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The foreign relations in the current international society is putting the authentic mutual dependence and understanding between the nations above others unlike the cold war system, so such circumstances require the medium & long term approach that could reinforce Soft Power in various fields. Such an approach is an advisable means in that it can actualize the international realism aiming for national interest with more appropriateness and also actualize the international idealism more reinforcing the approach to world peace and international issues at the same time. Especially the diplomatic strategy toward Africa employed by the countries in the West is changing into the strategy putting emphasis on Soft Power by linking the practicality of the so-called resource diplomacy and market expansion to sustainable economic development. With the coming of the 21st century, a nation’s diplomacy is confronted with endless changes and challenges due to a countless number of mutually influencing complex factors, and moreover, a nation is facing the situation where it cannot seek for only practical interests any more owing to the emergence and roles of diverse international performers. Especially in case of Korea, the capacity reinforcement of Soft Power is an imperative strategy in the medium & long term not only for the resource diplomacy toward Africa but also building peace in the Korean Peninsula. Further, it’s necessary to give a top priority to capacity reinforcement through the development of Soft Power uniquely applicable to Africa in case of Korea which is acquainted with the western culture in that Africa still has a cultural pattern different from the West. Accordingly, as a responsible stakeholder in international society, as a late-starting nation whose launching into Africa is late, and ,as someone argues, as a model of African economic development, Korea in the 21st century is required to reestablish the basic guideline for the policy toward Africa through the more comprehensive and consultative method led by the private-public-academic sectors, and to put forth the Korean paradigm of Soft Power to debate from the medium & long-range view. On its basis, there need to be the expansion of cultural exchange, and ‘intelligence gathering the strength’ of domestic resources that could expand the base of cultural exchange more than anything else.
Decentralization is a major task for African countries to solve and also becomes a process that they have to go through whether they favor or not for complete implementation of democratic system together with democratization after post-cold war era. However, African countries are confronted with the difficulty with the choice and harmony between the particularism reflecting Africa's complex reality and political culture and the universalism demanded by internationalization in that the process of democratization and its visible outcome influenced by internationalization are defined by decentralization. The decentralization of Africa differs in its meaning depending on whether it is political or administrative. The decentralization as a political sense plays a role in drawing forth a change of function itself of political structure. In contrast, the decentralization as an administrative sense makes much of rationality and efficiency of administrative structure. However, the decentralization in Africa is close to functional decentralization as an administrative sense rather than a political sense. In short, decentralization has a bigger significance as a process for local residents' participation and expansion of rights & interests rather than it is a mechanism of resident autonomy. Of course, the decentralization of Africa also means that it isn't desirable for a nation to exclusively seek its national development any more. However, realistically, the decentralization of most African countries is eventually exposing their political will to intend to re-organize a nation very intensely even if their decentralization is aiming for a diversity of mottos, such as recovery of state credit(Uganda), national reconciliation(Mali, Niger, South Africa, etc.), and response to citizens' demand(Rwanda, Burundi, etc.). At present, the key point in decentralization of Africa is how to tune up the gap between the universalism-based value, which the efficiency & balance in democracy demanded by the Western countries and international financial organs, and particularism-based value which makes much of the general development in consideration of African characteristics. The decentralization helps enhance democracy and also develop democracy, but the authentic decentralization of Africa should start with the true change of perspective into universalism which has been argued by the Western countries all the time since World War Two. Thus, because Africa weakens the power of the central government and hands over their authority doesn't mean achieving decentralization. Accordingly, the development of decentralization in Africa has to be started with somewhat fierce but consensual State. In other words, the first priority should be put on national reconstruction that could take the lead in decentralization systematically and realistically other than a State whose organization is weakened by decentralization.
