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전통한방 처방 중 삼령백출산 및 그 구성 약재의 방사선 방호효과를 평가하기 위하여 저선량 및 고선량 방사선조사 마우스에서 소장움 생존, 조혈세포 생존(비장내 조혈세포 집락형성), 소장움세포 apoptosis 형성을 관찰하였다. 방사선조사 전 삼령백출산 투여군에서 endogenous spleen colony의 형성이 증가되었으며 (p<0.05), 소장움에서의 apoptotic cell의 발생빈도는 감소되었다(p<0.05). 삼령백출산의 구성 약재별 시혐결과 인삼, 복령 및 의이인이 주된 방사선 방호효과를 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 결과는 삼령백출산이 무독성 천연물로서 방사선 방호식품으로 활용될 수 있는 가능성을 제시하였으며, 작용기작 및 효능성분에 대한 연구가 계속되어야 할 것이다. We performed this study to determine the radioprotective effect of Sam-Ryung-Baek-Chul-San (San-Ling-Bai-Shu-San), as a prescription of traditional Oriental medicine, and its major ingredients. Jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells were investigated in irradiated mice with high and low dose of γ-rays. Sam-Ryung-Baek-Chul-San administration before irradiation increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony(p<0.05) and reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). In the experiment on the effect of ingredients of Sam-Ryung-Baek-Chul-San, the result indicated that the extracts of Panax ginseng, Poria cocos and Coix lacryma-jabi might have the major radioprotective effects. Although the mechanisms of these inhibitory effects remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Sam-Ryung-Baek-Chul-San might be a useful radioprotector, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.
Many policy formulation theories have been developed separately in diverse fields of study. It is necessary to build a framework which can connect these theories in a meaningful way in order to view these separate theories as a whole, and check if they are adequate to understand and improve national policy formulation in the real world. For this purpose, this study explores a new policy formulation process as a framework which can combine the existing procedural and behavioral, normative and empirical theories. This study reconstructs a four-stage process of policy formulation (agenda setting, position taking, position coordination, policy legitimation) that reflects the government power structure and institutions, and then reviews how this process could combine existing theories. This new framework can show in which aspects these existing theories are useful in explaining and improving national policy formulation, which kind of theories and logics ought to be employed from other academic areas, and in which aspects further theoretical elaboration is required in the future. More specifically, while a majority of existing theories can be used to explain the position-taking stage and some of them can explain the agenda-setting and policy legitimation stage, few of them could cover the position-coordination stage. The study concludes that as existing theories are not enough to understand the national policy making process, more theories are required on the analytic agenda-setting process, analytic position-coordination and criteria of policy legitimation.
왕대속은 벼과 또는 화본과에 속하는 다년생 목본성 초본이며 아시아의 인도와 중국에 많은 종이 주로 분포한다. 식물에서 속간 속내 계통관계 추론을 위해 널리 이용되고 있는 ITS 부위가 있다. 이 속에 속하는 우리나라 자생 식물 왕대 속내 네 식물종 간 계통 관계를 평가하기 위해 핵 게놈의 ITS 부위로 평가하였다. DNA 서열배당은 많은 갭(gaps)을 가지고 있었다. 이 속 내 서열 변이는 일부 삽입과 결실이 발견되었고 속내 종간 변이는 자연도태에 의한 것으로 밝혀졌다. 이 속의 오죽과 분죽은 세 계통도(MP, ML, and NJ)에서 모두 같은 분지군을 형성하여 가장 근연관계에 있었다. 기존의 형태학적 특성과 단순 반복 서열(ISSR)의 결과와 유사한 계통 관계를 나타내어 왕대속에서 ITS의 서열이 이들 분류군에 매우 유익한 정보를 제공하고 있음을 시사하였다. Phyllostachys consists of high and fast growing trees and is a genus in the family Gramineae. The genus has many species in Asia, with main distribution being in India and China. One of the most popular sequences for phylogenetic inference at the generic and infrageneric levels in plants is the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the 18S-5.8S-26S nuclear ribosomal cistron. We evaluated four taxa with the ITS region to estimate phenotypic relationships within the genus Phyllostachys in Korea. Alignment of the DNA sequences required the addition of numerous gaps. Sequence variation within the Phyllostachys was mostly due to natural selection, although several indels and inserts were found. Within the genus Phyllostachys, P. nigra and P. nigra var. henonis were the relatives in the three phylogenetic analyses (MP, ML, and NJ). However, some external nodes were poorly supported. Morphological traits and simple repeats (ISSR) represented the result of a relationship similar to the that of ITS sequences in the genus Phyllostachys. This suggests that ITS sequences are very informative for identification of these taxa.
