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Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare, but serious, side effect of bisphosphonate therapy that produces significant morbidity in affected patients. It is characterized by poor wound healing and spontaneous intra-oral soft tissue breakdown, which lead to exposure of necrotic maxillary and mandibular bone. We report a case of BRONJ in 56-year-old man who visited Ajou University Hospital Dental Clinic in March 2007. He had been diagnosed with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia in 2005 and had been treated with chemotherapeutic agents, along with concomitant pamidronate injections (45 mg monthly). The patient had clinical features of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the mandible precipitated by tooth extraction. The patient had multiple systemic risk factors, including extended duration of intravenous pamidronate therapy, chemotherapy, and glucocorticoid therapy for his malignancy. In the 6 months prior to presentation, curettage and debridement were performed repeatedly, but there was no improvement in the mandibular lesion. The patient was referred to the Endocrinology Clinic and was diagnosed with BRONJ. We discontinued pamidronate and started conservative care. BRONJ should be considered in the differential diagnosis when patients complain of poor oral wound healing or have recurrent exposure of necrotic maxillary and mandibular bone. (J Korean Endocr Soc 23:210~214, 2008)
Recent virtual reality-based software is expected to be utilized in many fields such as education, culture, art, military, unlike those used only for games and simple simulation experiences in the past, Software development is becoming active, however, establishment of quality standards and evaluation models for it is insufficient. Therefore, research on quality evaluation models is also necessary due to expansion of their use in various industrial fields. In this paper, we have ISO/IEC 9126 which is an international standard, derive the quality evaluation factors required for virtual reality based software, and propose a quality evaluation model suitable for it. 최근의 가상현실기반의 소프트웨어는 과거에 게임이나 간단한 시뮬레이션 체험만 사용되었던 것과 달리 교육, 문화, 예술, 군사 등 다방면에 활용이 예상되어 국내외 기업의 기기 및 소프트웨어 개발이 활발해지고 있으나 그에 대한 품질 기준이나 평가 모델에 대한 정립은 미흡한 실정이다. 또한 다양한 산업 분야에 그 쓰임새가 확장됨에 따라 품질 평가 모델에 대한 연구도 필요하다. 본 논문에서는 국제표준인 ISO/IEC9126을 가지고 가상현실기반의 소프트웨어에 요구되는 품질 평가 요소를 도출하고 그에 맞는 품질 평가 모델을 제안한다.
This study examined the interpretation of subject pronouns in discourse by L2 learners of English whose L1 is a null subject language, Korean. The purpose of the study was to see if L2 learners’ interpretation of subject pronouns is influenced by their null subject L1. A multiple- choice comprehension task was administered to fifty-eight Korean L2 learners who were classified into three different levels of English proficiency, to examine both forward and backward anaphora resolution. The results demonstrated that advanced L2 learners were nativelike in pronoun resolution, with the preferential choice of sentence-internal referents, whereas low-level L2 learners were significantly different from native English speakers. They also showed a developmental pattern in resolving L2 pronouns in which as the level of English proficiency increases, Korean L2 learners proceed from L1-like resolution to target-like resolution. These data indicated that the interpretation of subject pronouns in a nonnull subject L2 is influenced by learners’ null subject L1.
This study examined how L2 learners process morphologically complex words (e.g., regularly inflected past-tense forms) to see if L2 processing of inflectional morphology is similar to L1 processing. In literature, it is posited that native speakers use grammatical computation in processing of morphologically complex words, whereas L2 learners largely rely on lexical storage (Ullman, 2001). A lexical decision task with masked primes was administered to thirty Korean L2 learners who were classified into two different levels of English proficiency. The results demonstrated that highly advanced L2 learners, like native English speakers, showed facilitation effects for past-tense primes and similar reaction times (RTs). On the other hand, intermediate L2 learners were significantly slower than native English speakers and did not show any facilitation effects for past-tense primes. These data indicate that the highly advanced L2 learners process morphologically complex words in decomposed form, whereas the intermediate L2 learners as unanalyzed wholes, suggesting that as proficiency increases, L2 processing changes.
