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        • SDGs에 대응하는 과학기술 외교전략

          이우성(Woosung Lee),이명진,이향희,임재민,김지선,안지용,박순호,엄기증,김란,고인환 과학기술정책연구원 2016 조사연구 Vol.- No.-

          Purpose and rationale of the study ○ As the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 2030) that the international community agreed to pursue by 2030 was adopted, there is a growing need to find out new paths for sustainable development through fundamental changes, not through purpose-driven approaches. ○ Since Science Technology and Innovation(STI) is recognized as a core method for implementation of the 2030 Agenda of SDGs and joint prosperity in the fields of economy, society and environment, while the international community is actively seeking international cooperation in this regard, Korea needs to develop diplomatic policies for science technology cooperation to contribute to the international community in line with the global trend. ○ To identify Korea’s position in international science technology cooperation, it is necessary to analyze trends in science technology cooperation by the international community to implement the 2030 Agenda of SDGs. At the same time, it is necessary to understand and diagnose global cooperation on science technologies in climate change (climate technology in a narrow sense) which was agreed and adopted at the Paris Agreement on climate change. ○ To effectively take action to climate technology agendas of the international community, it is necessary to analyze Korea’s framework for climate technology cooperation and develop strategies for global technology cooperation in climate change based on the analysis. Content and scope of the study ○ This study has been conducted to provide diagnosis and Korea’s policy direction on the international community’s science technology cooperation to achieve SDGs, especially the climate change (hereinafter climate technology) according to the Paris Agreement at the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties(COP21). ○ The content and scope of this study include ‘International community’s science technology cooperation to address global issues and SDGs’ (Chapter 2), ‘Climate technology cooperation as a global issue’ (Chapter 3), ‘Quantitative and qualitative analysis on science technology capabilities of Korea and the international community based on thesis analysis, and analysis on the ‘Climate technology level and gap’ (Chapter 4), Current status of the ‘International community’s climate technology cooperation governance and programs’ (Chapter 5), ‘Analysis on Korea’s global technology cooperation framework for climate change’(Chapter 6), and SWOT analysis to develop ‘Korea’s global technology cooperation strategy for climate change and provision of Korea’s policy tasks for technology cooperation’ (Chapter 7).

        • 연구개발투자의 경제적 효과 평가 및 예측모형 개발

          이우성(Woosung Lee),이재억,황석원,이정동,황원식,양희원,홍찬영,정성문,김보현,이슬기 과학기술정책연구원 2012 정책연구 Vol.- No.-

          This study is significant in that it not only established the framework for analyzing the short-to-medium term and long-term economic effects of government’s R&D investment using macroeconometric models, but also allowed for short-term forecasting of the effects of R&D investment for the purpose of forward-looking information. The macroeconomic equilibrium model focused on forecasting which provides for the 2013 outlook for R&D investment and analyzed the short-to-medium term macroeconomic effects of the government’s science and technology policy and its effects on R&D investment by industry. The CGE model was designed and analyzed in a way that allows for long-term simulation of the effects that the government’s science and technology policy on the macroeconomy. This study sought to utilize the strengths of macroeconometric models and CGE models in order to validate various implications and effect evaluation of Korea’s science and technology policy. This study is differentiated against other studies and is meaningful given that the macroeconometric model reflects the strengths of a number of macroeconomic models representing Korea as much as possible while incorporating existing theoretical and empirical discussions on R&D investment, which has played a pivotal role in Korea’s transition into a knowledge=based economy. Furthermore, it made significant contributions to expanding the model into R&D investment by industry so that effects of R&D investment on specific industries could be analyzed. The CGE model, based on the studies on characteristics of recent R&D investment functions, is an advanced model in terms of estimation of knowledge-based production functions and computable general equilibrium models. This model sought to minimize the error of overestimation observed in prior studies by adding investment related to R&D stock, intangible asset in social accounting matrices. The suggested model is valuable as it established the data framework that reflects R&D as a new capital account, and is a new and specialized CGE model for R&D that addressed weaknesses identified in existing CGE models for R&D. Furthermore, this model improved its reliability based on actual micro data, and production functions are estimated by directly using business-level micro data in order to overcome the limitations of existing parameters. The model has significance since it fully reflected characteristics of macroeconomic effects of R&D investment unlike existing macroeconometric models and CGE models, but still has limitations in that it did not model science and technology policy tools such as the Technological Innovation Incentive Scheme. Moreover, studies on science and technology innovation has to address the need to understand the effects of the government policy from the perspective of innovation systems. While previous studies conducted empirical analysis of innovation systems focusing on the effects that the level of competition in the market, the flexibility of the labor market, and the efficiency of the financial market have on innovation and R&D investment, such analysis could not be integrated into the macroeconometric model. The model has another limitation of not considering negative macroeconomic effects of R&D investment such as redundancy effects. To reflect redundancy effects, a model will have to be constructed at a more micro level.

