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A Study of China’s Geopolitical Imagination and Defense StrategyDuring the Transition of East Asia in the 19th Century:Focusing on Idea of Li Hong zhangSeunghoan Lee & Cai Jie Abstract: This study aims to examine the geopolitical imagination of Li Hong zhang, who exerted a great influence on the defense strategy of the Qing Dynasty in the 19th century, and the changes in defense strategies accordingly. In particular, it examined the changes in the defense strategy of the Qing Dynasty at that time, centering on the traditional sphere of influence. Based on the historical approach, the literature written by Li containing his views is set as the main analysis target. The geopolitical imagination created by Li in the 19th century was constantly transformed from the unprecedented situation trying to overcome the gap of trying to solve the crisis of the geopolitical safety net facing the time while maintaining the principle of maintaining the traditional system. The work of tracking the transformation of geopolitical imagination and the relationship with the Korean Peninsula will have important implications in the future. Key Words: The Qing Dynasty, Li Hong zhang, Threat Perception, Geopolitical Imagination, Defense Strategies 19세기 동아시아 전환기 중국의 지정학적 상상력과 국방전략에 대한 고찰:이홍장(李鴻章)의 구상을 중심으로이 승 환**ㆍ채 첩*** 연구 목적: 본 연구는 19세기 중국의 국방전략에 강한 영향력을 행사한 이홍장의 지정학적 상상력과 그에 따른 국방전략의 변천을 살펴보고자 하는 것이다. 연구 방법: 역사적 접근방법을 기초로 이홍장이 자신의 견해를 담아 작성한 문헌들을 주요 분석 대상으로 설정한다. 연구 내용: 이홍장의 지정학적 상상력과 19세기 중국의 국방전략 변천과의 연계성 특히, 전통적 세력권인 한반도를 중심으로 당시 중국의 국방전략은 어떠한 변천을 보였는지 고찰하였다. 결론 및 제언: 19세기 이홍장이 만들어 간 지정학적 상상력은 서세동점이라는 미증유의 구조 속에서 전통적인 세력권에 대한 타국의 침투에서 비롯된 위협인식을 바탕으로, 전통적 체제의 명분론적 원칙을 유지한 채 당시 직면하고 있는 지정학적 위기를 해결해 보려는 괴리를 극복하려 하며 끊임없이 변모했으며, 당시 중국의 국방전략 변천의 동력으로 작용했다. 이러한 지정학적 상상력은 과연 20세기, 21세기에는 어떠한 모습으로 변화해왔으며 한반도라는 공간에 대해 어떠한 역할을 부여하려 했는지 추적해보는 작업은 향후 중요한 의미를 가질 것이다. 핵심어: 청국, 이홍장, 위협인식, 지정학적 상상력, 국방전략 □ 접수일: 2022년 7월 31일, 수정일: 2022년 8월 12일, 게재확정일: 2022년 8월 20일* 본 논문은 이승환의 석사학위논문의 2장 일부와 3장을 수정・보완한 것임. ** 주저자, 고려대학교 중일어문학과 박사과정, 고려대학교 4단계 BK21 중일교육연구단 참여대학원생(First Author, Doctoral Course, Korea Univ., Email: email@example.com)*** 공동저자, 고려대학교 중일어문학과 박사수료, 고려대학교 4단계 BK21 중일교육연구단 참여대학원생(Co-author, Completion of Doctoral Course, Korea Univ., Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Study design: Retrospective study. Objectives: The goal of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) in patients with Cushing syndrome. Summary of Literature review: In most reports, vertebral fractures in Cushing syndrome have been found to be related to osteoporosis. However, few studies have analyzed the clinical risk factors for OVFs. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with Cushing syndrome who visited the orthopaedic department complaining of back pain were included in this study. Standing lateral X-rays were performed to evaluate the presence of vertebral fractures, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured. Results: Of the 32 patients with Cushing syndrome with back pain, 8 (25%) were diagnosed with OVFs using morphometric criteria. The average weight and body mass index of the vertebral fracture group (VF group) were significantly higher than the values observed in the non-vertebral fracture group (non-VF group) (p=0.004, p=0.018). Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the VF group (p=0.006). A risk factor for OVFs in Cushing syndrome was osteoporosis (odds ratio=18.56, 95% confidence interval=1.72-200.21, p=0.016) regardless of gender, obesity, menopause, or urine free cortisol levels. Conclusions: OVFs in Cushing syndrome have been associated with overweight, and overweight is an indicator of compliance in the treatment of Cushing syndrome. Therefore, weight reduction and the prevention of osteoporosis should be emphasized in patients with Cushing syndrome to prevent OVFs. 쿠싱 증후군에서 골다공증성 척추 골절의 위험 인자이승환 • 박병문 • 송경섭 • 이수건 • 윤상필 • 이재철 • 이범석 • 양봉석광명성애병원 정형외과연구 계획: 후향적 연구목적: 쿠싱 증후군에서 증상이 있는 골다공증성 척추 골절의 유병률을 조사하고, 골다공증성 척추 골절의 위험 인자를 분석하였다. 선행문헌의 요약: 쿠싱 증후군에서 척추 골절은 대부분은 골다공증과 연관이 있었다. 그러나 척추 골절의 다른 위험 인자에 대해 분석한 연구는 거의 없었다. 