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This study focuses on how General Lee achieved continuous victories in the beginning of Japanese invasion. Unlike previous studies that focused on the victory factors on the water, this study focuses on analyses of General Lee’s combat preparation and emphasized combat capability during initial stages of battles, which defeated Japanese forces. The background of General Lee’s substantial war preparation came from the battle of Japanese invasion led by Hong-Yang in the Year of Jeong-Hae (1587). By developing the foundation for discipline and commanding system based on the past experience, Lee focused on creative, yet stuck to the basic war-preparation. One of Lee’s creative works was that he collected information of Japanese combat style to create his battle strategies: to deny enemy"s climbing up the warship, but to be close enough to target enemy ships with turtle ships, and to inspect the war preparations. For the war preparations, Lee inspected ships, various weapons, and defense system on the field. But most importantly, Lee’s victorious background originated from his nationally scaled propulsion for increasing the number of war-ships, development of cannons specially designed for battles against Japanese forces. When the actual Lim-Gin Japanese invasion occurred, Lee was fully prepared to go to the war against Japan by utilizing the effective reporting system, which reached to Right naval HQ located in Jeon-Ra provinces, observatory posts, and central government in a very short time. Lee also prepared for all possible routes of Japanese incomings and settled his navy on sea of Gyeong-Sang waiting for the imminent battle command from the government. In order to execute Command & Control system in the battle at the sea of Gyeong-Sang, Lee required strict command system, and hierarchy with Won-Gyun and Uk-Gi Lee’s fleet, which allowed well-coordinated strategic system. Also, strategy integrated intelligence, maneuver, fires, and force protections against Japanese Force. First, spot the enemy, approach with fleets during earl dawn when security is assured, then charge with turtle ships and full-on assailment of cannons with Pan-Ok ships to defeat Japanese Navy. After such strategy, Lee quickly ran away from the battle scene in order to prepare for the possible ambush attacks and buy some maintenance time for his navy. In summary, Lee achieved the victory via analyzing Japanese Navy’s current status, geography, water current, surround and attack strategy, ambush attacks, and effective maneuvers, which integrated with turtle ships and navy’s fire power. He also inspected his forces, fleets, and other weapons to sustain his combat capabilities. He distributed loots from the battles to his soldiers to alleviate their fear and fatigue. The most important victory factor would be Lee’s victory oriented leadership. His leadership highlighted field focused operations, principles, executions, and keen discernment, which contributed to flexible strategies, all with courage, fairness, people and his navy. In order to win the war, combat capability had to be performed at its best, and Lee’s victories at the initial battles exemplify preparation for the war and successful coordination of combat capability with his leadership in the naval battles.
Purpose: To assess changes in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head parameters after cataract surgery by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Twenty-nine eyes of 26 patients, who underwent cataract surgery, were imaged with spectral-domain OCT before and after surgery to measure peripapillary RNFL thickness and optic nerve head parameters, signal strength (SS), quadrant, 12 clock-hour RNFL thickness, rim area, disc area, cup/disc area ratio, vertical cup/disc ratio, and cup volume. Results: The postoperative RNFL thickness and SS were higher than before surgery (p < 0.05). Regarding optic nerve head parameters, rim area was 0.07 ± 0.10 mm higher than before surgery and disc area, cup/disc area ratio, vertical cup/disc ratio, cup volume were 0.07 ± 0.15 mm, 0.04 ± 0.04, 0.03 ± 0.05, 0.04 ± 0.06 mm, respectively, lower than before surgery (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Cataracts may decrease peripapillary RNFL thickness measurement and SS on OCT scans and change other optic nerve head parameters. Peripapillary RNFL thickness and optic nerve head parameter measurements should be interpreted with caution in eyes with significant cataracts.
Purpose: To compare the level of accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements attained by non-contact tonometer (NCT), rebound tonometer (RT) Icare<sup>®, and Tono-Pen (TONO-PEN AVIA<sup>®), using Goldmann Applanation tonometer (GAT) as a reference value and to explore their clinical usefulness. Methods: In a prospective study of 71 normal eyes, IOP was measured with NCT, RT, Tono-Pen and GAT. The IOP values of were then compared between the eyes. Results: RT showed statistically most significant agreement with the GAT [ICC 0.811, 95%CI 0.712-0.878]. In analysis of Bland-Altman plots, NCT showed the smallest mean bias (+0.2 mm Hg) and widest CI (95%CI; ±5.05 mm Hg), RT showed relatively small mean bias (-0.7 mm Hg) and narrowest CI (95%CI; ±3.75 mm Hg). Conclusions: There was a significant agreement between the RT and the GAT measurements. We expect RT to be considered as a reliable alternative when IOP measurement with GAT is not feasible. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 2014;55(1):47-53