이한규 ( Han Kyu Lee ),선휘경 ( Hui Kyuoung Sun ),김동기 ( Dong Ki Kim ),오국환 ( Kook Hwan Oh ),김연수 ( Yon Su Kim ),안규리 ( Cu Rie Ahn ),한진석 ( Jin Suk Han ),김성권 ( Sunhn Gwon Kim ),곽철 ( Cheol Kwak ),오승준 ( Seung June 대한신장학회 2010 Kidney Research and Clinical Practice Vol.29 No.5
The use of intestinal segments in the reconstruction and plasty of urinary bladder for malignant or nonmalignant conditions is widely accepted. Metabolic derangements including hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and malabsorption of lipid may occur after surgery. Main pathophysiology of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is the exchange of urinary chloride with luminal bicarbonate and duration of urine in contact with the intestinal mucosa can affect the severity of metabolic acidosis. We experienced two cases of severe hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis which developed in patients with chronic kidney disease, urinary tract infection and orthotopic neobladder or augmentation enterocystoplasty for the treatment of bladder cancer and neurogenic bladder, respectively.
In early days of democratization in 1990, political participation of African women was considered as voting and expansion of participation in election but in the 21st century, issues of political participation is moving into discussion about how many women participate in decision-making of policies and what role do they play with regard to issues of women. Therefore, the purpose of this writing is to summarize case study of political participation of Cameroon women, which had resolute enforcement of democratization in 1992 and to suggest reasons for accessing issues of African women participation in different viewpoint from political participation of other western women. African society has diversity split in religion, and society. Solution of women issue, which is the biggest minority group among them, is an important task to be solved for development of society with agreed diversity. Extreme actions for rights and interests of women themselves ignoring the structural characteristics of Afucan society based on patriarchy seem impossible. However, it may be important to invigorate participation of women through tentative allocation system in order to induce African women into public domain in less conflicting methods. For this end, participation of African women in politics must become means for equal and fair competition with diverse and heterogeneous social and political powers instead of means for power struggles.
아프리카 전체 인구의 40~60%가 도시에는 거주하고 있기 때문에 도시로의 인구 이동이 줄어들지 않는 한 도시 확장은 앞으로도 불가피해 보인다. 그러나 이와 같은 도시의 확장은 도시 자체 문제로 끝나는 것이 아니라 도시 근교의 일차적 사회관계에 직·간접적으로 영향을 미치고 있다. 더욱이 아프리카 도시들은 도시가 가지고 있는 문제들 때문에 와해되는 것이 아니라 다른 곳에다 문제를 재발시키는 특징을 가지고 있기 때문이다. 왜냐하면 분절된 사회적 특징을 가지고 있는 도시의 확장은 대규모 집단을 대상으로는 사회체제를 가지고 있는 도시와 달리 소규모 인구를 통해 유지되는 근교의 사회체제와는 부적절할 수도 있다. 그러나 도시 근교는 서구 도시에서 볼 수 있는 위성 도시적인 형태로 건설된 것이 아니라 도시가 형성되기 이전에 존재했던 전통공동체로서의 마을이 형성되어 있던 곳이다. 본 연구의 조사 지역인 코트디부아르 경제 수도 아비장(Abidjan)의 근교 브로코스(Brokoss)가 대표적이다. 본 연구자는 아비장 근교에 위치한 에브리에(Ebries) 전통 마을 브로코스를 현지방문하여 월로 10명에 대한 심층면접을 통해 확보한 녹취록과 지역 주민 103명을 대상으로 한 설문조사 결과 등에 대한 분석을 실시하였다. 18세기부터 고유한 공간을 유지해 왔던 에브리에 사람들의 공간은 아비장의 도시화로 인해 도시 근교로 변하였다. 더욱이 도시 이주민이 증가하면서 아비장 근교에서 이주민의 거주는 낯설지 않은 풍경이 되었고, 브로코스는 더는 인종적 혹은 민족적 구분을 통한 자신들 만의 문화적 공간으로의 기능을 가질 수 없게 되었다. 그러나 더 근본적인 문제는 아비장의 도시화와 이주민 유입에 대해서 에브리에 사람들조차도 브로코스 공간의 가치에 대한 인식이 거의 분산되어 있다는 것이다. 자본주의 역동성의 원천인 도시에 인접한 브로코스 마을 사람에게는 이주민들이 도시 사람들과 가깝고 친밀한 관계를 형성하고 있지만, 이들을 응집력 있는 전체 문화로 통합하기가 쉬워 보이지 않는다. 