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      • KCI등재

        나림광산 수계의 토양과 퇴적물에 관한 지구화학적 특성: 중금속 원소의 분산, 부화 및 기원

        이찬희,이현구,이종창,Lee, Chan Hee,Lee, Hyun Koo,Lee, Jong Chang 대한자원환경지질학회 1998 자원환경지질 Vol.31 No.4

        Geochemical characteristics of environmental toxic elements at the Narim mine area were investigated on the basis of major, minor, rare earth element geochemistry and mineralogy. Ratios of $Al_2O_3/Na_2O$ and $K_2O/Na_2O$ in soils and sediments range from 11.57 to 22.21 and from 1.86 to 3.93, and are partly negative and positive correlation against $SiO_2/Al_2O_3$ (3.41 to 4.78), respectively. These suggested that sediment source of host granitic gneiss could be due to rocks of high grade metamorphism originated by sedimentary rocks. Characteristics of some trace and rare earth elements of V/Ni (0.33 to 1.95), Ni/Co (2.00 to 6.50), Zr/Hf (11.27 to 53.10), La/Ce (0.44 to 0.55), Th/Yb (4.07 to 7.14), La/Th (2.35 to 3.93), $La_N/Yb_N$ (6.58 to 13.67), Co/Th (0.63 to 2.68), La/Sc (3.29 to 5.94) and Sc/Th (0.49 to 1.00) are revealed a narrow range and homogeneous compositions may be explained by simple source lithology. Major elements in all samples are enriched $Al_2O_3$, MgO, $TiO_2$ and LOI, especially $Fe_2O_3$ (mean=7.36 wt.%) in sediments than the composition of host granitic gneiss. The average enrichment indices of major and rare earth elements from the mining drainage are 2.05 and 2.91 of the sediments and are 2.02 and 2.60 of the soils, normalizing by composition of host granitic gneiss, respectively. Average composition (ppm) of minor and/or environmental toxic elements in sediments and soils are Ag=14 and 1, As=199 and 14, Cd=22 and 1, Cu=215 and 42, Pb=1770 and 65, Sb=18 and 3, Zn=3333 and 170, respectively, and extremely high concentrations are found in the subsurface sediments near the ore dump. Environmental toxic elements were strongly enriched in all samples, especially As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn. The level of enrichment was very severe in mining drainage sediments, while it was not so great in the soils. Based on the EPA value, enrichment index of toxic elements is 8.63 of mining drainage sediments and 0.54 of soils on the mining drainage. Mineral composition of soils and sediments near the mining area were partly variable being composed of quartz, mica, feldspar, amphibole, chlorite and clay minerals. From the gravity separated mineralogy, soils and sediments are composed of some pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, goethite and various hydroxide minerals.

      • KCI등재

        Geochemical Variation of Authigenic Glauconite from Continental Shelf of the Yellow Sea, off the SW Korea

        이찬희,이성록,이치원,최석원,Lee, Chan Hee,Lee, Sung-Rock,Lee, Chi-Won,Choi, Suck-Won The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental G 1997 자원환경지질 Vol.30 No.4