대상 및 방법: 요통으로 정형외과 외래에 내원한 32명의 쿠싱 증후군 환자를 대상으로 하였다. 흉요추부 기립위 측면 방사선을 촬영하여 척추 골절을 진단하였고, 척추와 대퇴 경부의 골밀도를 측정하였다. 척추 골절 그룹과 비골절 그룹의 통계학적 차이를 paired t-test를 이용해 비교하였고, 위험인자 분석을 위해 로지스틱 회귀 분석을 사용하였다. 결과: 전체 32명의 환자중 8명(25%)의 환자에서 골다공증성 척추 골절이 확인되었다. 척추 골절군의 평균 체중과 체질량 지수가 비골절군에 비해 유의하게 높았으며(p=0.004, p=0.018), 척추 골절군의 요추부 골밀도가 비골절군에 비해 유의하게 낮았다(p=0.006). 골다공증성 척추 골절의 위험 인자는 골다공증으로 나타났다(odds ratio 18.56, 95%CI 1.72-200.21, p=0.016). 결론: 쿠싱 증후군 환자에서 척추 골절의 발생은 과체중과 관련이 있으며, 과체중은 평소 쿠싱 증후군의 부적절한 치료로 인한 상태를 반영하는 지표라고할수 있다. 그러므로, 적절한 내분비적 치료를 통계 적정 체질량을 유지하고, 골다공증의 약물 치료를 병행하는 것이 쿠싱 증후군의 척추 골절 예방에 중요하다고 하겠다. 색인 단어: 쿠싱 증후군, 척추 골절, 골다공증약칭 제목: 쿠싱 증후군과 척추 골절
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Objective: The recent nonlinear analyses of electroencephalogram (EEG) data have shown that the correlation dimension (D2) reflects the degree of integration of information processing in the brain. There is now considerable evidence that auditory hallucination (AH) reflects dysfunctional gamma and beta frequency oscillations. Gamma oscillations are thought to reflect internally driven representations of objects, and the occurrence of ubsequent beta oscillations can reflect the modification of the neuronal circuitry used to encode the sensory perception. The purpose of this study was to test whether AH in schizophrenia patients is reflected in abnormalities in D2 in their EEG, especially in the gamma and beta frequency bands. Methods: Twenty-five schizophrenia patients with a history of treatment-refractory AH over at least the past 2 years, and 23 schizophrenia patients with no AH (N-AH) within the past 2 years were recruited for the study. Artifact-free 30-s EEG epochs during rest were examined for D2. ResultsᄏThe AH patients showed significantly increased gamma frequency 2 in Fp2 and decreased beta frequency D2 in the P3 region compared with the N-AH patients. These results imply that gamma frequency D2 in the right prefrontal cortex is more chaotic and that beta frequency D2 in the left parietal cortex is more coherent (less chaotic) in AH patients than in N-AH patients. Conclusion: Our study supports the previous evidence indicating that gamma nd beta oscillations are pivotal to AH, and also shows the distinctive imensional complexity between the right prefrontal and left parietal cortexes as the underlying biological correlates of AH in schizophrenia patients.
Ruptured vertebral artery- dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) must be treated as early as possible due to frequent rebleeding in the early stage. We have reported herein two patients with VADAs who were treated using internal trapping using detachable coils. Both patients were young females in their 40’s. They had been admitted to the emergency clinic due to severe headaches and mental deterioration. Brain computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhages in the posterior fossa, and transfemoral catheter cerebral angiography revealed dissecting aneurysms at the dominant vertebral arteries. Under general anesthesia, embolization of the parent artery, including the aneurysmal portion, using Guglielmi detachable coils was performed without any procedural complications. Before the induction of general anesthesia, a balloon test occlusion was done on both patients. Both patients improved well after surgery. One patient underwent cerebral angiography at six months after surgery and showed no recurrence of the aneurysm or recanalization of the parent artery. Both patients were free of neurologic findings on follow-up at the 6- and 12- month. Based on these results, patients with ruptured VADAs, located in the dominant vertebral arteries, may be successfully treated with urgent internal trapping using an endovascular technique in selected cases.
Alkaline-peroxide (AP) 처리, 탈리그닌 처리 및 알칼리처리 후 습식 디스크밀 및 고압호모지나이저 처리를 통해 화학조성비가 서로 다른 CNF를 제조하였다. 화학 조성비가 서로 다른 CNF 수현탁액을 원심분리하여 농도를 3.5wt로 조절하였으며, ø0.3 mm 내경의 니들이 장착된 주사기로 10 ml/min속도 tert-butyl alcohol에 습식 방사한 후 acetone으로 용매치환하였으며, 기건건조하여 습식 방사섬유를 제조하였다. 화학조성비가 습식방사섬유의 형태학적 특성, 인장특성, 섬유배향성에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. ** 본 연구는 국립산림과학원 ‘일반연구사업(FP0400-2016-01)’의 지원에 의하여 이루어진 것임.
