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An investigation was carried out to determine experimentally the thermal conductivities of non-Newtonian fluids in a shear field. Both time independent purely viscous and viscoelastic fluids were considered. A coaxial cylinder apparatus with a rotating outer cylinder was used to establish the velocity field in the test fluid. First, the thermal conductivity of distilled water measured to validate the instrument. The experimental water data agreed within 1% of literature values and there was no effect of outer cylinder rotation (shear field). However, for non-Newtonian fluids such as aqueous CMC and Separan solutions, there were significant increases in thermal conductivities of up to 70% for CMC and 50% for Separan depending on the shear rate, polymer concentration and temperature. Considering the shear rate dependent thermal conductivity in the study of heat transfer in non-Newtonian fluids could be important. As in natural convection, the momentum and energy equations could no longer be solved separately but would have to be solved simultaneously.
엑스선 공명 자기산란은 엑스선 반사율과 회절의 원리를 이용하여 자기 다층박막 내 깊이 방향의 자화 모양 및 자기 나노 구조체 내의 자화 분포를 특정 원소별로 구할 수 있다. 여기서는 엑스선 공명 자기산란에 대한 간단한 설명과 이를 이용한 자성 다층박막 및 나노 구조체의 자기 구조와 자기 스위칭의 연구에 대하여 몇 가지 예를 들어 설명하려 한다. X-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) allows us to extract magnetic depth profiles in magnetic multilayers and magnetization distribution in magnetic nanostructures in element-specific manner using x-ray reflectivity and diffraction. XRMS is explained with a brief introduction and examples of magnetic structures and magnetic switching mechanism in magnetic multilayers and nanostructures.
It has been reported that UV rays are harmful for skin in the view of not only photo-aging but promoting of skin-cancer. The aim of this article is to introduce the recent researches and new regulations, which are to come up with the harmfulness of UV irradiation. By dealing with the technical background of the regulations, UV filters and UV protection claims, it is introduced how to use sunscreen products appropriately as a consumer and how to develop the products by optimizing of the UV filter composition as a developer. Additionally, the recent research is described, which is about the optimized approach in order to deal with the paradox between the UV protection and the vitamin D formation.
저자들의 경우 ABO 부 부적합 이식 환자 중 ABO항체에 의한 용혈성 빈혈의 발생 빈도가 9%로 비교적 높은데 이는 공여자 특이 수혈(DST)을 시행한 것과 관련이 있을 수 있다. 또한 Azathiopurin, MMF와 같은 B임파구의 증식을 억제하는 약제의 사용이 적었던 것도 빈도의 증가에 기여했을 수 있다. ABO 부(副) 부적합에 의한 신 이식의 경우 초기 원인 불명의 빈혈이 관찰될 때 급성 용혈성 빈혈을 조기에 확인하고 감별 진단하는 것이 필요하며, 적절한 치료를 시행하면 대부분의 경우에서 이식 신 기능 장애 없이 회복이 가능하다. Background : Immune hemolysis secondary to ABO minor incompatibility is a rare graft versus host disease in renal recipients, secondary to anti-ABO antibody produced by lymphocytes of donor origin that reacts against recipient RBCs. Methods : To investigate the incidence and clinical features of immune hemolysis secondary to ABO minor incompatibility in renal allograft recipients, clinical records of 358 renal transplantation performed in Maryknoll Hospital since 1991 were analyzed retrospectively. Results : Fifty four (15%) of 358 renal transplants were ABO minor incompatible. Immune hemolysis secondary to anti-ABO antibody developed in 5 (9.2%) of 54 ABO minor incompatible renal transplant recipients. Immune hemolysis occurred in 3 (13.6%) patients among 22 allografts from blood type O donor to A recipients and 2 (10%) patients among 20 from blood type O donor to B recipients. All 5 patients received cyclosporin with prednisolone, and MMF was administered to one patient additionally. Immune hemolysis developed on 14±3 days after renal transplantation and lasted for about 10±3 days. The maximum reduction of hemoglobin was 3.3±1.0g/dL. All patients required donor type (blood type O) washed RBCs transfusion (5.0±2.6 units per patient) and plasmapheresis were performed in 3 patients (4.0±1.0 per patient). All patients recovered without deterioration of graft function. Age, number of HLA mismatch, creatinine at 1 year after transplantation, frequency of acute rejection and serum cyclosporin level during first 2 weeks were not significantly different between hemolysis group (N=5) and non-hemolysis group (N=49). Living unrelated transplantation is associated with increased incidence of immune hemolysis compared with living related transplantation (p<0.01). Conclusion : Although immune hemolysis secondary to ABO minor incompatibility is uncommon, we experienced cases with marked reduction of hemoglobin that required a large amount of transfusion. Therefore, this type of immune hemolysis needs to be considered as a differential diagnosis of posttransplant hemolysis. As our center routinely performs donor specific transfusion (DST), the incidence may be higher than that of other centers where DST is not usually given.(Korean J Med 69:177-182, 2005)
Fe/Gd 다층박막 내 자성층간 결합에 미치는 패턴의 영향을 연구하였다. 이를 위하여 하나의 다층박막 시료를 나누어서 패턴한 것과 패턴하지 않은 것으로 제작하여 비교하였다. X선 자기 원편광 이색성(X-ray magnetic circular dichrosim: XMCD)을 이용하여 Gd 원소에 선택적인 자화 벡터의 온도 변화를 비교한 결과, 패턴 시료의 경우 Gd 자화 벡터의 온도의존성이 패턴 전에 비해 뚜렷하게 변화했음을 관측하였다. 이는 패턴 효과와 반강자성의 층간 결합 효과가 서로 경쟁하여 나타난 결과이다. In Fe/Gd multilayers, patterning effect on the interlayer coupling was studied by comparing patterned and unpatterned samples that were cut from a multilayer film. A comparative study of the two samples via temperature dependent Gd-specific magnetization vector using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) shows that the temperature dependence of the Gd magnetization vector can be modified in the patterned sample due to a competition between the patterning and antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling effects.
Whether congenitally abscent or lost as the of an accident or pathologic condition, missing lateral incisors present a problem. which complicates orthodontic treatment. The condition requires careful treatment planning and a consideration of the options and outcomes following either space closure or prosthetic replacement. Thos study prasents the clinical cases with maxillary lateral incisors missing. following optimal diagnosis and treatment planning , considerations in treatment in these cases.
본 증례에서는 안정된 이식신장 기능을 가진 신장 이식수여자에서 우연히 발생한 단백뇨 검사로 이식신 아밀로이드증이 발견된 1예가 있어 보고하는 바이다. Amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid in various tissues and organs, particularly the kidney and heart. The estimated incidence of systemic amyloidosis is at least 8 per million population per year. However, few cases of systemic amyloidosis in renal allografts have been reported. A stable renal transplant recipient was admitted with proteinuria and dyspnea on exertion. The M-peak was found on serum and urine protein electrophoresis, and lambda (λ) dominance was confirmed by serum and urine free-light-chain test. The patient was diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis of a renal allograft, by allograft biopsy, at 22 years after renal transplantation. We report a case of AL amyloidosis in a stable renal allograft and review the medical literature. (Korean J Med 2016;90:545-549)