        황해 대륙붕의 준고화된 표층퇴적물에서 자생하는 해록석들을 산출상태와 외부조직에 따라 괴상형, 균열형 및 다공질형으로 분류하였다. 이 해록석은 현세의 해침에 의하여 퇴적된 표층의 사질퇴적물내에 산포상으로 산출되며, 보통 0.1~1 mm 크기의 직경을 갖는다. x-선 회절분석 결과로 계산된, 해록석의 단위포와 크기는 $a=5.242{\AA}$, $b=9.059{\AA}$, $c=10.163{\AA}$, ${\beta}=100.5^{\circ}$, $V=474.53{\AA}^3$ 이고, 화학조성과 단위포의 크기로 계산된 밀도는 $2.60{\pm}0.45gm/cc$ 이다. 이 광물은 가열실험시 $10{\AA}$의 회절선이 증가하는 것으로 볼때 일정한 팽윤층을 갖는 것으로 보인다. $O_{10}(OH)_2$를 기준으로 평균조성을 구하면, 팔면체 자리의 Fe 함량은 1.19~2.06 이고, Al 함량은 0.18~0.76 이다. Fe와 Al은 서로 치환관계를 보이며 다공질형에서 괴상형으로 갈수록 Fe의 함량은 증가하고 Al은 감소한다. Mg의 함량은 0.35~0.54로서 Al이 높을수록 Mg의 양도 증가한다. K의 함량은 0.34~0.71의 범위를 보이며 다공질형에서 괴상형으로 갈수록 증가한다. 괴상형 또는 균열형 해록석은 질서/무질서의 혼합층 운모이며, 다공질형의 해록석은 혼합층 일라이트/스멕타이트로서 7~27%의 팽윤층을 포함한다. 이 광물은 표층 퇴적물이 퇴적된후에 극미립의 퇴적입자를 핵으로, 환원환경하에서 발생하는 퇴적물의 분해 및 생물체 파편과의 반응에 따라 자생한 것으로 추정된다. The massive, fractured and porous-type of glauconite, which is subdivided by surface morphology, occur in subtidal sand and semiconsolidated intertidal sand/mud from continental shelf of the southeastern Yellow Sea. This area is presumed to be a part of Holocene transgressive tidal systems tract. The glauconite, pellet-like grains with diameter of 0.1 to 1 mm, is scattered in surface sand sediments. Results of X-ray diffraction data of the minerals are monoclinic with $a=5.242{\AA}$, $b=9.059{\AA}$, $c=10.163{\AA}$, ${\beta}=100.5^{\circ}$, $V=474.53{\AA}^3$. Thermal treatments on the oriented glauconite increase the X-ray diffraction intensity near $10{\AA}$ (001), suggesting the presence of some expandable layers. Specific gravity of the glauconite is $2.60{\pm}0.45gm/cc$ on the basis of chemical composition and unit-cell dimensions. Based on $O_{10}(OH)_2$, chemical composition of glauconites, octahedral Fe content ranges from 1.19 to 2.06 atoms, corresponding octahedral AI is 0.18 to 0.76 atoms, which progressively substitute Fe for AI with increasing from porous to massive-type. The Mg content ranges from 0.35 to 0.54 atoms, and shows higher with increasing Al contents. A systematic increase of interlayer K from 0.34 to 0.71 is also observed with apparent increases from porous to massive-type, and related to a proportion of expandable layers. The clay preserved in glauconite, which is recognized as ordered/disordered (massive to fractured-type). The interstratified illite/smectite (porous-type), contains 7 to 27 % expandable layers. The glauconite seems to originate from post depositional authigenic growth in reducing environments promoted by the dissolution of clay minerals and biogenic debris.

      • KCI등재

        섬유성이형성증 유래세포의 특성연구

        이찬희,한인,서병무,Lee, Chan-Hee,Han, Ihn,Seo, Byoung-Moo 대한구강악안면외과학회 2009 대한구강악안면외과학회지 Vol.35 No.5

        Purpose: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a fibro-osseous disease associated with activating missense mutations of the gene encoding the $\alpha$-subunit of stimulatory G protein. FD may affect a single bone (called monostotic form) or multiple bones (called polyostotic form). The extent of lesions reflects the onset time of mutation. In this study, cells from monostotic FD in maxilla of a patient were isolated and cultured in vitro for characterization. Materials and Methods: The single cells were released from FD lesion which was surgical specimen from 15 years-old boy. These isolated cells were cultured in vitro and tested their proliferation activity with MTT assay. In osteogenic media, these cells underwent differentiation process comparing with its normal counterpart i.e. bone marrow stromal cells. The proliferated FD cells were detached and transplanted into the dordsal pocket of nude mouse and harvested in 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Results and Summary: FD cells have an increased proliferation rate and poor differentiation. As a result, cells isolated from FD lesion decreased differentiation into osteoblast and increased proliferation capacity. MTT assay presented that proliferation rate of FD cells were higher than control. However, the mineral induction capacity of FD was lesser than that of control. Monostotic FD cells make fewer amounts of bone ossicles and most of them are woven bone rather than lamellar bone in vivo transplantation. In transplanted FD cells, hematopoietic marrow were not seen in the marrow space and filled with the organized fibrous tissue. Therefore, they were recapitulated to the original histological features of FD lesion. Collectively, these results indicated that the FD cells were shown that the increased proliferation and decreased differentiation potential. These in vitro and in vivo system can be useful to test FD cell's fate and possible.