본 연구에서는 Eschscholtzia californica의 이차 대사산물인 benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids의 생산량을 향상시키기 위해 주요 영양성분인 질소원 농도를 조절하여 배지의 조성을 최적화하였다. 그 결과, 질산과 암모늄 이온의 초기 농도 비율은 세포 성장과 alkaloids 생산량 증대에 중요한 영향을 미치는 인자로서 작용함을 볼 수 있었다. 총 질소 농도를 standard MS배지의 총 질소원 농도와 동일하게 유지하고 (60 mM), 농도 비율 다양하게 조절했을 때, 세포 성장과 alkaloids 생산량은 질산과 암모늄 이온을 각각 단독으로 이용할 때 보다 효율적으로 증대함을 볼 수 있었다. 최대 성장 (9.84 g DCW/L)과 alkaloids 생산량 (60.72 mg/L)은 50:10의 비율에서 나타났으며, 농도 비율의 감소는 세포 성장을 억제하고 alkaloids 생산량을 감소 시켰다. 또한, 질산과 암모늄 이온이 세포 성장과 alkaloids 생산량에 미치는 영향력을 보다 명확히 확인하기 위해 질산 이온과 암모늄 이온 농도를 각각 조절한 결과, 암모늄 이온이 증가할수록 alkaloids 생산량은 비슷하나, 세포 성장은 감소하였으며, 또한, 질산 이온의 농도를 증가시킬수록 세포 성장은 비슷한 값을 나타내었지만, alkaloids 생산량은 다양한 차이를 나타내었다. 본 실험에서 세포성장과 alkaloids 생산량에 적합한 농도는 50:25 (mol/mol) 비율 에서 나타났으며, 본 실험을 통해 Eschscholtzia californica의 현탁 세포배양에서 질소원 농도의 조절을 통한 외부 환경 조절은 세포 성장과 alkaloids 향상에 매우 효과적이며, 소량의 암모늄 이온의 첨가 시 질산 이온 농도조절은 세포 성장을 억제하지 않으면서 alkaloids 생산량을 유도하는데 적합한 이온임을 확인하였다. The effect of nitrogen source on cell growth and benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids production by modifying NO₃-:NH₄+ ratio in cell suspension culture of Eschscholtzia californica was investigated. When total nitrogen concentration is maintained (60 mM), maximum benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids production is about 60.72 mg/L at 50:10 (mol/mol). This productivity was 3.8 times higher than that obtained when cells were grown instandard MS medium. The decrease of NO₃-:NH₄+ ratio at 60 mM of total nitrogen caused the decline of both growth and benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids production. Under the same concentration of NO₃- (50 mM), higher concentration of NH₄+ inhibited cell growth strongly but induced alkaloids production slightly. Also, under the same concentration of NH₄+ (25 mM), higher concentration of NO₃- induced alkaloids production strongly but high concentration of NO₃- (≥100 mM) interfered alkaloids instead. Maximum benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids production is about 62.71 mg/L at 50:25 (mol/mol). These results suggest that higher biomass and higher alkaloids production could be obtained by optimizing each nitrogen concentration as well as NO₃-:NH₄+ ratio in the culture medium. Nitrate and ammonium in culture medium have distinct role in the regulation of growth and alkaloids production; ammonium had a strong influence on growth while nitrate had an influence on alkaloids production.
This thesis analyzes how government officials and the elite in the early modern time perceived railroad system. In 1876, Kim Gi-su, who was dispatched to Japan as Susinsa after Korea opened its port, came to observe railroad system for the first time with awe and curiosity. Josa Sichaldan acknowledged the efficiency of railroad system as a means of transportation but pointed out the practical issue regarding provision of the necessary capital to institutionalize this system. Yu Gil-jun, who observed and experienced the modern Western culture in America, tried to understand railroad system from a more detailed and objective perspective. He did not only elaborately explain the history and technicality of railroad system but also the problem of utilizing private property in the process and how to solve this problem. Despite these analyses and efforts, eventually, it was the foreign power that established the railroad system in Korea. Both Gyeongin railway and Geyongui railway were constructed by Japan. There was a movement among the Koreans to construct railway on their own but it wasn’t realized. Due to the Japanese government’s scheme and the Korean government’s incapacity, the railway running through Korean peninsula fell under Japanese control and it later led to the Japan’s colonializing of Korea. The railroad system in Korea shows the typical duplicity of modern railroad system. As the construction of railroad started, the Korean press advertised and provided information on railroad system in their distinctive tones and from their own perspectives. ≪Dongnipsinmun≫ described railroad as an useful system of modern culture and the basis of civilization, praising the economic benefit and the spread of advanced civilization that it will bring. It didn’t recognize its invasive and exploitative nature. ≪Hwangseongsinmun≫ conformed to the international order of imperialism and the modernization, but at the same time, was concerned about losing the control over the railroad system and the potential of Japanese colonial power cornering the market. Simultaneously, it criticized the public’s ignorance and stressed the need to enlighten the public in order to restore sovereignty and national competence. ≪Daehanmaeilsinbo≫ addressed how unconditional ‘assimilation’ to and ‘imitation’ of Western civilization can endanger the nation by exposing it to exploitation and invasion, as it disclosed the Japanese exploitation in the process of railway construction. It suggested that we accept the railways that were already built and use the significance that railroad system has as a modern power to revolutionize and restore sovereignty.
