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The purpose of this study is to elucidate Jung-Hwan Lee's life and the process of completing book, Taekriji(擇里志, A classical cultural geography of the Korean settlement). The conclusion of the study is summarized as follows. 1. Jung-Hwan Lee's career can be divided into two periods, before and after the time when he was involved in Sinimoksa)(辛壬獄事, party strife in Sinchuk year( 1721) and Imin year(1722)) and banished to a distant island. Coming of the Lees of Yeoju, one of noble families, he had talent for poetry and prose in his childhood. At the early age of 24, he passed Kwago(科擧, the highest-level state examination to recruit ranking officials during Josun Dynasty) and began government service. During the service, he formed and led a circle of literary men. With In-Bok Lee and Kwang-un O, he played an important role in a progressive group in Namin, one of political parties in the Josun Dynasty. Meanwhile, Jung-Hwan Lee had an interest in geomancy from his twenties and explored the mountains in Gyeonggi-do, Hwanghae-do, and Chungcheong-do to find a good graveyard for several months with a geomancer, Ho-Ryong Mok. His friendship with Ho-Ryong Mok, which was considered as conspiracy against the king, caused him to be arrested and tried as suspect. His survey expenence of various places with Ho-Ryong Mok as well as excellent talent for poetry and prose can be said to be an important basis of his writing Taekriji later. The latter half of Jung-Hwan Lee's life was the time of frustration and adversity, for about 30 years when he lost his government position, retired from the world, and led a wandering life. Although struggling with adversity, he left a masterpiece of Taekriji through exploring the whole country. He explored 6 Provinces in Josun personally except Jeonra-do. His personal exploration made him "have a sharp eye for geographical phenomena". Through his exploring the whole country, Jung-Hwan Lee found a new Taekriji. 2. Ik Lee, Seong-Kwan Mok, Hoe-Kyeong Mok, Bong-Hwan Lee, and Eon-Yu Jeong who wrote prefaces and epilogues to Taekrij were Jung-Hwan Lee's contemporaries. Closely related by mamage, they had a similar appreciative eye for things, and in addition, all of them suffered from a party strife directly or indirectly except Eon-Yu Jeong. That's why they understood each other and had the consciousness of kind. Ik Lee, a cousin of jung-Hwan Lee's grandfather, was his senior in the family and academic stay. Jung-Hwan Lee frequently corresponded with him. Seong-Kwan Mok was a nephew of jung-Hwan Lee's wife, and Hoe- Kyeong Mok was the person who wrote down the achievements of Cheon-Im Mok, jung-Hwan's brother-in-law and Seong-Kwan Mok's life history. Bong-Hwan Lee could have been jung-I-Iwan Lee's cousin, but became his distant relative since his father, Yeon-Hyu had been adopted. jung-I-Iwan Lee's grandmother was a daughter of Man-I-Iwa jeong, one of the jeongs of Dongrae, who came from the same family as Eon-Yu Jeong. Those who wrote prefaces and epilogues to Taekriji were jung-Hwan Lee's relatives as above. 3. Five persons who wrote prefaces and epilogues helped Taeknji be known to the world, but Ik Lee played a distinguished part. It is considered that writing Taekriji began at least after April of the 25th year of king Y oungjo (1749). Taekriji is believed to have been completed in a relatively short time and at the last phase of jung-Hwan Lee's life. Prefaces and epilogues to Taekriji were written sometime between the 28th year of king Youngjo (1752) and the 29th year of king Youngjo (1753). Accordingly, we may say Taekriji is had been completed by that time. However, there are two views of what year "the beginning of early summer in Baekyang year" in the epilogue written by jung-Hwan Lee himself means: some believe it is Sinmi year and others Gapsul year. Sinmi year is the 27th year of king Youngjo (1751) and Gapsul year is the 30th year of king Youngjo (1754). If jung-Hwan Lee l
