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      • KCI등재

        近代 國語 筆寫本資料에서의 ‘ㄹ-ㄴ’表記에 대한 小考

        이광호(Lee Kwang-ho) 한국학중앙연구원 2001 한국학 Vol.24 No.1

        We know, in the latter middle Korean and contemporary Korean, the fact about the phonemes ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’ chain(ex. 홀ㄹ, 흘러 etc.) in which appears in-between two vowels is transcribed with ‘ㄹ-ㄴ’ some of them rarely and others wholly among the modern Korean xylographic data. In addition to this xylographic data, we have confirmed that ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’ chain is transcribed with ‘ㄹ-ㄴ’ very regularly in Korean hand-written data(Syeonbugun Eonhayngyusa [션부군 언항유사] and Byeongjarok [병자록]). The whole things that had been discussed were the matter of a simple transcriptional problem about such phenomenon, that is, ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’ chain transcription between two vowels of the latter middle Korean is transcribed with ‘ㄹ-ㄴ’ chain in modern Korean times. This was confirmed by Lee Gi-Mun and Ahn Pyong-Hi?Lee Kwang-Ho. But we do not think that this is a simple transcriptional difference but at microscopic standpoint, we have rather interpreted that the phonological and phonetic facts by the group of speakers of modern Korean times have intervened. The basis was found on the point where Korean ‘ㄹ’ appears to be a lateral sound [l] at the last syllable and flap sound [?] at the initial syllable. That is, Korean ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’ chain should have natuarally appeared by ‘[l]-[?]’ at the last syllable and at the initial syllable but the latter flap sound ‘ㄹ’[?] had been assimilated nearly into [l] by the effect of former lateral sound ‘ㄹ’[l]. This we had marked by [L]. Therefore, the latter middle Korean ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’ chain had been changed from ‘[l]-[?]’ into ‘[l]-[L]’; however, this is nothing but a transcription that had appeared as a consequence of perceiving ‘[l]-[l]’ by the speakers of the times. This chain ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’ can not be pronounced simultaneously by [l l] in-between two vowels but one [l]. Just as this, by not perceiving ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’([l]-[l]) chain but by ‘ㄴ’ instead of the latter ‘ㄹ’ for the latter middle Korean ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’, the modern Korean times speakers had insisted that ‘ㄹ[l]-ㄹ[L]’ had been changed to ‘ㄹ[?]-ㄹ[n]’ at microscopic standpoint. Since the latter ‘ㄹ’ was perceived by ‘ㄴ’ in the ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’ chain, the former lateral sound ‘ㄹ’[l] had rather become palatal lateral [?]. If you agree to the point that the cognition of the group of speakers at the times that had dealt ordinarily for a simple transcriptional problem by observing the matter with a little more microscopic standpoint for ‘ㄹ-ㄹ’ chain, which was formed in-between two vowels of the latter middle Korean that can be considered regular at certain extent in modern Korean that was transcribed by ‘ㄹ-ㄴ’ of which that can be understood correctly, I would say the purpose of this paper has been accomplished at certain degree.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        일회용 위생장갑에서 Phthalate류 및 Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate 분석

        이광호,권기성,곽인신,최재천,전대훈,정동윤,최병희,김성욱,이선희,이철원,Lee, Kwang-Ho,Kwon, Ki-Sung,Kwak, In-Shin,Choi, Jae-Chon,Jeon, Dae-Hoon,Jeong, Dong-Youn,Choi, Byung-Hee,Kim, Sung-Wook,Lee, Sun-Hee,Lee, Chul-Won 한국포장학회 2000 한국포장학회지 Vol.6 No.1