        • G20 정상회의와 과학기술혁신 아젠다 연구

          이우성(Woosung Lee),최윤정,정하민,고상원,최동학,정도채,박순호 과학기술정책연구원 2016 정책자료 Vol.- No.-

          The world today is facing much more difficult and complex challenges than the world once had in the 20th century. Of course traditional challenges such as economic growth and security still prove to be important; however, recently, challenges such as climate change and public health have emerged and are affecting the world altogether. As such, the international community has begun shifting its focus from traditional means and tactics to responding these emerging questions and challenges. And in the center stage of such shift is the discussion on how to understand and fully utilize science, technology and innovation (STI) to derive strategies and solutions for many of these questions. It is also within this context in which the role of the G20 is increasingly being highlighted as a key international body to discuss critical agendas regarding the STI field. The G20, although having been established mainly for the purpose of responding to global economic crises and facilitating cooperation on global economic growth, has recently joined the international movement on discussing the role of STI in not only fostering economic growth but also doing so by dealing with both the societal and environmental aspects. The purpose of this research, therefore, is to examine how the STI agenda has entered into the G20 discussion especially under the Chinese leadership in 2016 when the G20 took another major step in expanding its focus to specific aspects and areas related to STI. At the 2016 Hangzhou Summit, under the Chinese G20 presidency, the G20 together endorsed major documents outlining G20"s future steps towards expanding its efforts in the field of STI. From the beginning of its presidency in early 2016, China proposed the establishment of three Task Forces (TF"s) on three major fields related to STI: Innovation, New Industrial Revolution and the Digital Economy. Each of these TF"s, composed of public officers and experts from each G20 country discussed and negotiated the scope of which G20 would act upon goals related to expanding STI among the G20 countries. As a result of the meetings, email correspondence and negotiations each TF produced the "Innovation Action Plan," "New Industrial Revolution Action Plan" and the "G20 Digital Economy Development and Cooperation Initiative" respectively, delineating the role and objective of the G20 in each area. In addition to the endorsement of these documents at the Hangzhou Summit, China also proposed the "G20 Blueprint on Innovative Growth", highlighting the importance of the development of national and international strategies on implementing these action plans while also focusing on structural reform among the G20 countries. It is increasingly becoming clear that STI is a field that is capable of providing innovative solutions for both traditional and unconventional challenges that the world faces today. Especially given the newly proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations, the discussion on the role of STI in achieving the SDGs is a field of great importance. As such, in the G20 context, it is evermore critical for the Republic of Korea (South Korea) to fully participate in and contribute to the ongoing discussions on STI. It is opportune for South Korea, which has already proved itself as one of the fastest growing and leading STI-capable countries, to once again reestablish its place on the international stage. Not only so, South Korea is not immune to challenges such as climate change, green growth strategies and slowing economic growth. It is under such circumstances that South Korea must not only cope with, but also lead the future discussions on STI in the G20 context.