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禮山의 古德은 가야산 인근의 내포지역 가운데 가장 중요한 위치를 차지하고 있다. 이 곳으로는 삽교천이 흐르며, 인근에 자리한 구만포는 조선시대에 아산만으로부터 밀물을 타고 올라온 범선이 정박하던 물산의 집산지로 유명하다. 과거 長川里로 불리던 지점은 오늘날 상장리와 지곡리로 명칭이 바뀌었으나, 숙종 20년(1694)의 甲戌獄事 이후 驪州李氏가 입향하여 150년 가까이 정착하면서 實學의 學風을 열었던 유서 깊은 장소의 하나이다. 고덕에 정착하였던 여주이씨는 모두 梅山 李夏鎭(1628~1982)의 후손이며, 동시에 실학의 태두 星湖 李瀷(1681-1763)에게 글을 배운 그의 姪孫들 이었다. 이들은 장천리에 一門을 이루어 학문을 연마하였으며 그 곳에서 일생을 보냈다. 고덕의 여주이씨 중에서 李廣休ㆍ李囍煥ㆍ李載威는 博物學, 李秉休ㆍ李森煥ㆍ李載常ㆍ李是洪은 經學과 禮學, 李用休ㆍ李家煥은 文學. 李孟休ㆍ李九煥ㆍ李載南은 經濟實用의 學을 계승하였다. 이들은 고덕을 중심으로 실학의 지역화를 주도하였다. The Namin group of scholarly bureaucrat in Seoul and its vicinity has been the central concern in the studies of Korean pragmatism of Chosun Dynasty called Silhak. The inquiries into the philosophical code of behavior and altitude of the party has been centered on leading figures, particularly on their biographical achievement with almost no geographical consideration. This essay tries to resolve this conundrum incorporating the concept of regionalization. For the elaboration of the process of geographical expansion of Silhak, I turn to a community at Jangcheon-ri of Godeok-myon in Yesan County. The area I in the Naepo Region is where the Lee family of Yeoju settled down around the Gapsuloksa persecution of dissident scholars in 1694 and where they found a local school of Silhak. The pioneering members of the family were descendant or relatives of Hajin (1628-1682) and Ik Lee(1681-1763) who played major roles in the development of the Korea-born tradition of pragmatism. The kin family led a life, propagated Silhak, and then took an eternal rest at Godeok. The regionalization of Silhak made it naturalized to identity Godeok of Yesan with the Lee family.
This study aims to understand the conditions of central place facilities of myons at Kongju county through field surveys and to find out the problems of the facilities. Hence the purpose of this study is to provide a basic material which can be used for rural development. Field Surveys were done at 11 myon's central places at Kongiu County for 2 years from 1989 to 1990 about 183 categories of business and 1,185 facilities. According to the analysis of the research materials, the problems of the rural areas and ways of resolution of the problems are shown as follows. 1)The central places of myons at Kongju County has a small population. Because a small population of a myon means that its potentiality of development is weak, it has to have more people. 2)The central places of myons are lacking in the number and function of facilities. So that they do not provide enough goods and servies for rural residents. Thus, it is necessary to develop facilities of the central places. 3)We have to increase the number of facilities which are directly related to farming such as farming appliance shops, farming appliance repair shops, and agricultural medicine drug store. And other facilities such as tea rooms, billiard rooms and coin machine rooms which are not related to farming, have to be regulated. 4)Some facilities at central places of the rural areas have to have a small threshold size population and other facilities need big population. When we plan the development of rural areas, we have to take this into consideration.
