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본고는 任邁(1711~1779)가 편찬한 『잡기고담』의 각화 가운데 <宦妻>와 <嘲謔>을 대상으로 작품에 나타난 웃음의 양상을 분석한 것이다. <환처>는 액자식 구성으로 서술자는 외부 액자를 통해 서사를 웃음으로 읽도록 유도하고 있으며, 내부 액자에서는 자극적인 성애의 장면, 미숙한 남성과 능숙한 여성의 전도된 성역할, 돈만 밝히는 속물적인 인물들의 됨됨이를 핍진하게 재현하여 이를 뒷받침한다. 그러나 이러한 웃음의 이면에는 지역의 유지로 자임하는 양반들의 실체에 대한 폭로가 자리하고 있다. <조학>은 詩才가 없음에도 시에 대한 애착을 지니고 있는 이선을 희화화하고 있는 작품이다. 그러나 실은 이선을 조롱한 이초로의 비평이 졸렬한 것이었음을 암시하는 장치를 심어둠으로써, 시를 제대로 알지도 못하면서 다른 사람을 함부로 평가하는 행위에 대해 비판하고 있다. 이처럼 <환처>와 <조학>에 나타나는 웃음은 중층적이다. 표면적으로는 전대의 성 소화나 패설의 장면을 빌린 것처럼 보이지만, 심층에는 변화하는 세태에 대한 임매의 개탄과 이를 알아보지 못하고 작품 속 등장인물에 대해 표면적인 웃음만을 보내는 사람들에 대한 조소가 깔려있다. 이와 같은 임매의 현실인식과 의식은 그의 묘지명과 자찬을 통해 확인할 수 있으며, _잡기고담_의 다른 골계담에서도 이러한 양상은 동일하게 나타난다. This article aims to analyze the aspects and the meaning of laughter in Japki-godam, especially focused on Hwan-cheo and Jo-hak. Writer used the frame tale technique in Hwan-cheo, making the frame narrative induce reader the story as a comedy and it is supported by the interpolated narrative, describing sexual scene candidly, reversing gender role, representing the people of snobbery. Behind these laughter, however, is the exposure of gentlemen`s true colors who pose as local worthies. Jo-hak is a work that taunted Lee-sun who attached to writing poem but untalented. However, writer criticized the act of misjudging others while not knowing, inserting a device that suggests the criticism of Lee choro was shameful indeed. In this way, the laughter that appears Hwan-cheo and Jo-hak has multi layered meaning. On the surface, it seems to have borrowed a scene of risque and funny stories from previous generation. But in the depths there is a writer who deplore the evils of the time, sneering at the people who don`t have a perception. We can see such awareness of reality through his epitaph and the self-written figuration on his portrait, and it also appears to be similar on other funny stories in Japki-godam.
목적: 3-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase 결핍은 MCCC1 또는 MCCC2 유전자 돌연변이로 인하여 발생하는 leucine 대사의 이상이다. 임상 양상은 신생아기에 중한 경과를 보이는 경우부터 무증상까지 다양하다. 3MCCD에 대한 한국의 장기적인 연구가 아직 없으며 본 저자는 3MCCD로 진단받은 환아들의 임상 양상과 유전자 분석에 대하여 연구하기로 하였다. 목적: 본 연구는 2009년 4월부터 2013년 9월 사이에 순천향대학교 서울병원 유전자 클리닉에서 3MCCD로 진단받은 7명의 환아를 대상으로 하였으며, 이중 자매 1쌍을 포함하였다. 이들은 모두 신생아 대사이상 검사에서 진단받은 환아들이었다. 결과: 신생아 대사이상 선별검사에서 3-OH-isovalerylcarnitine(C5OH) 수치는 2.705 umol/L에서 12.18 umol/L까지 나타내었고 정상 범위보다 증가해 있었다(정상범위<0.54 umol/L). 모든 환아에서 소변 3MCG의 상승된 소견 확인되었으며, 범위는 1.21에서 818.09 mmol/mol Cr 이었다(정상 소견은 소변에서 3MCG가 검출되지 않아야 한다). 7명의 환자에서 소변 3HIVA에서 상승된 소견 확인되었다. MCCC1 유전자 변이는 2명의 환아에서 확인되었고, MCCC2 유전자 변이는 5명의 환아에서 확인되었다. 또한 8종류의 뉴클레오타이드 변화와 그에 따른 아미노산 서열의 변화도 확인할 수 있었다. MCCC1 유전자 변이 환아는 자매관계였으며 c.826T>C 한 종류의 뉴클레오타이드 변화를 나타냈으며, MCCC2 유전자 변이 환아의 경우에서는 총 7 종류의 뉴클레오타이드 변화를 확인할 수 있었다. 모든 환아에서 진단 즉시 L-carnitine (50-100 mg/kg/day), L-glycine (100-200 mg/kg/day), leucine 제한 식이를 시작하였으며, 그 중 4명의 환아는 조효소로서의 biotin 투여를 시작하였다. 지속적인 경과 관찰 후 4명의 환아는 정상 식이를 진행 중이다. 치료 시작 후 소변 3MCG, 3HIVA의 변화에는 유의할 변화를 확인할 수 없었으며, 매 3-6개월 마다 L-carnitine 용량의 조절을 위하여 혈중 free carnitine 수치를 검사하고 있다. 결론: 본 연구에서 무증상 3MCCD 환아에서 MCCC1 유전자 변이는 29%, MCCC2 유전자 변이는 71%로 MCCC2 유전자 변이가 더 많았다. 