        • KCI등재
        • 유럽 주요국 기업집단의 소유지배구조

          이우성(Woosung, Lee),이병기(Byoungki, Lee) 한국경제연구원 2014 한국경제연구원 연구보고서 Vol.14 No.01

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          1. 연구목적과 분석틀 본 연구는 유럽 선진국 6개 국가(프랑스, 독일, 이탈리아, 스웨덴, 벨기에, 네덜란드)에 대해서 해당 국가 대기업집단의 소유지배구조 논문들에 대한 문헌연구를 통하여 해당 국가들의 소유지배구조에 대한 현황을 분석하고 특별히 2000년대 이후의 글로벌 금융시장 개방화로 초래된 유럽의 기업소유지배구조의 변화가 어떠한 방향으로 진행되었는지에 대하여 평가하는 것을 주목적으로 하였다. 2장에서는 기업집단의 소유지배구조에 대한 기존의 연구들의 이론적 배경에 대해서 정리하고 이에 따른 연구분석틀을 정립하며 3장에서는 이러한 비교분석틀에 기반하여 6개 국가들의 현황과 요인을 분석하고 4장에서 한국에의 시사점을 정리한다. 유럽 선진국가들의 기업지배구조의 변화와 현황을 비교분석하기 위해서 1) 해당 국가의 기업지배구조 형성의 역사적 배경과 소유구조의 중요한 제도적 배경에 대해서 살펴본다. 각 국가별로 은행과 투자기업, 이중의결권의 형성, 정치적 배경, 기업집단의 성장 등 매우 상이한 역사적, 제도적 배경의 차이가 국가별 기업 소유지배구조 형성의 근간을 이루기 때문에 이에 대해서 간략하게 고찰하도록 한다. 2) 최근의 해당 국가의 법제도적 기반에 대해서 살펴본다. 기업지배구조 원칙의 변화나 피라미드 출자구조 및 상호출자구조에 대한 법적인 규제 현황에 대해서 살펴봄으로써 현재의 법적 제도의 규제환경, 주로 출자구조와 기업지배구조 원칙에 있어서 어떠한 형태를 가지고 있는지를 살펴본다. 3) 해당 국가의 기업소유지배구조의 변화와 동인, 최근 현황에 대해서 살펴봄으로써 최근의 해당 국가의 기업 소유지배구조로의 변화상이 어떠하며 역사적인 변화 과정이나 이러한 변화를 주도한 동인들이 무엇인지에 대해서 살펴봄으로써 해당 국가의 기업 소유지배구조 변화와 현황, 동인에 대한 개괄적인 현황을 파악한다. 4) 기업집단 사례에서는 피라미드 출자구조나 상호출자구조, 순환출자 구조 등을 형성하고 있는 각 국가의 기업집단 사례들에 대해서 정리한다. 5) 이러한 분석들을 바탕으로 해당 국가의 기업 소유지배구조의 특징과 변화현황에 대해서 간략히 평가하고 이를 통한 한국에의 시사점을 간략히 도출한다. 이러한 변화들을 살펴보기 위해서 유럽 국가들 가운데 지배적인 영향력을 가지고 있는 독일, 프랑스, 이탈리아를 분석하고 개방형 소국으로서의 특성을 가지고 있는 벨기에, 네덜란드, 스웨덴의 3개 국가를 더불어 분석함으로써 대형 국가와 개방형 소국가들의 기업지배구조 현황과 변화를 동시에 비교분석하도록 하였다. 2. 주요 분석결과 유럽 주요 선진국가들의 기업 소유지배구조의 변화와 현황, 제도적 배경에 대한 비교분석을 통해서 도출되는 Stylized Facts는 크게 네 가지 영역으로 정리할 수 있다. 1) 각 국가별로 전개된 기업소유구조와 지배구조 원칙의 변화의 동인을 비교분석함으로써 도출되는 변화동인과 제도적 배경이 주는 시사점, 2) 피라미드 출자구조 및 상호출자 구조에 대한 법적 규제에 대한 고찰이 주는 시사점, 3) 2000년대 이후의 글로벌 금융시장의 개방화 확대가 유럽의 전통적인 기업 소유지배구조의 변화에 미친 영향들에 대한 분석을 통해 도출되는 시사점, 4) 마지막으로 유럽의 기업집단들이 가지는 피라미드 출자구조와 상호출자, 순환출자 구조의 사례들을 통해서 도출되는 시사점이다. Stylized Facts 1. 자국 기업집단의 지배권 안정을 위한 방어적 제도 발전 유럽 선진국가들의 기업 소유지배구조 변화의 핵심적인 공통요인으로는 국가마다 정도의 차이가 있으나 외국인에 의한 인수합병의 위협에 따른 지배권의 안정을 도모하였다는 점이다. 국가마다 요인과 제도는 상이하였지만 주요 유럽 국가들에 있어서 기업집단 혹은 내부 대주주의 지배권을 공고히 하는 방향으로 유럽 선진국가들의 기업 소유지배구조가 발전되어 왔다는 점이다. 이는 외국인에 의한 인수합병의 위협에 직면하면서 자국의 산업기업을 보호하기 위해서 독일은 은행과의 상호출자관계와 피라미드 출자관계를 통해서, 프랑스는 피라미드 출자관계와 이중의결권 제도, 가족자본의 확대를 통해서, 스웨덴은 다중의결권과 피라미드 출자구조를 통해서 벨기에는 금융투자기업의 금융지주회사 체계를 통해서, 네덜란드는 무의결권주certificates와 경영권 방어수단의 발전을 통해서 자국의 기업보호를 위한 경영권 안정이 모든 국가들의 중요한 특징이라고 할 수 있다. 즉 형태는 기업집단(금융기업에 의하거나 은행에 의하거나, 산업기업에 의하거나 형태는 다양하지만)의 피라미드 출자구조, 상호출자 구조를 가지거나 다중의결권의 의결권 보호제도를 갖거나 경영권 방어수단을 통해서 자국 기업을 보호하는 형태는 다르나 자국의 산업기업을 보호하기 위한 체계들을 발전시켜 Main purpose of this study was to analyze status of corresponded countries' Governance and Ownership Structure through literature review for papers on the Governance and Ownership Structure of the six European developed countries (France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands) on corresponded countries' conglomerate group and evaluate changes of Europe's Corporate Governance and Ownership Structure with respect to the orientation of progression, especially as a result of the global financial market liberalization since 2000s. In order to compare and analyze the change and status of corporate governance structure in Europe's developed countries 1) look about the historical background the formation of the country's corporate governance structure of the institutional background which is important for ownership structure. 