        일회용 위생장갑에서 diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-propyl phthalate (DprP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) 및 dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) 등과 같은 phthalate ester 와 di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) 을 분석하였다. 일회용 위생장갑은 소매점에서 구입하였으며, 사염화탄소를 추출용매로 6시간 동안 Soxhlet 장치에서 추출하였다. 8종의 제품 모두 poly-ethylene (PE) 재질이었으며, 식품위생법에 따라 box 포장에 표기 사항이 있었다. 8 종의 모든 제품에서 Phthalate ester 류 와 DEHA는 검출한계를 넘지 않았다. Phthalate esters 인 DEP, DprP, DBP, DPP, BBP, DEHP, DCHP와 DEHA의 검출한계는 각각 1.8, 1.9, 1.3, 1.1, 0.9, 0.7, 2.1 와 0.8 mg/L 이었다. The level of plasticizer such as diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-propyl phthalate (DprP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) was determined in disposable sanitary gloves. Samples of disposable sanitary gloves were taken at retail shops, and their overall extractions in carbon tetrachloride were measured, after establishment of soxhlet appratus in 6 hours. All of 8 samples of disposable sanitary gloves at retail shops were polyethylene (PE). All of the manufactures was voluntarily labelled their boxes of gloves in line Korea Food Code. The level of phthalate esters and DEHA in all of 8 samples were not exceed the detection limit. The detection limits of DEP, DprP, DBP, DPP, BBP, DEHP, DCHP and DEHA were 1.8, 1.9, 1.3, 1.1, 0.9, 0.7, 2.1 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively.

      • KCI등재

        스피넬계 흑색 안료를 이용한 흑색 지르코니아 세라믹스의 제조 및 특성분석

        이광호,이용석,박주석,이병하,Lee, Kwang-Ho,Lee, Yong-Seok,Park, Joo-Seok,Lee, Byung-Ha 한국세라믹학회 2008 한국세라믹학회지 Vol.45 No.4

        The zirconia ceramics are widely used because of their excellent mechanical properties. Recently, many researches to make a colored zirconia was achieved to satisfy the individual aesthetic requirements. In this study, the synthesis of black-color spinel-based inorganic pigments which are stable above $1400^{\circ}C$ and the fabrication of black-colored zirconia using the synthesized pigments are investigated. Inorganic pigments which have spinel structure and near black color were synthesized by a solid state reaction method using a $Fe_2O_3,\;Cr_2O_3$, CoO and NiO powder as a starting materials at $1600^{\circ}C$. Most of synthesized pigments were black colored spinel phases and single spinel phase was successfully synthesized at the composition range of $Cr_2O_3:25{\sim}35%,\;Fe_2O_3:45{\sim}55%$, CoO:20% and NiO:$6{\sim}10%$. The black-colored zirconia was fabricated at $1410^{\circ}C$ with the 5 wt% synthesized pigments and their properties were evaluated. The results showed that the strength value was more than 848 MPa, absorption rate was 0.1%, the brightness of color was $L^*:40{\sim}42$, the tone of color is $a^*:0.2{\sim}0.8$ and $b^*:-1.1{\sim}2.4$. As a result, the black-colored zirconia was suitable for a artificial jewelry or decoration zirconia goods.

      • KCI등재

        흑연 함침법에 의한 흑색 지르코니아의 제조 및 특성분석

        이광호,안종필,박주석,이용석,이병하,Lee, Kwang-Ho,Ahn, Jong-Pil,Park, Joo-Seok,Lee, Yong-Seok,Lee, Byung-Ha 한국세라믹학회 2009 한국세라믹학회지 Vol.46 No.4

        Zirconia is widely used for structural materials in machinery due to its superior properties, such as high strength, high hardness, and high toughness. Zirconia generally has ivory or white color. Therefore many studies are performed for diversification of zirconia color, in order to be widely uitilized for decoration and machine parts which need distincfive color. In this study, graphite is used to prevent structural defect, to maintain superior properties, and to develop black color of zirconia by impregnation method. As specimen was impregnated at $1600^{\circ}C$ for 2 h, bending strength is 1221 MPa, density is $6.01\;g/cm^3$, hardness is 10.1 GPa, absorption coefficient is 0%, transmittance is Fail, chromaticity is 54. The results indicate that black zirconia has enough properties to be adopted as mechanical parts. Optimum impregnation time is 2 h for various observations.