그러나 이러한 원인이 되는 유전자 종류와 소변 3MCG, 3HIVA 수치와 임상 양상과는 유의할 상관 관계를 확인할 수 없었으며, 이는 추후 연구 되어야 할 것으로 생각된다. Purpose: 3-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase deficiency (3MCCD) is leucine metabolic disorder caused by mutation in MCCC1 or MCCC2 gene. Clinical manifestations are variable, ranging from fatal neonatal onset to asymptomatic individuals. There is no retrospective study of Korean patients undergoing long-term treatment for 3MCCD. We reported this study to find out clinical symptoms and gene analysis of 3MCCD patients. Methods: This study was based on data of patients diagnosed with 3MCCD in Soonchunhyang university hospital between April 2009 and September 2013. We report clinical, enzymatic and mutation data of 3MCCD patients found by newborn screening. Results: In tandem mass spectrometry, 3-OH-isovalerylcarnitine (C5OH) of all patients increased. And all 7 patients were elevated 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3MCG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3HIVA) in urine. MCCC mutation was identified in 2 patients and MCCC2 was mutated in 5 patients. We found mutation occurred in 8 different parts of nucleotide and such mutation caused 7 different types of changes in amino acid. All patients are on medication of L-carnitine and L-glycine. 4 patients are taking biotin. And 4 patients are eating leucine free formula. After starting treatment, there were no significant changes of urine 3MCG and 3HIVA levels. Conclusions: According to our data, MCCC2 gene mutation was more common than MCCC1 gene mutation. But the level of 3HIVA or 3MCG in urine has no correlation with phenotype. All patients has no symptoms and are shown normal development.
Strabismus refers to a extra-ocular muscle imbalance that results in improper alignment of the visual axes of two eyes. It may be divided into paralytic and non-paralytic strabismus. Paralytic strabismus is primarily a neurological problem: non-paralytic strabismus is more strictly an ophthalmologic problem. This case report focuses on paralytic strabismus resulting from palsies of the third and the sixth cranial nerves, respectively. Oculomotor nerve palsies result in binocular diplopia with characteristic patterns of strabismus. Oculomotor nerve provides motor and parasympathetic innervation to the eyes. Acquired oculomotor nerve palsies are not uncommon. Injury to the third nerve may result in complete or partial dysfunction. Complete third nerve palsy is manifested by ptosis, dilated pupil, an eye that is deviated down and out in primary position, and limited adduction, elevation, and depression. Patients with unilateral sixth nerve palsy complain of binocular, horizontal diplopia esotropia in the primary position due to unopposed action of the medial rectus and limitation of abduction due to weakness of the lateral rectus. Diplopia is worse in the direction of the paretic lateral rectus muscle. Paralytic strabismus are treated, based on the theory of Oriental medicine. with berbal medicines having gun-bi(健脾), bae-to(培土), gue-pung(祛風) effect of acupuncture around the eyes and etc. We describe a 63-year-old woman with complete the 3rd cranial nerve palsy and a 32-year-old woman with the unilateral 6th cranial nerve palsy who treated with acupuncture and herbal medicines and showed complete recovery.