      • KCI등재

        얼굴 영상에서 유전자 알고리즘 기반 형판정합을 이용한 눈동자 검출

        이찬희,장경식,Lee, Chan-Hee,Jang, Kyung-Shik 한국정보통신학회 2009 한국정보통신학회논문지 Vol.13 No.7

        본 논문에서는 다양한 조명하에서의 단일 얼굴 영상에 대해 유전자 알고리즘과 형판 정합을 이용하여 빠르게 눈동자를 검출하는 방법을 제안한다. 유전 알고리즘을 이용한 기존의 눈동자 검출 방법은 초기 개체군의 위치에 민감하여 낮은 눈 검출율을 보이며, 도한 그 결과가 일관적이지 않은 문제점을 갖는다. 이와 같은 문제점을 해결화기 위해 얼굴영상에서 지역적 최소치를 추출하고 형판과 가장 높은 적합도를 가지는 개체들로 초기 개체군을 생성 하였다. 각각의 개체는 형판의 기하학적 변환 정보로 구성되며, 형판 정합에 의해 눈동자가 검출된다. 실험을 통하여 본 논문에서 제안한 눈 후보 검출을 통하여 단일 영상에서도 눈 검출의 정확도와 높은 검출률을 확인하였다. In this paper, we propose a robust eye detection method using template matching based on genetic algorithm in the single facial image. The previous works for detecting pupil using genetic algorithm had a problem that the detection accuracy is influnced much by the initial population for it's random value. Therefore, their detection result is not consistent. In order to overcome this point we extract local minima in the facial image and generate initial populations using ones that have high fitness with a template. Each chromosome consists of geometrical informations for the template image. Eye position is detected by template matching. Experiment results verify that the proposed eye detection method improve the precision rate and high accuracy in the single facial image.

      • KCI등재

        삼광 금-은광산 일대의 하상퇴적물과 토양내 함유된 독성원소의 지구화학적 부화와 이동

        이찬희,이현구,유봉철,조애란,Lee, Chan Hee,Lee, Byun Koo,Yoo, Bong-Cheal,Cho, Aeran 대한자원환경지질학회 1998 자원환경지질 Vol.31 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Dispersion, migration and enrichment of environmental toxic elements from the Samkwang Au-Ag mine area were investigated based upon major, minor and rare earth element geochemistry. The Samkwang mine area composed mainly of Precambrian granitic gneiss. The mine had been mined for gold and silver, but closed in 1996. According to the X-ray powder diffraction, mineral composition of stream sediments and soils were partly variable mineralogy, which are composed of quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase, amphibole, muscovite, biotite and chlorite, respectively. Major element variations of the host granitic gneiss, stream sediments and soils of mining and non-mining drainage, indicate that those compositions are decrese $Al_2O_3$, $Fe_2O_3$, MgO, $TiO_2$, $P_2O_5$ and LOI with increasing $SiO_2$ respectively. Average compositional ranges (ppm) of minor and/or environmental toxic elements within those samples are revealed as As=<2-4500, Cd=<1-24, Cu=6-117, Sb=1-29, Pb=17-1377 and Zn=32-938, which are extremely high concentrations of sediments from the mining drainage (As=2006, Cd=l1, Cu=71, Pb=587 and Zn=481 ppm, respectively) than concentrations of the other samples and host granitic gneiss. Major elements (average enrichment index=6.53) in all samples are mostly enriched, excepting $SiO_2$, $Na_2O$ and $K_2O$, normalized by composition of host granitic gneiss. Rare earth element (average enrichment index=2.34) are enriched with the sediments from the mining drainage. Minor and/or environmental toxic elements within all samples on the basis of host rock were strongly enriched of all elements (especially As, Br, Cu, Pb and Zn), excepting Ba, Cr, Rb and Sr. Average enrichment index of trace elements in all samples is 15.55 (sediments of mining drainage=37.33). Potentially toxic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) of the samples revealed that average enrichment index is 46.10 (sediments of mining drainage=80.20, sediments of nonmining drainage=5.35, sediments of confluent drainage=20.22, subsurface soils of mining drainage=7.97 and subsurface soils of non-mining drainage=4.15). Sediments and soils of highly concentrated toxic elements are contained some pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, galena and goethite.

