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Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the indoor level of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and to assess the implementation rate of smoke-free laws at hospitality venues around a university campus by measuring particulate matter smaller than 2.5 ㎛ (PM2.5) as an indicator of ETS. Materials and Methods: We measured indoor PM2.5 concentrations at 20 PC game rooms, 20 pubs, and 20 billiards halls using Sidepak AM510, a direct reading portable real time monitor, from October to December 2015. Results: Smoking was observed in 65% of the PC game rooms, 10% of pubs, and 85% of billiards halls. The average PM2.5 concentrations were 98.2 ㎍/㎥, 29.0 ㎍/㎥, and 134.2 ㎍/㎥ at PC game rooms, pubs, and billiards halls, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations in PC game rooms and billiards halls were 2 to 2.7 times higher than the 24-hour exposure standard for outdoor PM2.5 (50 ㎍/㎥) by the Ministry of Environment. Conclusions: Although a smoking ban has been implemented for PC rooms and pubs, smoking is still taking place in many of these places. More stringent legal action is required for successfully protecting patrons and workers from secondhand smoke exposure. A ban on smoking in billiards halls should be introduced as quickly as possible.
The maximum unit point resistance (qmax) of rock socketed drilled shafts subjected to axial loads was investigated by a numerical analysis. A 3D Finite Difference Method (FDM) analysis and a Distinct Element Method (DEM) analysis were performed with varying rock elastic modulus (E), discontinuity spacing (Sj), discontinuity dip angle (ij), and pile diameter (D). Based on the results of obtained, it was found that the ultimate point resistance (qmax) increased as rock elastic modulus (E) and rock discontinuity spacing (Sj) increased. But, it was found that qmax decreased as pile diameter (D) increased. As for the influence of the dip angle of rock discontinuity (ij), it was shown that qmax decreased up to 50% of maximum value within the range of 0°<ij<60° due to the shear failure at rock discontinuities. Furthermore, it was found that if 20°≤ij≤40°, influence of ij should be taken into account because qmax tended to approach a minimum value as ij approached a value near the friction angle of the discontinuity (). 본 연구에서는 암반근입 현장타설말뚝의 선단지지력에 영향을 미치는 주요 영향인자들과 이들 영향인자에 따른 선단지지력의 변화특성을 수치해석을 통하여 분석하였다. 수치해석은 일반적으로 널리 사용되는 연속체해석 중 유한차분해석(FDM)과 암반에 존재하는 불연속면(절리, 단층 등)의 특성을 고려할 수 있는 불연속체해석 중 개별요소해석(DEM)을 병행함으로서 해석의 정확도를 높였다. 그 결과, 암반에 근입된 현장타설말뚝의 선단지지력(qmax)은 암반의 탄성계수(Em), 불연속면의 간격(Sj)에 비례하여 증가하였으며, 말뚝의 직경(D)에는 반비례하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 불연속면의 경사(ij)에 대해서는 불연속면의 경사(ij)가 0°<ij<60°일 때의 선단지지력은 그 외 경사의 선단지지력에 비해 최대 약 50%까지 감소하였으며 이는 말뚝으로부터 전해진 하중에 의하여 말뚝하부 암반 자체 보다 암반의 불연속면에서 먼저 전단파괴가 발생하였기 때문인 것으로 판단된다. 불연속면의 경사(ij)가 불연속면의 내부마찰각()과 근접할 때 선단지지력이 최소치에 가까운 것으로 나타났으며, 따라서 불연속면의 경사가 일반적인 암반 및 암반 불연속면 내부마찰각의 범위인 20°∼40°에 존재할 때는 선단지지력의 산정 시 반드시 불연속면 경사의 영향을 고려해야 하는 것으로 나타났다.