경험과 체험을 통한 공동체적 공간은 점차 쇠퇴하고 있고 자본주의 기능적 공간이 브로코스 마을을 압박하고 있다. 3세기 동안 유지해 왔던 문화적 공동체로서 지각 있는 ‘재현의 공간’으로 재생산되기 위해 브로코스의 에브리에 사람들은 도시와 근교, 원주민과 이주민, 경제와 문화라는 사이에서 간주관적 공유과정이 절대적으로 필요해 보인다. Since 40~60% of entire African population leaves in the cities, the expansion of cities seems inevitable unless the population movement to the city doesn’t decrease. However, such expansions of the city not only stops at the problem of the city itself, but affect the primary social relations of the suburbs. Besides, African cities do not collapse because of the problems that the cities experience, but tend to make the problems recur somewhere else. This is because the expansion of the cities of segmented social characteristics would be inappropriate, as opposed to the cities of social structure for large population, for the social structure of suburbs that are maintained through small population. However, the suburbs are not constructed in the form of satellite city commonly seen in the western cities, but are in the form of traditional community that existed before the formation of cities. The target of this study, Brokoss, which is the suburb of the economic capital of Cote d´Ivoire, Abidjan, is a typical case. The researcher of this study visited Brokoss, Ebries’s traditional village near the suburb of Abidjan, and analyzed the transcript of in-depth interviews of 10 elders and questionnaire of 103 local residents acquired from the visit. The place of Ebries’s people, which maintain its unique space since the 18th century, has turned into the city suburb due to the urbanization of Abidjan. Furthermore, with increasing migrants to the city, migrants residing in the suburbs of Abidjan has become an familiar scene, Brokoss lost its function as their own cultural space through racial or ethnic classification. However, more fundamental problems lies with the fact that even the people of Ebries had diffused perception on the value of Brokoss, in regards to the urbanization of Abidjan and influx of migrants. For the people of Brokoss, which is located near city, the source of capitalistic dynamics, migrants are forming close and intimate relationships with the people of the city, but it seems hard to integrate them into the whole culture with cohesiveness. The communal space through experience is declining, and capitalistic functional space is pressuring the village of Brokoss. To be recreated into discreet ‘space of revival’ as a cultural community that has been maintained for 3 centuries, the people of Ebries in Brokoss are in absolute need of intersubjective sharing process between the city and suburb, locals and migrants, and economy and culture.
18 years have been passed by since Republic of South Africa established a multi-racial country, relieved from apartheid. Nevertheless, in leadership issue always appearing in interim periods of government, the first president Mandela of the South Africa’s multi-racial country has always been named. Especially as the society becomes diversified in 21C, diverse demands beyond nation’s control ask leaders able to exert multi-coordinations and Mandela seems to stand in this situation. Hence, the purpose of the writing is to see in what aspects the national tasks were fulfilled in the interim period of government through Mandela, how the interests of social forces were controlled and adjusted, and what the core of successful reigns is. Mandela had pulled down political and social walls formed for 300 years in his short reign of 4 years and built unification of the black and white without leaning toward one side. Since the modern society is standing in the center of an age of infinite competition without tolerance as diverse, complicated variables appear irregularly all the time, leadership is required to exert along with suitability and responsiveness on the situational conditions, which is re??recognized through Mandela’s leadership.
The impulse current such as a lightning surge strongly effects on the electrical properties degradation of ZnO Varistor. This study has analyzed Failure Mode/Mechanism of ZnO varistor which is identified Thermal runaway, Puncture and Cracking under direct lightning surges. We have estimated the common shape parameter of lifetime, accelerating factor by ALTA(Software). Estimated lifetime of ZnO Varistor in this paper is over 30 times under 5㎸ lightning surge.