      • KCI등재

        둔전(屯田) 및 백전광상(栢田鑛床)에서 산출(産出)되는 에렉트럼의 산출상태(産出狀態)와 조성변화(組成變化)

        이찬희,박희인,Lee, Chan Hee,Park, Hee-In 한국광물학회 1993 韓國鑛物學會誌 Vol.6 No.2

        The compositional variation of electrums from gold-silver and antimony deposits in the Dunjeon Baegjeon mining area, range from 22.6 to 69.5 atom% of Ag. Ag contents in electrums vary with paragenetic sequences and associated minerals. Ag contents increase from core to margin in a single grain. Compositional range of electrums from the North ore deposits of the Dunjeon gold mine are from 22.6 to 29.5 atom% of Ag. Electrums contain Cu(0.40 to 0.55 atom%) and Bi(0.35 to 0.67 atom%). Composition of electrums from the South ore deposits of the Dunjeon gold mine vasies from 33.6 to 69.5 atom% of Ag. Cu and As contents in electrums range from 0.20 to 1.92 and from 0.70 to 1.90 atom%, respectively. As the content of Ag in electrums increase, the contents of Bi and As in electrums increase but that of Cu decrease. Electrums of the Baegjeon gold deposits contain 35.6 to 63.5 atom% of Ag, suggesting that Au contents in electrums associated with base metal sulfied be higher than those associate with Ag-minerals. Ag/Au rations in electrums increase with decreasing temperature, salinity and $fs_2$ of the mineralizing solution. 둔전-백전지역의 금-은, 안티모니 광상에서 산출되는 에렉트럼의 전체 조성범위는 22.6~69.5 atom% Ag로서 각 광상마다 조성의 차이가 있을 뿐 아니라 동일광상에서도 광화시기 및 에렉트럼을 수반하는 광물군에 따라 Ag의 함량이 서로 다르다. 둔전 북광상에서 산출되는 에렉트럼의 조성은 22.6~29.5 atom% Ag의 좁은 범위를 보이며 I기의 것이 II의 것에 비하여 Au의 함량이 높다. 둔전 남광상에서 산출되는 에렉트럼의 조성범위는 33.6~69.5 atom% Ag이고, 백전광상의 것은 35.6~63.5 atom% Ag로서 에렉트럼의 수반광물에 따라 Ag/Au 비가 달라진다. 전반적으로 에렉트럼의 한 입자에서도 Au와 Ag는 조성비를 달리하며 입자의 중앙부에서 외각부로 갈수록 Ag의 함량이 증가하는 경향이 있다. 또한 에렉트럼 정출 당시의 생성온도, 염농도, $fs_2$가 높을수록 에렉트럼의 Ag/Au 비가 낮고 base metal 유화광물과 공존하는 에렉트럼이 Ag 광물과 공존하는 것보다 Ag/Au 비가 낮다. 둔전광산 남, 북광상의 에렉트럼에는 Cu; 0.20~1.92, Bi; 0.35~0367, As; 0.70~1.19 atom%가 포함되어 있으며 Cu는 Ag의 함량이 증가할수록 감소하며 Bi와 As는 Ag가 증가함에 따라 높아진다.

