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본 연구는 사면회의에서 진행자가 미치는 영향이 매우 중요하다는 인식에서 시작하였으며, 향후 진행자 교육방법과 진행과정의 개선을 제시하고자 하였다. 연구대상 지역인 인도네시아 메라피 화산은 세계에서 가장 활동적인 화산 중 하나로서 정상 분출구에서 종종 화산 쇄석암이 분출되며, 양질의 모래로서 평가 받아 건축자재로 활용되고 있다. 따라서 모래 채취사업이 급속도로 확산되었으며 지역에 경제적 이득을 제공한다. 그러나 한편으로 경제적 수익과 지역의 이해관계가 복잡하게 연루된 탓으로 채취 작업 활동에 대한 적절한 통제가 어려운 형편이다. 과도한 채취 작업으로 인하여 사방댐과 하천 기반시설들이 파괴됨으로서 자연재해가 일어날 경우 막대한 인명과 재산피해가 발생한다. 이 문제를 해결하기 위해 가능한 비구조적인 방재수단을 정착시키고, 또한 모래 채취관리 능력을 향상시키기 위한 방안으로 협동적인 역할이 필수적이고, 사면회의는 적용될 수 있는 대안이라고 할 수 있으며 워크숍에 유능한 회의진행자가 반드시 필요하다. 사례 연구에서는 7명의 사면회의 진행자를 선발하여 교육 후 3개 시범마을에서 사면회의를 실시한 뒤 그 결과를 분석하였다. 결론적으로 효과적인 방재 활동수단의 하나로서 지역주민들의 협력적인 팀워크와 통제를 적절하게 이끌어 내는 것이 중요하다고 할 수 있다. Mt. Merapi of Indonesia is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Lava dome collapse has often generated pyroclastic flows. A huge mount of pyroclastic material has sand of good quality and is popular as construction material. The sand mining has extended rapidly and become an important income source of rural areas. However, the sand mining activity is uncontrollable so far because of social problems such as complex right and interest. Improper sand mining causes serious damage to sabo facilities and the other river infrastructures. In order to cope with this problem, sand mining management system, which can be a part of non-structural disaster control measure, should be established as soon as possible. In order to improve the capacity for sand mining management at the local community level, collaborative action is necessary. The Yonmenkaigi system is one alternative that may be utilized. The Yomenkaigi System Method workshop needs facilitators to lead the process of workshop. Seven facilitator candidates had been selected to participate in the training program. After training, the Yonmenkaigi workshop conducted in three villages. The evaluation of facilitators were relatively affirmative effect to the participants, but facilitators need to lead control and collaborative team-work with participants.
- This paper illustrates the practical design procedure on a position control of an electrical fin actuator for the guided missile using Time Delay Control(TDC) and Enhanced Time Delay Observer(ETDO). Since TDC is robust to the model uncertainties such as the parameter variation and the external disturbance, it has been frequently used in nonlinear control systems. For a position control of an electrical fin actuator in the missile system, TDC requires the velocity sensor as well as the position sensor. To resolve the problems of the cost, the space and the malfunction due to the velocity sensor, ETDO is used as the velocity observer. ETDO is enhanced version of TDO that has the problems of the reconstruction errors and the restriction on selecting its gains. To maximize the control performance, the parameters of ETDO are optimized by using the genetic algorithm. The effectiveness of this approach is proved through a series of simulation studies and experiments, and the designed controller is compared with the typical TDC and TDC using the reduced oder observer.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of metabolizable energy and protein diets on growth performances, body composition and gross income of broiler chicks. The results obtained were as follows ; 1. Metabolizable energy level of diet was significantly influenced on body weight and feed efficiency. As the Metabolizable energy level of diet decreased the body weight and feed efficiency decreased proportionately. 2. Male chicks have a higher progressing tendency on body weight and feed efficiency than female chicks. Also, the body weight and feed efficiency were greatly influenced especially by the nutrient level of starter diet. (0-3 weeks) 3. When chicks were fed diet containing high energy value the body fat and abdominal fat pad size of chicks increased. 4. The highest. gross income was marked in the metabolizable energy 3200㎉ treatment of male chicks and in the 3000 ㎉ treatment of female chicks, but the high energy level of diet was not always greater in gross income than low energy level of diet.