      • KCI등재

        추측확인법과 확인추측법의 의미와 기원

        이광호(Lee, Kwang-Ho) 한국어문학회 2017 語文學 Vol.0 No.137

        The grammatical sum does not form a coherent semantic identity. In the arrangement of the prefinal ending, the following elements add the grammatical and semantic meanings to the preceding elements. In conclusion, the arrangement of the prefinal ending of the estimation-confirmation is composed of the functions of estimation and confirmation and adds the semantic qualities of the information to the assumed element, and the confirmation-estimation undermines grammatical structure by less emphasizing the significance of confirmation. The ‘-리어-’ of the estimationconfirmation and the ‘-어리-’ of the confirmation-estimation have different syntactic structures, leading to different semantic qualities in terms of [±Confirmation]. This is accompanied by a change in the semantic elements of the estimation according to the meaning of the confirmation that precedes to or follows after the ‘-리-’, which is realized in the same form. Specifically, the form of estimation-confirmation carries the semantic element of simple assumption, while functioning to deliver the information. Therefore, the meaning unit of confirmation is not clearly distinguished. On the other hand, confirmation-estimation takes a form of rhetorical questionand therefore conveys the opposite meaning. It strengthens the role of confirmation, by placing the semantic element of the confirmation after the prefinal ending. The sentence of the confirmation-estimation often takes a form of “interrogative -려” (or “interrogative -리어-”) in front of the final ending. On the other hand, confirmation-estimation is associated with ‘-아- + -리 - + -아 (< 가)’. The grammatical arrangement and placement determines different semantic roles. If ‘-리-’ is realized in the form of estimation, it can be used to express the semantic differences determined byaccording to the order of arrangement. However, as a result, this research shows that ‘-리₁-’, which is settled in the form of estimation-confirmation, and ‘-리₂-’, is realized in a form of the confirmation-estimation, and the both are originally different grammatical elements. In a historical sense, there is no precedent to ‘-리₁-’ coming before the prefinal endings of ‘-거/어-아-’, except for ‘-리₂-’. ‘★’ and ‘★’ in Sǒktok kugyǒl during the Koryǒ period, which reveals the historical trajectory of the grammar functions corresponding to ‘ - 리₁-’ and ‘- 리₂-’ of the 15th century Korea, respectively. For example, ‘★’ functions as the prefinal ending and ‘★’ functions as the interrogative ending in combination with interrogative auxiliary element. In the 15th century, ‘-리₁-’ and ‘-리₂-’ show different grammatical categorization, as the ‘-리-’ element was originally a combination of two or more morphemes, not a single morpheme, deriving from other grammatical elements. The element was drawn from a combination of a gerund ending and a copula, but ‘리₁-’ and ‘-리₂-’ were differentiated by which prefinal ending the element is being combined with. The two forms derived from the grammaticalization process of the interrogative endings and formed new grammar categories. Although they contain different semantic compositions, their properties indicates that they share the semantic function of the estimation.