      • KCI등재

        구미 황상동 마애여래입상의 구조적 안정성, 풍화 및 보존방안

        이찬희,최석원,서만철,채상정,Lee, Chan Hee,Choi, Suck Won,Suh, Mancheol,Chae, Sang Jeong 한국문화재보존과학회 2000 보존과학회지 Vol.9 No.1

        구미시 황상동에 위치한 마애여래입상 (보물 제 1122 호)의 구성 암석은 흑운모-각섬석 화강섬록암으로서 약 30 여 개의 불연속적 동일 암체로 구성되어 있으나, 보관석은 역질 사암이다. 마애불 주변에 노출된 암괴의 대부분은 $N25{\sim}45^{\circ}W$의 주향과 거의 수직($70{\sim}85^{\circ}SE$)에 가까운 배면경사를 갖는 절리들이 발달되어 있다. 마애불 본체의 암괴들은 균열된 채 서로를 지지하고 있으나, 접합점에서는 심한 기계적 및 화학적 풍화를 받아 붕괴위험에 쳐해 있다. 또한 상부와 배면으로부터 발생하는 토압과 응력에 의하여 본체는 전면으로 두상은 좌측으로 기울어져 있다. 이 마애불을 이루는 암석의 풍화등급은 HW에 속하며, 조암 광물의 대부분은 화학적 및 광물학적 풍화에 의하여 점토 광물과 철수산화 광물로 교대되어 있다. 마애불의 표면에는 지의류와 선태류가 서식하고 있으며 모근과 포자류가 암석의 생물학적 풍화를 촉진시키고 있고, 절리대에는 이미 토양화가 진행되어 잡초가 서식하고 있다. 보존과학적 측면에서 볼 때, 이 마애불의 구조적 안정을 위해서는 불안정한 암괴의 제거가 필수적이며 불균형의 재발생과 마애불의 전면으로 작용하는 응력을 최소화하기 위하여 암석 지지공법에 의한 본체의 지보가 필요하다. 균열이 심한 절리면에는 암석용 충진제를 사용하여 수경화 처리가 선행되어야 할 것으로 보이며, 마애불에 미치는 지면의 습도를 저감하기 위한 차수벽 또는 차단막의 설치도 고려되어야 할 것이다. 또한 표면에 피복된 지의류와 토양화가 진행된 불연속면에 서식하는 잡초를 제거하기 위한 생화학적 처리가 필요하다. Rock composition of the Hwangsang-dong Granite Standing Sculptured Buddha (Treasure No. 1122) in the Kumi City is biotite-hornblende granodiorite which consists of about 30 pieces of individual rock blocks of same compositions. However, the cap rocks is pebble-bearing coarse sandstone. Rock blocks of the Standing Buddha and surrounding out crops occur well developed several joint systems of $N25^{\circ}$ to $45^{\circ}W$ strike and nearly vertical (70 to $85^{\circ}SE$) dipping. Rock blocks of the Standing Buddha showed vertical, horizontal and oblique joints, and those blocks are well supported by individual blocks. However, the junction part of the blocks are under dangerous situation due 10 seriously mechanical and chemical weathering. Host rock of the Standing Buddha belongs to the HW grade, therefore mostly rock-forming minerals of the granodiorite Standing Buddha altered with clay and iron hydroxide minerals by mineralogical and chemical weathering. Near surface of the Standing Buddha show spore and mycelium of green algaes, and a joint plane alive with weeds. We suggest that if structural stability for the Standing Buddha remove essentially a unstable rock blocks from the main body, and the main body necessitate supporting by rock bolting method because of repeated unstability and minimizing stress to the rock blocks. For the opened joint planes, fractured surface and alive weeds will attempt to fill in a petro-epoxy, petro-filler and biochemical treatments for the algaes, and ground water curtain and wall seems to be necessary for water flow and diminishing humidity of the Standing Buddha.

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        충남탄전, 대동누층군의 셰일과 탄질암에 관한 암석화학 및 환경지구화학적 특성

        이찬희,이현구,김경웅,Lee, Chan Hee,Lee, Hyun Koo,Kim, Kyoung-Woong 대한자원환경지질학회 1997 자원환경지질 Vol.30 No.5