The current trend of "health food" plants such as arrowroots, yams, and acorns have much to do with the "shiny leaf tree culture"(照葉樹林文化) which originated from Southeast Asia. Historically, these plants have been used as food for man before the full-scale agricultural stage. Through pointing out this, the thesis tries to elucidate a side of profound agricultural culture(基底農耕文化). Shiny leaf tree culture, proposed by a professor Nakaosaske(中尾佐助) in Japan is the first agricultural culture of Asia, and its distributed areas cover the Himalayas, Assam, the north of Southeast Asia, Woonnam upland, the south of the Yangtze River, the southern coast of the Korean peninsula, and the southwest of Japan, a mountain area. An oak, an oriental chestnut oak, a chestnut tree belonging to the oak family, evergreens such as a camellia, and a camphor tree grow in those areas. The trees are called shiny leaf trees because they have shiny leaves, and in Japan there are many researches to discover primitive culture in this shiny leaf tree areas. They divide the origin of the two world civilization as Mediterranean "hard leave tree culture"(硬葉樹林文化) and Southeast Asian "shiny leave tree culture"(照葉樹林文化). Various people lived in the shiny leaf tree areas with different languages, but they shared cultural common features and lead their own living culture of burning cultivation in a mountain area. Shiny leaf tree culture, which precedes a paddy field culture, formed burning cultivation in which they had mainly grown cereals(including upland rice, 陸稻) and became a matrix to bring out a paddy field culture and to form a rice farming culture. Given that agricultural culture originated from the South and spread to the North, it is easy to hypothesize that shiny leaf tree cultural elements that originated from Southeast Asia were introduced into the Korean peninsula. Taking into account that the ancient circumstances of the Korean peninsula in the prehistoric age after the ice age, the hypothesis is even more substantiated. When a glacier covered almost of the world, the seawater level might have dropped to a maximum of 130 meters and it might have been easy for man, and for plants and animals to move and settle down because the Korean peninsula and the Japanese Islands would have been linked to the continent of China In the warm postglacial age, Neolithic culture blossomed all over the world. As is shown in the evolution of living plants, pollen analysis in Korea showed that coniferous trees flourished 6000 years ago and that latifoliate trees thrived afterwards. The Paleolithic Age ended in 8000 B. C. and the Neolithic age started from 5000 B. C., and at this time China was in "Aangso"(仰韶) and "Yongsan"(龍山) cultural age and Japan was in "Jomon"(繩文) age. At this time, the Chinese and Japanese prehistoric culture was in the pre-agricultural stage, and at this stage man knew how to gather and use wild yams or nuts. The same may be said of the prehistoric age of Korea. Given that the turning point from the stage for man to gather and use roots, stems, fruits and seeds of trees to the stage for them to protect and cultivate them is the start of agriculture, it has been known that man used arrowroots, yams, and acorns as food from the pre-agricultural stage. Although there was a problem in the processing technique to rid the yams and nuts like arrowroots, yams, and acorns of astringent taste and to get starch, we solved the problem both by "water bleaching"(水漂白法) and by "boiled bleaching"(加熱處理法) as we explained with the concrete examples in chapter 3 of this thesis. Water bleaching is a method to get starch through the processing of powdering and washing yams and nuts, and then ridding them of their astringent taste; boiled bleaching is a method to bake or steam them and to use them as food. There is an opinion that water bleaching started in the shiny leaf tree areas, and boiled bleaching started in the tropics as food processing techniques. The technique to remove astringent taste by water bleaching, especially in shiny leaf tree areas, is often applied to use the wild yams. It is also applied to rid evergreen oaks or acorns of astringent taste and has contributed to being able to use them for food. It was used to relieve hunger in the past when they were on a normal diet or went hungry, and the food processing technique is still being used today. In shiny leaf tree areas of pre-agricultural stage, the technique to remove astringent taste by water bleaching is one of the principal methods to get food, and one of the most important elements to distinguish shiny leaf tree living culture. Therefore, we can discover the fact that a side of profound agricultural culture in Korea is connected to shiny leaf tree culture of Southeast Asian through arrowroot sap, yam sap, and acorn jelly used as "health food" today. For further detailed study, concrete examples of food processing technique and the process of using the plants should be gathered and analyzed, and a study on the development of food processing tools should be made as well.