      • KCI등재

        최승자 시의 애도 주체와 젠더 정치학

        이광호(Lee, Kwang-Ho) 한국시학회 2016 한국시학연구 Vol.- No.45

        본 논문은 최승자 초기 시에서의 ‘애도의 주체’를 분석하면서 그 미학적 특이성과 젠더 정치학의 문제를 제기하고자 한다. 최승자의 시는 애도의 주체가 ‘낳은 주체’ 즉 존재를 ‘생성’하고 ‘이행’시키는 존재가 되는 시적인 과정을 드러낸다. ‘너’와 함께 한 시간의 상실 앞에서 시적 주체는 기억을 보존하는 방식으로 ‘부재’속에 머문다. 기억은 몸에 새겨져 지워질 수 없는 것으로 재구성되고, 기억의 주체는 그 ‘주체화’의 자리에서 내려와 기억에 대해 수동적인 위치에 처하게 된다. 기억의 윤리학은 몸에 새겨진 시간을 ‘기억할 수밖에 없는’ 존재로서의 ‘이중 애도’의 주체가 된다. 기억의 주체가 ‘낳은 주체’로 전환될 때, 죽어 가는 ‘여성-몸’은 애도의 예외적인 형식을 드러낸다. 죽은 여성의 몸과 ‘사산’된 존재에 대한 애도는, ‘여성-몸’이 만드는 다른 생산의 ‘(불)가능성’으로 전환된다. 애도는 죽음을 넘어서는 ‘여성-몸’의 혁명적인 상상력과 조우한다. ‘낳는 주체’로서의 ‘여성-몸’의 잠재성은, 하나의 존재를 다른 존재로 ‘이행’시키는 것이며, 애도 주체로서의 여성 주체는 통과제의적인 장소가 된다. 최승자의 초기 시의 여성 주체는 시의 언어들 속에서 구성된 애도의 ‘수행자(遂行者)’로서의 시적 주체이다. 이 애도의 주체는 사랑과 기억의 대상을 포기하기를 거부하며, ‘죽은 몸’이 대상을 ‘다시 낳는’ 행위를 통해 대상을 ‘내’ 안에서 재생성한다. ‘낳은 주체’는 모성의 이데올로기로서의 여성을 규정하는 것이 아니라, ‘낳은 행위’ 자체를 통해 애도의 주체를 재구성한다. 정상적인 애도의 경제학이 애도를 탈정치화한다면, 최승자의 시적 주체는 제도화되고 권력화된 젠더 시스템을 파열시키고 애도를 재정치화 한다. This research aimed at re-contextualizing the problem of the esthetic specialty and gender politics while analyzing "the subject of condolence" in Choi, Seung-Ja"s early poem. Choi, Seung-Ja"s poem reveals the poetic process that becomes a being that "creates" and "transmits" the "born subject", i.e. the existence that the subject of condolence gave birth. At the loss of time with "you", poetic subject remains in "absence" in the method of preserving the memory. Memory is recomposed as something that cannot be erased by being carved in body, and the subject of memory stays in the passive position in memory by descending from the position of that "subjectivation". Ethics of memory becomes the subject of "double condolence" as the being that "cannot but remember" the time carved in body. When the subject of memory is changed to "the subject that gave birth", dying "woman-body" reveals the exceptional form of condolence. Condolences on dead woman"s body and "stillborn" being is changed to "(im)possibility" of another production and revolution that "woman-body" makes. Condolence encounters revolutionary imagination of "woman-body" beyond death. Potential of "woman-body" as "the subject that gives birth" "transmits" an existence to another one, and the woman subject as the subject of condolence becomes the place of passage offer. Woman subject in Choi, Seung-Ja"s early poem is the poetic subject as the "performer (遂行者)’ of condolence composed in poetic languages. Subject of this condolence refuses to give up the object of love and memory, and regenerate the object in "me" through the act of ‘giving birth to the object again’ of ‘dead body’. ‘Birth giving subject’ does not define woman category as the ideology of mother, but recomposes the subject of condolence through ‘birth giving act’ itself. If the economics of normal condolence ex-politicizes condolence, Choi, Seung-Ja"s poetic subject ruptures institutionalized and authorized gender system and re-politicizes condolence.

      • KCI등재

        황동제 주방기구에서 유해중금속의 용출기작에 관한연구

        이광호,권기성,전대훈,최병희,김성욱,이선희,이철원,Lee, Kwang-Ho,Kwon, Ki-Sung,Jeon, Dae-Hoon,Choi, Byung-Hee,Kim, Sung-Wook,Lee, Sun-Hee,Lee, Chul-Won 한국포장학회 1999 한국포장학회지 Vol.5 No.2