This study examined processing of L2 English relative clauses by testing the Filler-Gap Hypothesis (Hawkins, 1999; O'Grady 1997). For that goal, we partially replicated Diessel and Tomasello (2004), who examined L1 acquisition of relative clauses by English-and German-speaking children. The Filler-Gap Hypothesis states that the structural distance between head and gap determines the processing difficulty pertained within relative clauses. Taking this hypothesis as a theoretical starting-point, we used an elicited imitation task to tap 48 L2 learners' knowledge of English relative clauses. The results of the study demonstrated that subject relatives retained greater accuracy scores than object relatives, which in turn retained greater accuracy scores than indirect object and oblique relatives. These results were largely consistent with the predictions made by the FGH, but only partially consistent with Diessel and Tomasello's L1 data.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how children who are taking online classes due to the COVID-19 pandemic can be helped through solution-focused counseling. This study examined how children's time spent playing games, communication between parents and children, and plans for their future have changed. The participants in the study were three siblings and their mother. The three children were elementary school students and were taking online classes. In this study, the participants were given solution-focused counseling. The data was analyzed using Creswell's spiral data analysis methodology. The results of this study were as follows. First, the participants spent less time palying games. Second, communication between the participants and their parents improved. Third, the participants became more motivated to plan for their futures. 본 연구의 목적은 코로나 19로 인하여 원격수업을 하고 있는 자녀들이 해결중심상담을 통하여 게임시간, 부모 자녀 간의 의사소통, 미래에 대한 계획 등이 어떻게 변화될 수 있는지를 살펴보고자 하였다. 연구참여자는 세 명의 자녀들과 어머니이다. 세 명의 자녀들은 초등학생이고, 원격수업을 하고 있었다. 본 연구에서는 해결중심상담의 상담기법을 활용하였다. 자료분석은 Creswell의 나선형 자료 분석 방법을 활용하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 원격수업을 하는 자녀들은 해결중심상담을 통하여 게임시간이 감소하였다. 둘째, 원격수업을 하는 자녀들은 해결중심상담을 통하여 부모 자녀 간의 의사소통에 긍정적인 변화가 나타났다. 셋째, 원격수업을 하는 자녀들은 해결중심상담을 통하여 자신의 미래를 계획할 수 있는 계기가 되었다.
The study aims to compare with the mid-term or long-term old-age income levels between generations in Korea by using hypothetical risk biographies' method when the occupational pension becomes mandatory. The results as follows. First, no biographies will receive old-age income beyond relative poverty line when they receive the National Pension(NPS) only. However, when the occupational pension becomes mandatory, the future old-age income in Korea will increase significantly with offsetting the effect on reduction in income replacement ratio in the NPS, which will be not less than those of the Western countries. Second, the effect that increases in income replacement ratio in the NPS by 5% will be insignificant in nearly all biographies. Third, the bigger the proportion of the occupational pension is, the larger pension gaps between income levels and between genders will be. Therefore, in order to achieve adequate old-age income security it is necessary to strengthen the roles of occupational pension throughout its compulsion and, other remedial actions in the NPS for vulnerable social groups such as women and low-income earners should be accompanied. 본 연구는 한국의 퇴직연금이 향후 다층노후소득보장체계에서 유의미한 제도로 기능하게 될 경우, 중장기 적으로 어느 정도의 노후소득을 보장할 수 있을지를 ‘가설적 위험 인구집단’ 방식을 사용하여 세대별로 비교 분석하는 것에 목적이 있다. 분석결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 국민연금만 받게 될 때, 거듭된 소득대체율 하락으로 인해 상대빈곤선을 초과하는 인구집단은 나타나지 않았다. 다만 퇴직연금이 의무화되어 노후소득 보장의 기능을 온전히 수행하게 된다면 국민연금의 소득대체율 하락이 상쇄되어 미래세대의 노후소득 수준은 지금보다 크게 개선될 수 있고, 서구 국가들과 비교하여도 그 수준이 크게 차이나지 않음을 확인하였다. 둘째, 국민연금의 소득대체율이 45%로 인상되더라도 거의 모든 계층에서 급여인상은 미미한 수준에 머무는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 전체 노후소득에서 퇴직연금의 비중이 커질수록, 후세대로 갈수록, 계층별 연금 격차는 점차 커질 것으로 예측되었다. 이상의 내용들을 바탕으로 적정한 노후소득보장의 목표를 달성하려면 퇴직연금의 의무화를 통한 역할 강화가 필수적이며, 여성, 저임금근로자와 같은 취약계층을 위한 국민연금 차원의 개선책이 동반되어야 함을 제언하였다.