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Characteristics of sedimentary rocks and enrichment of toxic elements in shale and coal from the Chungnam coal field were investigated based upon geochemistry of major, trace and rare earth elements. Shale and coal of the area are interbedded along the Traissic to the Jurassic Daedong Supergroup, which can be subdivided into grey shale, black shale and coal. The coal had been mined, however all the mines are abandonded due to the economic problems. The shale and coal are characterized by relatively low contents of $SiO_2$, and $Al_2O_3$ and high levels of loss-on-ignition (LOI), CaO and $Na_2O$ in comparison with the North American Shale Composite (NASC). Light rare earth elements (La, Ce, Yb and Lu) are highly enriched with the coal. Ratios of $Al_2O_3/Na_2O$ and $K_2O/Na_2O$ in shale and coal range from 30.0 to 351.8 and from 4.2 to 106.8, which have partly negative correlations against $SiO_2/Al_2O_3$ (1.24 to 6.06), respectively. Those are suggested that controls of mineral compositions in shale and coal can be due to substitution and migration of those elements by diagenesis and metamorphism. Shale and coal of the area may be deposited in terrestrial basin deduced from high C/S (39 to 895) and variable composition of organic carbon (0.39 to 18.40 wt.%) and low contents of reduced sulfur (0.01 to 0.05 wt.%). These shale and coal were originated from the high grade metamorphic and/or igneous rocks, and the rare earth elements of those rocks are slightly influenced with diagenesis and metamorphism on the basis of $Al_2O_3$ versus La, La against Ce, Zr versus Yb, the ratios of La/Ce (0.38 to 0.85) and Th/U (3.6 to 14.6). Characteristics of trace and rare earth elements as Co/Th (0.07 to 0.86), La/Sc (0.31 to 11.05), Se/Th (0.28 to 1.06), V/Ni (1.14 to 3.97), Cr/V (1.4 to 28.3), Ni/Co (2.12 to 8.00) and Zr/Hf (22.6~45.1) in the shale and coal argue for inefficient mixing of the simple source lithologies during sedimentation. These rocks also show much variation in $La_N/Yb_N$ (1.36 to 21.68), Th/Yb (3.5 to 20.0) and La/Th (0.31 to 7.89), and their origin is explained by derivation from a mixture of mainly acidic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Average concentrations in the shale and coal are As=7.2 and 7.5, Ba=913 and 974, Cr=500 and 145, Cu=20 and 26, Ni=38 and 35, Pb=30 and 36, and Zn=77 and 92 ppm, respectively, which are similar to those in the NASC. Average enrichment indices for major elements in the shale (0.79) and coal (0.77) are lower than those in the NASC. In addition, average enrichment index for rare earth elements in coal (2.39) is enriched rather than the shale (1.55). On the basis of the NASC, concentrations of minor and/or environmental toxic elements in the shale and coal were depleted of all the elements examined, excepting Cr, Pb, Rb and Th. Average enrichment indices of trace and/or potentially toxic elements (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, U and Zn) are 1.23 to 1.24 for shale and 1.06 to 1.22 for coal, respectively.

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        탄산염암 층준교대형 백전광상의 천열수 금-은 광화작용과 생성환경

        이찬희,박희인,Lee, Chan Hee,Park, Hee-In 대한자원환경지질학회 1996 자원환경지질 Vol.29 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The Baegjeon Au-Ag and Sb deposits, small of disseminated-type gold deposits are formed as a result of epithermal processes associated a shallow-seated Cretaceous Yeogdun granitoids intrusion. The orebodies are formed by the replacement of carbonate minerals in thin-bedded oolitic limestone beds favorable for mineralization within the upper-most Cambrian Pungchon Limestone Formation. The mineralization can be recognized one stage, ore minerals composed of base metal sulfides, electrum, AgSb-S, Ag-Cu-S, and Sb-S minerals. Gold-bearing minerals consist of electrum and submicroscopic invisible gold in pyrite and arsenopyrite. The composition of electrums ranges from 33.58 to 63.48 atomic % Ag. Fluid inclusion studies reveal that ore fluids were low saline $NaCl-CO_2-H_2O$ system. Temporary fluid mixing and boiling occured in later stage. Fluid inclusion data indicates the homogenization temperatures and salinities of NaCl eqivalent wt% were 176 to $246^{\circ}C$ and from 0.0 to 4.8 wt%, respectively. And $-logfs_2$, of mineralization obtained by thermodynamic considerations as 12.4 to 13.8 atm. The ${\delta}^{34}S_{H_2S}$, values of hydrothermal sulfides were calculated to be 6.8 to 10.2‰ which was of sedimentary origin. The ${\delta}^{18}O_{H_2O}$ and ${\delta}^{13}C_{CO_2}$, range from -3.9 to 9.6‰, from -1.1 to -2.2‰, and ${\delta}D$ range from -89 to -118‰, respectively. The Au deposition during mineralization seems to have occurred as a result of decrease of temperature, $fs_2$, $fo_2$, and pH probably due to oxidation by meteoric water mixing, which destabilized original $Au(HS)^-{_2}$. The mineralization of the Baegjeon deposits is similar to the Carlin-type deposits characterized by sediments-hosted epithermal bedding replacement disseminated gold deposits.

