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Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys commonly used dental implant materials, particularly for orthopaedic and osteosynthesis because of its suitable mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility. This alloys have excellent corrosion behavior in the clinical environment. The first factor to decide the success of dental implantation is sufficient osseointegration and high corrosion resistance between on implant fixture and its surrounding bone tissue. In this study, in order to increase corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy that surface of manufactured alloy was coated with TiN by RF-magnetron sputtering method. The electrochemical behavior of TiN coated Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy were investigated using potentiodynamic (EG&G Co, PARSTAT 2273. USA) and potentiostatic test (250mV) in 0.9% NaCl solution at 36.5 1 . These results are as follows : 1. From the microstructure analysis, Cp-Ti showed the acicular structure of -phase and Ti-6Al-4V showed the micro-acicular structure of + phase. 2. From the potentiodynamic test, Ecorr value of Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys showed -702.48mV and -319.87mV, respectively. Ti-6Al-4V alloy value was higher than Cp-Ti alloy. 3. From the analysis of TiN and coated layer, TIN coated surface showed columnar structure with 800 nm thickness. 4. The corrosion resistance of TiN coated Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were higher than those of the non-coated Ti alloys in 0.9% NaCl solution from potentiodynamic test, indicating better protective effect. 5. The passivation current density of TiN coated Cp-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were smaller than that of the noncoated implant fixture in 0.9% NaCl solution, indicating the good protective effect resulting from more compact and homogeneous layer formation.
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Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, causes systemic and local infections. Recent reports show that the fungus is a main etiological agent for the arthritis. For trea tment, antifungal drugs and/or rheumatoid drugs are used, but resistance and side effects limit application of the drugs. In search of new sources for treatment of the fungal arthritis, we choose Egb 761 (extract of Ginkgo leaves 761), one of the most popular over-the-counter herbal medicines. The Egb 761 contains two major ingredients such as terpene and flavonoid. In the present study, we examined if the terpene portion of Egb 761 had anti-inflammatory activity against C.albicans-caused arthritis. The terpene was extracted with combination of methanol and water from the Egb 761, followed by gel-permeation chromatography. Presence of terpene was determined by the Salkowski colorimetric method and HPLC analysis. For an animal model of inflammation induction, mice were given an emulsion form of C.albicans cell wall mixed with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) by footpad-injection. Results showed that intraperitoneal administration of the water-soluble portion that contained terpene and flavonoid reduced the inflammation. Whereas the terpene had anti-inflammatory activity, flavonoid portion had no such activity, For determination of possible mechanism of the activity, the terpene seemed to be suppression of nitric oxide (NO) production from LPS-treated macrophages. Taken together the Ginkgo terpene may have anti-inflammatory effect against C.albicans-caused arthritis, possibly by blocking NO production.
Purpose: This study seeks to determine the effect of a lower extremity strengthening exercise that uses proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on the gait and balance ability of a stroke patient. Methods: In this case study, a lower extremity strengthening exercise that used PNF was performed by the subject for 30 minutes 4 times per week for a 4-week period alongside typical rehabilitation therapy. The lower extremity pattern used flexion-abduction-internal rotation with knee flexion, extension-abduction-internal rotation, bilateral leg extension pattern. The 10 m walk test and 6 minute walk test were used to assess gait ability. The Berg balance scale was used to assess balance ability. Results: After the intervention, the time for the 10 m walk test decreased by 5.72 sec, the distance for the 6 minute walk test decreased by 20 meters, and the score on the Berg balance scale improved by 7 points, which indicates the effectiveness of this therapy for stroke patients. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that a lower extremity strengthening exercise using PNF can improve the gait ability and balance ability of stroke patients.
The major active components of EGb 761, extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, include falconoid glycosides and unique diterpenes known as ginkgolides. In this study, we attempted to find a method to isolate ginkgolides from commercially available EGb 761. The EGb 761 was such as bilobol. The chloroform-treated EGb 761 was then sequentially extracted methanol and water. The water-soluble part was dried by heat. This powder form of final extract was analyzed by TLC and HPLC methods. As an indicator component, ginkgolide B purchased from Sigma was used. The analyses revealed the final extract contained ginkgolides A, b, C, and J as compared with HPLC profiles that were reported from other`s observations.
Purpose: The current study seeks to identify the effect of neck muscle strengthening exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on the swallowing ability of patients diagnosed with dysphagia due to stroke. Methods: As a single case study, the current research conducted neck muscle strengthening exercise using PNF on the patient with dysphagia for 40 minutes, four times per week for a six-week period. At the same time, typical rehabilitation therapy for dysphagia was provided. This type of therapy included food-swallowing and the relation of the muscles surrounding the neck. The functional dysphagia scale and the penetration-aspiration scale were used to assess swallowing ability. Results: After the therapy, the functional dysphagia scale and the penetration-aspiration scale decreased by 18 points and 3 points, respectively, which proves the effectiveness of this type of therapy for dysphagia. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that neck muscle strengthening exercise using PNF reduces penetration-aspiration in patients with dysphagia, and that PNF can be clinically utilized to improve the swallowing ability of dysphagic patients.