本稿主要考察了施行於唐代藩鎭的?召之標准 對象,?以資格規定爲中心考察了中央對其過程的幹預. 一般認爲,隋唐時代由於科學制度的存在,?召制度得以廢除,但是唐高宗鹹亨3年下達的限制?召對象的?書,顯示?召在唐初已經廣泛施行. 隨著藩鎭的出現,唐代的?召成爲選拔幕職官的普遍方式,較前更加有序 更加巧妙. 藩?的?召最終都要通過牒這一文書形式,而牒的書寫形式爲四六體,與告身制詞或勅文相同. ?召主要走藩鎭招聘奏請中央的程序,?先聘後奏. ?召的過程依然留有傳統的因素,拒絶?召或選擇?召對象都比較自由,而且若?主與被?召者之間不能維持禮儀關系時,選擇分道揚?亦非難事. 唐代?召的依據,一方面是被?召者的個人能力與社會聲望 ?一方面是節度使的親緣關系 利害關系 血緣關系等. ?召時考慮的是,被?召者的文章 文化修養 具體行政能力 家族背景 個人名望. 而?主與被?召者的親緣關系主要是由雙方家族 個人之間,以及血緣關系與政治經濟利害關系來決定的. 多方面的因素決定?召雙方的關系是多姿多彩的. 本來,?召的對象主要是現職官員 前資官等具有科學背景的人群. 然而,隨著時間的推移,在被?召者中地方社會富戶 豪右等雖然沒有科學背景但是經濟實力雄厚的人員愈來愈多. 因爲一方面節度使企圖利用對方在地方社會的影響力來鞏固藩鎭統治,?一方面地方勢力則企圖通過與藩鎭的勾結來求避差役或壟斷地方社會的利益,從而導致了雙方和諧的利害關系. 當然,中央對?召過程的幹預從未間斷過. 一開始,唐代的?召就成爲選拔使職或設執行軍府所需要的屬僚的手段. 高宗鹹亨3年下達的限制?召對象的?書,在設置藩鎭以後成了?召的前例. 而藩鎭設置之後的貞元2年,德宗下勅進一步明確了?召對象,幹預了施行於藩鎭的?召過程. 德宗時期頒布的資格規定將被?召者的資格限定爲具有科學出身的6品以下官僚(兩省供奉官 現職郞官以及禦史除外). 此一規定與唐朝的藩鎭政策有?大的關系. 正是制定過貞元2年資格規定的德宗於貞元四年進行了冬薦制的改革. 至貞元9年,冬薦的對象已擴充至幕職官. 這意味著給幕職官打通了?身爲官僚的通道,此後王朝官僚的人事規定同樣適用於幕職官,從而出現幕職官的官僚化現象. 自此,王朝的官僚和幕職官的關系變得密切,甚至出現了中央直接任命幕職官的事例. 這些措施反映了中央的藩鎭政策,?中央通過對?召的幹預,將幕職官官僚化,從而加强了其對藩鎭的影響力. 正因爲如此,幕職官的資格才與官僚相同.
1. The first aim of this theme is to research on the intrinsic nature of English Metaphysical Poetry(which has an important effect upon modern poetry)by analyzing the imaginary worlds to which Donne gave full play on the basis of his metaphysical revolutionary conceit. 2. The second is to trace historical background of the Metaphysical Poetry, and to seek after two great trends of a time-honoured tradition of the metaphysical conceit by which Donne was greatly affected. 3. The third is to ruminate on the spirit of Renaissance fostering ways & means of utilizing academic research and scientism, and cultivating a fertile imagination and originalility building up of character which enables us to respect individuality, to enlighten ourselves, and to promote the utilization of the wide knowledge of astronomy and natural law as well as to deepen classics. 4. Donne made effective use of his inner-experiences which he gained in his married life(because the couple had a life of ideal happiness) and kept the anniversary of his happy marriage. 5. “The perfect, mutual love” in Air & Angels idealized in Anne More, the wife of Donne, is now systematized in his thought. 6. Donne unified the view of woman (womanly beauty) with that of religion. He shows that the metaphysical structure of modern romance united by reason and nature, promoted the unreligious imagery to the religious passion 7. Donne made a very wide application of the inner-metaphor of Aristotelian circumferenece and the conception of the traditional “microcosm”, and performed a metaphorical function. 8. Donne related himself to Ged and won the prize of that Death's Duel between-Death-in-life and Life-in-death which is the pain and joy of the creature in us striving after God. 9. The conflicts btween old and new ideas, body and soul, individual faith and general disilusionment, were as characteristic of the age of Donne as of ours. 10. We have many sympathies in common with the change of the situations with which Donne was confronted. The influence of Donne upon the literature of posterity was very great, wide and deep.
This study proposes to venture into the common elements and differences in both W.B. Yeats's and Derek Walcott's poems. It has been said that the young Walcott was sympathetic to the Irish writers, such as Synge, Pearce, Yeats, and Joyce, because he intended to make himself master of the themes and rhythms of the exile or castaway that the Irish writers echoed in their works. Of the Irish writers, Yeats was especially a poet who a little more previously wrote of the same issue as the young Walcott tried to and the young poet's attention was deeply caught in the Yeatean poetics, more specifically, in the Yeatean mask which echoes a solitary self as an artist. Walcott's Crusoe as a poetic self echoes the Yeatean mask. More specifically, it is a parallel for a poet with his daily ritual of the poet creating a new poem in the desperately isolated island. It is believed to be created by Walcott's comparing himself and his own country to Yeats and Ireland in terms of an exile, a castaway or a lost self, which reflects a solitary and artistic figure in his poems, such as in “Crusoe's Island” and “As John To Patmos”. Despite this fact, Walcott is also a poet who has built up the self-figure on a different base from Yeats's heroic or aristocratic self. His poems are based on the Caribbean multi-racial background characteristic of slavery, poverty, lost hope, and lost identity that have resulted from the colonial policy of the British government that stepped into the Spanish and the French shoes. His Caribbean figure is a poverty-stricken, obedient, but patient, willful castaway, with his thick lips tightly closed. Although Walcott is a poet who has developed his own poetic self on the Yeatean base, which resulted in his fruitful poems, it is believed that he made greater efforts to weave the Caribbean spirit into poems than others. Then, the Caribbean tropical landscapes, such as sea, wood, and sun, etc. are a poetic space which sublimated his themes into the Caribbean soul.