      • KCI등재

        Authigenic Phillipsite in Deep-sea Manganese Nodules from the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zones, NE Equatorial Pacific

        이찬희,이성록,Lee, Chan Hee,Lee, Sung-Rock The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental G 1996 자원환경지질 Vol.29 No.4

        망간단괴내에 자생하는 필립사이트는 단괴의 핵을 이루는 풍화된 화산암편과 고화된 해저퇴적물 또는 단괴를 이루는 망간광물들의 층간에서 산출된다. 이 광물은 주로 화산성 유리질 석기들의 가상조직을 보이고 있으며, 연한 노란색을 갖는 등립질의 판상으로 산출된다. 필립사이트 입자들은 자형의 삼각능, 사각기둥 또는 도변상을 가지며 크기는 길이 $2{\sim}20{\mu}m$, 두께 $2{\sim}5{\mu}m$정도이다. 이 광물의 화학조성은 $({Ca_{0.1}Mg_{0.3}Na_{1.1}K_{1.5}})_3{(Fe_{0.3}Al_{4.2}Si_{11.8})O_{32}{\cdot}10H_2O}$이며, $Si/(Al+Fe^{+3})=2.37-2.78$, Na/K=0.59-0.81 로서 Si와 알카리의 함량이 아주 높다. 결정구조는 단사정계($P2_l/m$) 속하며 $a=10.005{\AA}$, $b=14.129{\AA}$, $c=8.686{\AA}$, ${\beta}=124.35^{\circ}$ 이고 $V=1013.6{\AA}^3$ 이다. 심해저 환경으로 보아 망간단괴에서 산출되는 필립사이트는 보통 $10^{\circ}C$ 이하의 온도, 0.7 kb 정도의 압력, pH 8 정도의 조건에서 자생하는 것으로 추정된다. The occurrence, optical property, chemical composition, crystal structure and formation environments of the phillipsite within deep-sea manganese nodules were systematically investigated in this study. Phillipsite in manganese nodules occurs in nucleus of nodules along with consolidated bottom sediments, weathered volcanic debris, and interstitial grains in the each layer of manganese encrusts. Phillipsite is predominantly pseudomorphs of volcanic shards, and occurs as white to pale yellow in color lath-shaped and equant crystals. These show aggregations of prismatic, blocky, and bladed of 2 to $20{\mu}m$ long, and 2 to $5{\mu}m$ thick. The simplified average chemical formula of phillipsite is $({Ca_{0.1}Mg_{0.3}Na_{1.1}K_{1.5}})_3{(Fe_{0.3}Al_{4.2}Si_{11.8})O_{32}{\cdot}10H_2O}$ with a very siliceous and alkalic. The $Si/(Al+Fe^{+3})$ ratio is 2.37 to 2.78 and alkalis greatly exceed the divalent exchangeable cations, and Na/K ratio is 0.59 to 0.81. The phillipsite is monoclinic ($P2_l/m$) with the unit-cell parameters, $a=10.005{\AA}$, $b=14.129{\AA}$, $c=8.686{\AA}$, ${\beta}=124.35^{\circ}$, and $V=1013.6{\AA}^3$. Phillipsites in manganese nodules formed apparently authigenically at a temperature less than $10^{\circ}C$, and they crystallized at a pressure of less than 0.7 kb, and pH of about 8 in deep-sea environments.

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