        구이용 불판인 주방용 기구에 사용되는 황동제에서 Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Sn등 유해 중금속의 용출과 메카니즘에 대하여 연구하였다. 황동을 대표금속으로 선정하여 용출 온도 (30, 60, 80, $95^{\circ}C$), pH (2.5, 4.3, 6.0, 7.0) 및 시간 (30, 90, 180, 360분)에 따른 금속 용출량 조사에서 온도 및 pH 변화에 따른 시험결과, $95^{\circ}C$, pH 2.5인 조건에서 용출이 가장 많았던 반면, 용출 시간별 시험에서는 180분 이후까지 Pb가 용출된 후 평형 상태를 유지하였다. 납이 용출되는 가시적 현상은 SEM을 통하여 확인할 수 있었다. 황동의 경우, 재질중의 Pb 함량과 용출량과의 관계를 규명하기 위해 Pb 함량별 10종 (0, 0.02, 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.9, 1.7, 5.4, 9.2%(w/w))의 시편를 제작하여 4% 초산, $95^{\circ}C$, 30분에서 시험한 결과, 용출규격인 중금속이 1.0 ppm (납으로서) 이하가 되기 위해서는 재질중 허용 Pb 함량은 0.2% 이하가 되어야 했다. The migration mechanism of trace elements, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Sn from brass food-contact utensiles was investigated. The migration of metals from brass was affected by the migration temperature (30, 60, 80 and $95^{\circ}C$), the simulant pH (2.5, 4.3, 6.0 and 7.0) and the migration time (30, 90, 180 and 360 min.). The amount of Pb migration was maximum at $95^{\circ}C$ with pH 2.5. This study indicated that the equilibrium of Pb migration was reached at 180 minutes. The mechanism of Pb migration was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). To correlate the relations between the migration and the content of Pb in brass samples, ten brass samples having known content of Pb (the quantities of Pb in brass ; 0, 0.02, 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.9, 1.4, 5.4 and 9.2% (w/w)) were tested in the following conditions, 4% acetic acid, $95^{\circ}C$ and 30 minutes. The result represented that content of Pb in brass samples must be below 0.2% (w/w) to satisfy the 1.0 ppm (as Pb) of Korea Food Code.

      • KCI등재

        사이버 안보를 위한 군(軍) 정보보호 전문인력 양성방안

        이광호,김흥택,Lee, Kwang-ho,Kim, Heung-Taek 한국융합보안학회 2017 융합보안 논문지 Vol.17 No.2

        The Cyberspace of the Republic of Korea Army is continuously threatened by enemies. Means for responding to such cyber threats are ultimately Military information security professional personnel. Currently, however, there are only a handful of advanced information security professional persons in Republic of Korea Army, and a lack of systematic training is inadequate. Therefore, in this thesis, we surveyed the information security professional human resource policies of USA, UK, Israel, and Japan. In addition, the policy to train professional human resources specialized in defense cyber security, we proposed training of specialist talent of 4 steps and medium and long term plan, step-by-step training system sizing, introduction of certification system. 우리 군의 사이버 공간은 적으로부터 지속적인 위협을 받고 있다. 이 같은 사이버 위협에 대응하는 수단은 결국 군(軍) 정보보호 전문인력이다. 하지만 현재 우리군의 고급 정보보호 전문인력은 소수에 불과하며 체계적인 양성계획은 미비한 상태이다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 세계 주요국인 미국, 영국, 이스라엘, 그리고 일본의 사이버 전문인력 양성정책을 조사하였다. 그리고 국내 정보보호 전문인력 양성정책을 조사하여 간략하게 제시하였다. 그리고 국방 사이버안보 전문인력 양성을 위해 4단계 전문인력 양성 및 중장기 계획 수립, 단계별 교육체계 정립, 인증제 도입을 제시하였다.

      • KCI등재

        수요함수 관점에서 해석한 수요반응의 사회적 후생 분석

        이광호,양관모,Lee, Kwang-Ho,Yang, Kwan-mo 대한전기학회 2017 전기학회논문지 Vol.66 No.1

        Social Welfare is useful concept for evaluating the effectiveness of an economic policy in micro economics. This paper focuses on Social Welfare(SW) of electricity market incorporating demand response(DR). Competition between DR and generation company is modeled as a simple bid function. DR function can be considered as an negative generation(called Negawatt) and as an element of modified demand function. These two approaches result in the same demand reduction, generation power, and the market price. However, SW in the modified demand function approach is not identical to SW in the Negawatt approach. It makes the numerical index of DR effectiveness less persuasive. This paper proposes modified definition of SW in the demand function approach. The proposed definition of SW leads the DR effectiveness index to be identical to that in the Negawatt approach.

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