2) Look about the formation for the current regulatory environment of the legal system, mainly the principles of shareholding structure and the corporate governance structure principles as examining the legal regulatory information on changes in the corporate governance structure principles and the pyramid investment structure and a cross-shareholding structure. 3) Look about the recent changes in the country's corporate governance and ownership structure and historical changes in the process or what were the agents led these changes. 4) Gather up the case of the business group in each country forming a pyramid investment structure, a cross-shareholding structure or a circulating investment structure, etc. 5) Based on these analysis, evaluate the country's characteristics and the status of change of the corporate governance and ownership structure briefly and with this evaluation, derive the implications for South Korea briefly. In order to look about those changes, among the European countries Germany, France and Italy were analyzed who got a dominant influence and by analyzing the three countries Belgium, Netherlands and Sweden were analyzed as an open and small countries, the status and changes for the corporate governance structure of the large countries and the open and small countries were compared to and were analyzed the same time. Stylized Facts derived through a comparative analysis for the changes, status and institutional background of corporate governance and ownership structure of the major developed countries in Europe are as follows. Stylized Facts 1. The development of defensive systems for a control stability of the country business groups, Stylized Facts 2. No ownership restrictions related to holding company and pyramid investment, Stylized Facts 3. No ownership restrictions for general cross-shareholding, Stylized Facts 4. Since the late 1990s, the principles for the corporate governance structure and the strengthening of shareholder rights, Stylized Facts 5. Recent ownership decentralization of the new company and the weakening of the business group links, Stylized Facts 6. The continuation of the traditional business groups, Stylized Facts 7. the diversity of pyramid investment structure and cross-shareholding structure of business groups, etc. These traditional governance and ownership system of a business group does not appear to be significant changes in spite of the liberalization of the global financial markets and the consequent pressure of shares expansion of the the international institutional investors. Due to some of the newly listed companies and IPO of multinational corporations, ownership was decentralized in the European stock markets and the companies of high foreign ownership emerged, but traditionally, business groups that make up the European economy does not appear to be affected by existing pyramid investment schemes and the stable governance and ownership structure through a multi-voting system. Because all countries had the reigns of the country's major Business groups stable and did not allow mergers and acquisitions by foreign and industry r