Objective: This study was performed to detennine the depigmenting effects of Kamibongpungtongsung-San. Methods: To determine the depigmenting effects of Kamibangpungtongsung-San. we measured the degree of tyrosinase inhibition, melanin production & cell viability in cultured B16 melanoma cells, UV screen and cytoprotective effects on PC12 cells injured by hydrogen peroxide. Results: Komibangpungtongsung-San did not show inhibitory effects on melanin production in melanoma cells, UV screen and cytoprotective effects on PC12 cells injured by hydrogen peroxide. However it showed mild inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity. Conclusion : This study shows that Kamibangpungtongsung-San, a generally used prescription for dermatologic diseases, do not have depigmenting effects via tyrosinase inhibition. Therefore, the depigmenting effect and mechanism of depigmentation by Kamibangpungtongsung-San need to be evaluated and investigated in other directions.
Meniere's disease is not a life-threatening but life-altering inner ear process characterized by episodic vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and ear fullness. The etiology and pathophysiology of the symptoms is still disputed. Thereby the treatment of Meniere's disease is empirical. As yet, no treatment has prospectively modified the clinical course of the condition and thereby prevented the progressive hearing loss. We experienced two cases of Meniere's disease treated with herbal medication and acupuncture. 62 year-old male and 64 year-old female patients had definite Meniere's disease. Banhabaeckchulchunma-tang was administered in both cases. After treatment Vertigo attacks were completely controlled in both, whereas Hearing level remained unchanged. Tinnitus was improved in one patient and unchanged in the other. Therefore, Banhabaeckchulchunma-tang and acupuncture could be a safe and simple therapeutic modality that is effective in controlling the vertigo ; however further studies must be done on hearing preservation and tinnitus.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Purpose: To evaluate the success rate of pneumatic retinopexy and the preoperative factors influencing the results in the rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the preoperative and postoperative retinal findings and postoperative complication in 152 eyes of 150 patients with uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, who had undergone pneumatic retinopexy and were followed up for at least 3 months. We analyzed preoperative factors, including age, sex, location and numbers of retinal tears, duration of retinal detachment, lens status, and refractive error. Results: The success rate of the initial surgery was 72.37%. The success rate was significantly higher in non-high myopic and phakic eyes, and when the retinal detachment was less than 3 quadrants with the retinal break located superiorly. Accordingly, the success rate was 85.87% (79 of 92 eyes). Conclusions: In the present study, the anatomical success rate of primary pneumatic retinopexy was more than 70%. If pneumatic retinopexy is performed to non-high myopic, phakic eyes, and retinal detachment is less than 3 quadrants with superior retinal break, the surgeon can expect good anatomical outcomes and consider pneumatic retinopexy as a first management in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients.
This paper studies the significance of reading Lee, Seong-bok’s poetry, specifically his love poems, with the 1980s, as the background which is referred to as the “Era of Grand Narrative.” It is difficult to deny that national popular literary discourse was a dominant trend in the 1980s, in terms of literary themes, and in consideration of that background, the concept of romance itself, which is the most intimate and private, may sound heterogeneous in those years. In fact, even if the 1980s was referred to as the Era of Grand Narrative, it was also a time when a lot of books of poetry were sold. In terms of poetry, the aspect of popular poetry was strong, but thanks to the significant response of readers, the genre of love poetry was also one of the best sellers at times. The fever of love poems that existed at the time when mentioning individuals itself, especially the love and romance of individuals, was considered extravagant and it seems insufficient to dismiss as a temporary popular literary phenomenon when explaining the 1980s. Therefore, this study discusses Lee, Seong-bok’s poetry in connection with love poetry and the 1980s, taking into account the fact that he was a representative poet of the 1980s and many readers take note of his love poems. I find that there is a common aspect between the 1980s and Lee, Seong-bok’s love poems: melancholy. The 1980s was a period when it was commonplace to see deaths from the pursuit of the aspirations for social reforms. Therefore, mourning was necessary after the deaths, but mourning was prohibited institutionally for the subjects of discourse. The subjects who were prohibited from mourning became melancholika. The speakers of Lee, Seong-bok’s poems are also melancholika. The former was the subjects of the grand discourse, and they were also the readers of Lee, Seong-bok’s poetry. They encountered each other as melancholika, and reading love poems for the subjects to whom mourning was forbidden was to replace the mourning process with a love poem. Because mourning is a symbolic register for the dead through a communal ritual. It means that the subjects who read love poems were replacing the act of mourning with the symbolization of parting in love poems. It is because the love poems belong to the work of symbolization of parting that laments the sadness of parting. Lee, Seong-bok’s love poems are melancholika that sing the hurt and pain of love, not the joy of love. In conclusion, the love poems in the 1980s can be seen as a response to the unconscious request of subjects of the 1980s for a mourning ritual.