Inarritu`s film captures always the interconnectedness, which unavoidably draw us together, informing our sense of humanity in perpetual conflict with the superficial alienation of “the other.” His work communicate something fundamental to this recognition of postmodern global reality. All of this makes Inarritu`s film particularly intuitive and immediate to contemporary global audiences. His films are powerfully informed and immediate, essential art in this age of postmodern confusion. In Biutiful, the latest film of Inarritu, Barcelona, city cosmopolitan connotes cultural and social complexity which results in confusion and conflict and moral compromise. As the largest metropolitan city on the Mediterranean Sea, Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is an important cultural center. In Biutiful, we find the Catalan capital such as a transnational and paradoxical location. In addition, Barcelona is recognizable as the film`s co protagonist, along with main character. This multicultural city shows the moral uncertainties and political complexities by focusing on immigrant and marginalized characters. Biutiful is aware of extreme complexity of the social structure of the global city of the porosity of its internal borderlands. Biutiful takes place in grimy and crowded parts of Barcelona that are a world away from a monumentally architectural and touristic city. If the notable or recognizable public spaces of Barcelona appear in the film, they are significantly portrayed as sites of conflict. Barcelona become a city without boundaries in Biutiful. The dualistic contrast between the city centers and the peripheries, even the death and the life disappear. Uxbal and the other important immigrant characters, through their powerful presence transform the city they inhabit into a chaotic place. This distinctive cityscape reveals real aspects and dimensions of Barcelona. Inarritu`s Barcelona is polyphonic and hybrid city. Biutiful construct a city defined by its capacity to create new identity.
As small and medium-sized housebuilding companies tend to make an investment in a single project with their utmost effort, they are more likely to be exposed to financial risks. These small and medium-sized housebuilding companies make decisions more frequently than large-sized companies because of their short-term projects, which usually last 3 to 5 years and unexpected fluctuations in social and economic environments. Unfortunately, whenever they make wrong decisions, they are highly vulnerable to financial damages or, even, bankrupts. However, more and more small and medium-sized companies with low stability are frequently entering new business fields at the risk of getting liquidated. Therefore, it was necessary to conduct a research about this unexplored field, which, in fact, deserves much more attention from experts. And find out solution for small and medium-sized housebuilding companies. This study aims at analyzing the decision-making characteristics of small and medium-sized housebuilding companies by investigating their decision-making process and its main factors. It is especially focused on identifying the source of their advices or opinions for CEOs, their use of information, ways of dealing with financial crisises when the feasibility gets lower, whether they themselves think their competitiveness is weak, and methods and places they raise funds from. Through these surveys, this study finds out significant variables related with the successful decision making of small and medium sized companies. The result of this analysis states as follows; Firstly, CEOs make decisions by taking outside experts" advice and opinions, such as appraisers, which make CEOs" views quite noticeable. Furthermore, small and medium-sized housebuilding companies tend to have path dependence because decisions mostly depend on CEOs" intuition. Their attempt to consider other companies" methods of business in the aspect of using information and data should be more encouraged. In addition, in the aspect of feasibility, they tend to have sunk cost fallacy as they carry out projects grudgingly for the sake of interest of expenses spent on housing sites, although their business environments become worse. Moreover, they have difficulties in raising funds and further carrying out projects because raising fund is quite hard in the aspect of competitiveness. They also think their brand values are low because of their low level of awareness, and these problems can be further explained by the theory of resource-based view. Lastly, in theaspect of raising funds, they use the second banking sector(non-monetary institutions) because it is difficult for them to use the first banking section(monetary institutions), and they mostly raise funds with parcel payments or equity capital. With all the results above, it was found that small and medium-sized housebuilding companies have such a characteristic as immobility of capital, compared to large-sized housebuilding companies.