Introduction Spontaneous recovery rate of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is up to 38-65%, including partial response.1,2,3) Systemic steroid therapy and peripheral vasodilator might be helpful to recover the hearing.3) How steroids affect the inner ear still remains unclear. Steroids may increase labyrinthine circulation or influence the cochlear fluid homeostasis, possibly by attenuating an inflammatory progress.4,5) Most recovery occurs within 2 weeks after onset, so early treatment is important for prognosis.2)Animal studies demonstrate that the intratympanic route of administration results in significantly higher inner ear levels of steroids as compared with systemic administration.6,7) Intratympanic dexamethasone (ITD) offers the potential for directed delivery of high concentrations of therapeutic agents to the inner ear while avoiding systemic side effects of steroids. So recently, intratympanic dexamethasone injection (ITDI) is applied as salvage treatment for SSNHL patients who failed initial systemic treatment or for patients who concerned to have hazard risk on systemic steroids.8,9,10) And some reports show early intervention with ITD resulted in effective hearing recovery in patients with SSNHL.11,12) However, clinicians often follow cases in which hearing improves after a long period of time after discharge. Therefore the result of combination therapy is ambiguous between delayed effects of traditional systemic therapy and additional effects of ITDI. In this study, all patients including the control group were limited to Siegel's criteria IV right after initial systemic treatment. And then we investigated the effectiveness of combination therapy, early ITDI accompanied with systemic therapy on SSNHL by comparing the recovery rate of patients who only received traditional treatment. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and audiograms of the patients with SSNHL diagnosed from January 2005 to October 2010. SSNHL is defined as a hearing loss of 30 dB or more, affecting at least 3 consecutive audiometric frequencies, developing within 72 hours or less, and not attributable to any commonly identifiable cause of sudden hearing loss. In this study, we included subjects who hospitalized for 5 days within 1 week after symptoms developed and who showed no improvement of hearing (Siegel's criteria IV) at pure tone audiometry performed after 5 days of traditional systemic treatment, namely at discharge day. All patients were treated with traditional systemic treatment in the following manner; 12-day course of oral steroids (1 mg/kg prednisolone for 5 days, followed by tapering for 7 days) as well as agents that decrease blood viscosity (intravenous low molecular Dextran, 1,000 mL/day for 5 days) and vitamins. And then patients randomized to the ITDI group (n=47) were administered first ITDI at discharge day or first visiting day at outpatient clinic within 2 weeks after initiation of traditional treatment, whereas patients randomized to the control group (n=104) were administered traditional treatment only. All patients were followed up for at least 2 months. ITDI therapy The ITDI procedure was performed under a microscope. With the patient supine and the head turned to the opposite site, Xylocaine® 10% pump spray (lidocaine 10 mg/dose, Astrazeneca) was used to induce local anesthesia. The Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone®, 5 mg/mL) was loaded into a 1-mL tuberculin-type syringe with a long 25 gauge needle attached on it. One needle hole was made in the anesthetized area for air to escape during the middle ear injection. A second hole was made for the injection at anterosuperior portion of tympanic membrane and the drug solution was infused into the middle ear space in a quantity sufficient to fill the space or at least cover the round-window niche. After the injection, the head was placed slightly lower than the body, and the subject was instructed to lie... Background and Objectives: Intratympanic dexamethasone injection (ITDI) offers the potential for directed delivery of high concentrations of steroids to the inner ear while mitigating the risks involved with high doses of systemic steroids. We investigated the effectiveness of combination therapy, sequential early ITDI accompanied with systemic therapy on sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Materials and Methods: We gathered 151 SSNHL patient's data, who were refractory to systemic treatment for 5 days. Injection group (n=47) were administered systemic therapy and 4 times of ITDI within 2 weeks after break of SSNHL. Control group (n=104) only received traditional treatment. We compared last concreted hearing level and recovery rate according to initial hearing level and frequency. Results: Overall hearing improvement was observed in 47 of 104 (45.2%) control patients and in 30 of 47 (63.8%) ITDI patients (p=0.034). Depending on the degree of initial hearing loss, the patients with severe hearing loss who treated with ITDI showed significant higher recovery rate than control group (83.8% vs. 50.0%)(p=0.049). When we analyzed hearing improvements according to the frequency, clinically significant hearing improvements were observed at lower and mid-frequencies (250, 500 and 1,000 Hz) in the ITDI group than in the control group. Conclusions: Early combination therapy of intratympanic dexamethasone injection within 2 weeks accompanied with initial systemic treatment is effective for patients with refractory SSNHL, especially for patients with severe hearing loss