Traditionally, collusion cases have been at the heart of the issues of relevant product definition and relevant revenue calculation under the Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade Act (“MRFTA”). However, recently, there has an issue regarding how to calculate relevant revenues in other types of violations under the MRFTA, in particular, unfair trade practice or unfair support cases. Until now, in unfair trade practice cases, the Korea Fair Trade Commission (“KFTC”) frequently applied different standards in calculating relevant revenues for each type of conduct and in each case, instead of applying a consistent and clear standard. With such tendency, the KFTC imposed a surcharge of KRW 11,964,000,000 in the 2013 unfair trade practice case involving NamYang Dairy Products Co., Ltd. (“NamYang”), particularly on NamYang’s conduct of coercive sale. The surcharge amount was significant (for your reference, the KFTC imposed a surcharge of KRW 500 million on NamYang’s conduct of coercive extraction of benefits). In imposing such significant amount of surcharge, the KFTC calculated the relevant revenues based on the total sales of 26 products during the violation period from January 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. Regarding this, the Seoul High Court accepted the plaintiff’s request and ruled that “In calculating the relevant revenues, the KFTC unlawfully failed to identify at least the authorized dealers, product names, volume, and period for such coercive sale, and included even parts that do not seem to fall under the scope of its coercive sale. Thereafter, the Supreme Court decided to dismiss the case without further review. After NamYang’s unfair trade practice case, there has been an increase in the number of cases where the courts cancel the surcharge imposed by the KFTC or the KFTC imposes a statutory surcharge. This is so because it is not simple to calculate relevant revenues that are directly or indirectly influenced by a conduct of most types of unfair trade practice, such as unreasonable customer inducement, coercive trading, imposition of detriment, managerial intervention, and trading conditioned on exclusivity. However, as an exception, if an unfair trade practice is related to execution of a specific agreement, the relevant revenue is the contract amount. Nonetheless, such case raises an issue of fairness with other unfair trade practice cases where a statutory surcharge is imposed. Given the above situation, it is necessary to establish a clearer fundamental principle regarding the calculation of relevant revenues in unfair trade practice cases, and it appears that the surcharge imposition standard provided by Article 19 of the Enforcement Decree of the Fair Agency Transactions Act could serve as a standard. However, even if the standard is used, more precedents should accumulate in order to furnish a more substantial and specific standard. Hence, even the KFTC needs to put every effort in calculating the relevant revenue directly or indirectly influenced by a violation in each case, rather than simply imposing a statutory surcharge.
The cities region have changed several times as executive vicissitude and the flow of the age in the phase and dimension. Additionally the space constitution of the city has changed according to the age and the ambience. Accordingly the purpose of this study is to analyze the location and the space constitution of city which has been influenced by the administration and the ideals. The study presumed and reconstituted the original form of the Yeongju referring to old maps and town chronicles. And it analyzed the Fengsui of the Yeongju and the method of the buildings' configuration.
This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of distilled spirits made with different fermenting agents in copper distiller. The highest distillate yield was observed in the mashing made with fermenting agent A. The distillate made with fermenting agent A showed also significantly the highest level of ester and higher-alcohol concentration. In addition, the distilled spirit made with fermenting agent A indicated significantly higher preferences in appearance, smell, taste, quality, and overall acceptability than those of other agents. However, the aging in bottle for 6 months had no significant differences in sensory improvement in distilled spirits regardless in kind of fermenting agents. This study emphasizes the importance of rice koji as fermenting agent in distilled spirit prepared with rice and using with multistage distiller made of copper to improve aroma substances and yield ratio of distillate.
본 연구는 국방획득체계의 투명성의 관점에서 방위사업청 개청 전․후 변화를 분석하고자 하였다. 방위사업 비리 관련 문제가 어떻게 변화되어 왔는지를 확인하기 위해 국방획득체계의 개념과 특성에 대해서 살펴보았다. 특히, 국방부에서 국방획득을 주관하던 초기 국방획득체계부터 현재 방위사업청의 국방획득체계를 분석하여 제도, 조직적인 차원에서 변화를 확인하였다. 또한, 투명성과 부패에 대한 개념을 명확하게 정의하였다. 그리고 국방획득체계와 관련된 선행연구를 통해 기존의 연구는 국방 분야의 시스템 개선과 조직개편에 집중되어 있음을 확인하였고, 방위사업의 비리근절을 위한 국방획득체계 투명성 강화방안 연구는 정책적 함의와 시사점을 지니고 있겠다. The purpose of this study is to explore the risks of corruption throughout the defense acquisition system, and provide an strengthening plan about transparency. This report includes background information and corruption focused analysis about defense acquisition system and foreign case. The findings related to these corruption risks are supported with Institutional, cultural, and political factors. In addition, the effectiveness of DAPA open agency is achieved through the before and after comparison. And finally, several recommendations are offered to improve the transparency of defense acquisition system.