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Ancient myths refer to the most basic problems of human life, for they are concerned with the ultimate meaning, not only of our own existence, but of the entire cosmos as well. This paper deals with the outlook on the universe, the type of creation of each country, and the mutual influence of the two countries on each other, focusing on Chinese and Korean myths. This article is subdivided into two sections: chaos and creation of the world, and cosmos after creation. In the Chinese case, some fragments of creation myths remain in the form of both written records and oral traditions. By contrast, some vestiges of creation myths can be found in Korean shaman songs.Concerning cosmology we can summarize as follows: (1) Conditions before the beginning of the world - Chaos in both countires; (2) Creator-gods - Pan Gu and Nu Wa in China; Hwan In, Miruk in Korea; (3) Methods of creation - Transformation, or spontaneous generation in China; Partial transformation, creation by a creator, or spontaneous generation in Korea (such motifs as chaos and pillar are common in both myths); (4) The creation of a human being out of yellow clay in both countries (the motif of the transformation of a super being into human beings is found only in the Chinese myth); (5) a clear-cut difference between the two myths is that later on the relationship between heaven and humans in Chinese myth suddenly stopped, whereas the rift between the two worlds never occurred in Korean myth.
The dating of Mutianzizhuan which is different between the Spring & Autumn Period and the War States Period, depending on opinions of scholars, is also a disputable issue. It is necessary to study the dating of the book because the dating is an important factor to judge whether or not the value of the book is as a mythic or historical source. This paper deals with Mutianzizhuan by further discussing its historical and mythic value mainly from a linguistic point of view, focusing on the content and dating. I have studied the linguistic features of Mutianzizhuan composed of 6,622 Chinese characters, especially the usage of numerals and measure words, the ratios and word orders of the preposition ‘yu(于)’ and ‘yu(於)’, and personal pronouns to resolve the problem of dating. In conclusion. Mutianzizhuan is a work made during the late Spring & Autumn and Warring States Periods, and it was indeed also mixed with ancient Chinese mythic elements. Therefore it is very difficult to say whether or not it was an authentic work of King Mu's period in terms of time gap and content. However, it is also hard to conclude that it is a complete forgery with no background, It is worth researching such aspects as the ancient geographical situation, the mutual friendly relationships between the Eastern and Western world, administration on horseback as well as the information about animals, plant. It is also a primary material book worthy of reference about ancient Chinese myths.
Purpose: Many reports have described significantly lower survival rates for patients with obstructing colorectal cancer than for patients with non-obstructing colorectal cancer. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the long-term prognosis of patients with obstructing carcinomas of the left colon and rectum and to identify the clinical and pathologic characteristics that affect the prognosis. Methods: From June 1996 to October 2003, 46 patients with obstructing left colon and rectal cancer underwent curative surgery (case group), and from the patients with non- obstructing left colon and rectal cancer who had curative surgery, 48 patients with clinicopathologic characteristics similar to those of the case group were selected and matched as a control group. A comparative analysis of demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics, the recurrence rate, and the long-term survival rate between these two groups was done. Results: Emergency operations were done more frequently for obstructing cancer than for non-obstructing cancer (P=0.0001), and more patients with obstructing cancer presented to non-specialists (P=0.0001). The overall recurrence rate was significantly higher in obstructing cancer patients than in non-obstructing cancer patients. Further, the 5-year overall and the disease-free survival rates were significantly lower in obstructing cancer patients when examining either overall patient outcome or stage-III patients outcome. Conclusions: The long-term prognosis of patients with obstructing carcinomas of the left colon and rectum is poor. We suggest that the poor general condition of patients with obstructing cancer, the increased number of emergency operations involving those patients, and more patients with obstructing cancer presenting to non-specialists may contribute to poor long-term prognosis for obstructing cancer patients.