        • 우리나라의 과학기술 ODA, 적정기술협력 사례와 기독교적 시사점

          이우성(Woosung Lee),김보현(Bohyun Kim),이슬기(Seulgi Lee) 한국기독교경제학회 2015 OIKONOMOS Vol.2 No.1

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          개발도상국가에 대한 선진국들의 원조사업(ODA, Official Development Aid)에 한국은 2009년부터 OECD DAC (Development Aid Committee)에 가입함으로써 본격적으로 참여하게 되었다. 선진국들과 우리나라의 원조사업에 있어서 과학기술의 역할은 상대적으로 미미하였는데 이는 개발원조가 주로 보건의료나 교육, 긴급구호와 같은 개발도상국가들의 당장의 필요에 대해서 집중하면서 중장기적으로 국가가 발전하기 위한 지식을 축적하는 과학기술에 대해서 상대적으 로 그 관심이 덜하였기 때문이다. 더불어 과학기술자들의 관심이 첨단기술의 개발과 산업발전에 집중되어 있었기 때문에 상대적으로 과학기술력이 취약한 개발도상국가를 돕는 것에 높은 관심을 보이지 않았기 때문이기도 하다. 본 연구에서는 과학기술이 어떻게 개도국의 경제발전과 개발협력 ODA 사업에 기여할 수 있는지에 대해서 질문 우리나라의 과학기술 ODA 사업들에 대해서 정리하고 정부의 공식적인 ODA 사업 뿐만 아니라 대학이나 민간연구소, NGO들의 민간에서의 자발적인 활동으로서 적정기술사업들이 어떻게 우리나라에서 진행되어 왔는지를 살펴본다. 마지막으로 이러한 과학기술 ODA 사업과 민간의 적정기술 활동에 현재 많은 기독교인들이 참여하고 있는데 기독교인으로서 개발도상국가들에 대한 원조활동들이 어떠한 관 점으로 진행되어야 하는지에 대해서 시사점들을 도출해 본다. In the efforts of advanced countries along with Korea to support developing countries, the role of science technologies were relatively limited as most of the development aids were focused on the immediate needs of developing countries such as healthcare and medicine, education or emergency relief while giving less attention to science and technology, the basis to accumulate knowledge required for mid-to long-term development of the countries. Also as scientists were not so eager to provide support for developing countries with weak scientific and technological competence as they were occupied with development of state-of-the-art technologies. In the study, questions were raised on how science and technology can contribute to economic development of developing countries and ODA programs for development cooperation and at the same time, it outlined science and technology ODA of Korea to see how appropriate technology initiatives have been implemented with voluntary participation of universities, private research institutes and NGOs along with official government ODA programs. Lastly, it drew implications to see how the perspectives of Christian can be incorporated in the aid activities as many Christians participate in science and technology ODA programs and appropriate technology programs.

        • KCI등재

          북한 기상기술력 평가와 남북한 기상협력의 효과에 관한 연구

          이우성(Lee, Woosung),류민우(Ryu, Min-woo) 북한대학원대학교 2009 현대북한연구 Vol.12 No.3

          The Korean Peninsula is indicated that frequency of climate change and natural disaster has been increased by earthshock affected by global warming. In this circumstance, getting correct and prompt weather information about the most adjacent areas, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, can be an extremely substantial policy goal to be minimized future climate change and natural disaster regarding meteorology. In addition, this kind of South and North weather cooperation can be a representative field that brings about prevention against weather disaster, reduction for the scale of damages and agriculture by further using a meteorological data. In this research, we evaluate North Korean meteorological technical skills concerning natural disaster and try to find out what degree of upgrading its technology. Internal specialists on the weather are made to measure the level of meteorological technology in D. P. R. K and when cooperating in South and North meterological sectors throughout the mid-to long-term road map for South and North meterological cooperation, we sought about the rate of North Korean meteorological technical skills. To figure out the North Korean weather technology’s standard, we give earlier studies and papers from a unique meteorological journals in D. P. R. K to specialists for appreciating North skills. The results of expert survey questionnaires dealing with weight on every component in the meteorological technology for natural disaster showed that a section for forecast is 46.2% highly ranked, observation is 37.5% and applied meteorology is 15.2%. The North Korean weather technology’s level is estimated 39~41% of South Korean standard. Especially it is largely behind in a local automatic weather system and setting entire networks and systems such as weather equipments, infrastructures. Lastly, if weather cooperation vitalizes in The Korean Peninsula and both share information and appliance about meteorology, there will be 36~39% at the rate of North Korean meteorological technical skills in short term (within 3 years) and 49~51% at the rate of North Korean meteorological technical skills in the mid-to long-term (over 3 years). In especial, meteorological technology for observation parts and short term weather forecast will be improved. This study is significant to initially evaluate systematically and quantitatively North Korea weather technology, while is limited by depending on estimates from weather specialist in the poor situation to get objective indexes from D. P. R. K.

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