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이 연구는 경찰공무원 자살에 대한 실태 파악을 통하여 이를 예방할 수 있는 방안을 마련하는데 기초적인 자료로 활용됨은 물론 향후 경찰공무원 자살에 대한 보다 심도 있는 과학적 연구를 위한 기초자료를 제시하는데 그 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 2000년부터 2010년까지 한국언론재단 종합뉴스 데이터베이스 및 국내 주요 포털사이트 뉴스에 보도된 경찰공무원 자살과 관련된 기사 71건을 검색하여 내용분석을 실시하였다. 경찰공무원 자살자의 인구사회학적 특성과 경찰공무원 자살의 특성으로 구분하여 분석한 결과, 인구사회학적 특성과 관련해서 성별은 남자가 대다수를 차지하고 있었으며, 연령대에 있어서는 30대의 비율이 가장 높았으며, 계급에 있어서는 경사의 비율이 가장 높았으며, 소속에 있어서는 서울지방경찰청 소속의 비율이 가장 높은 것으로 나타났다. 경찰공무원 자살의 특성과 관련해서 자살 계절은 상대적으로 겨울에 사건이 많이 발생하는 것으로 나타났으며, 자살발견시각은 10시 이후~12시 직전이 가장 높은 것으로 나타났다. 자살자 발견자는 자살자를 알고 있는 사람의 비율이 높은 것으로 나타났으며, 자살자 발견 장소는 자살자가 주된 생활을 하는 곳에서 발견된 비율이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 자살 방법에 있어서는 목맴 다음으로 총기를 이용한 방법이 높은 것으로 나타났으며, 자살의 원인과 관련해서는 정신적?정신과적 문제, 가정 문제, 직장?업무상의 문제 순으로 나타났다. 동반자살과 관련해서 다른 사람과 함께 자살을 시도한 경우는 5.6%로 나타났으며, 동반자살자는 자녀, 내연녀, 짝사랑 여인으로 나타났다. 마지막으로 유서를 남긴 경우가 40.8%이며, 유서의 주된 내용은 미안함?죄송함으로 나타났다.
Solar urticaria is a rare disorder in which immediate erythema and wheals are induced by ultraviolet or visible irradiation. This condition usually occurs in the third and fifth decades of life and is very rare in childhood. A 3-year-old girl presented with a history of an erythematous rash which had occurred on the face and neck, immediately after exposure to sunlight for one month. A diagnosis of solar urtiacria was made on the clinical reviews and phototest. Other photosensitive disorders could be excluded by the clinical and laboratory findings. She was treated with ketotifen and sun protection showing good early results.
“Circe” in Ulysses is the chapter in which Bloom’s suppressed desire is unleashed and sublimated. More recently, for many critics it is considered as a Joyce’s critique of sexual discrimination and patriarchy in the sense that Bloom’s perversity is the outcome of social biases on sexuality. However, Bloom’s perversity, especially his androgyny not only implies social criticism but also is the essential element in Joyce’s theory of creativity. Since Plato, androgyne imagination has been an important aspect of the Western literary theory of creativity. Therefore, a study on “Circe”, or Bloom’s perversity such as androgyny should be at once the study on Joyce’s theory of creativity through feminine imagery and the study on the changes and consequences in the history of sexuality and femininity. This paper, accordingly, analyzes some aspects of Circe’s images in ancient works, compares them with those of “Circe” in Ulysses, and examines Bloom’s androgyny in its historical context. Circe in the classic works has the same positive aspects such as creativity, rebirth, sublimation and initiation for men rather than negative aspects as a witch. These positive aspects function as an essential condition for Bloom to transform himself to a reformer and an artist and to achieve his humanity. That is, “Circe” in Ulysses at once criticizes existing sexual morality and reveals the positive aspects of femininity as seen in the Circe images since ancient times, which helps to understand the relation between Joyce’s theory of creativity and its indebtedness to the ancient tradition. This paper, through the examples in the classics, examines the historical condition that “Circe” shows when Joyce’s theory of creativity meets Bloom’s androgyny in the historical context.
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is one of the most critical disorders of acute deep vein thrombosis in that it can cause permanent disability secondary to the compartment syndrome. Although several etiological factors have been proposed, PCD after coronary artery bypass surgery is extremely rare and its definitive pathophysiology is still under debate. We herein present a case of PCD that resulted in the compartment syndrome after coronary artery bypass surgery. Early recognition and decompression of PCD are crucial for saving the affected limbs.
Purpose: To investigate the effects of vitreomacular traction (VMT) on ranibizumab treatment response for neovascularage-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: A retrospective review of 85 eyes of 85 patients newly diagnosed with neovascular AMD was conducted. Patients were eligible if they had received more than three consecutive monthly ranibizumab (0.50 mg)treatments and ophthalmic evaluations. Patients were classified into a VMT (+) group or VMT (-) group accordingto optical coherence tomography imaging. Best corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness (CRT)measurements were obtained at three and six months after initial injection. Results: One month after the third injection, mean visual acuity (VA) increases of 6.36 and 9.87 letters were observedin the VMT (+) and VMT (-) groups, respectively. The corresponding mean CRT values decreased by70.29 μm and 121.68 μm, respectively. A total 41 eyes were identified as eligible for a subsequent fourth injection;71.1% of patients (27 eyes) in the VMT (+) group but only 29.8% of patients in the VMT (-) group needed asubsequent fourth injection. Follow-up was extended to six months for 42 of the 85 enrolled patients (49.4%). The trends in VA and optical coherence tomography were found to be maintained at six-month follow-up. Conclusions: VA and CRT appeared to be more improved after ranibizumab treatment in the VMT (-) groupcompared to the VMT (+) group. VMT might antagonize the effect of ranibizumab treatment in a subpopulationof AMD patients.
The effects of chemical pretreatments on the excess sludge production in the membrane-coupled bioreactor were investigated. In addition, their effects on membrane fouling were also evaluated. Two membrane bioreactors were operated. In one reactor, a part of the mixed liquor was treated with NaOH and ozone gas consecutively and was returned to the reactor. The flowrate of the chemical pretreatment stream was 1.5% of the influent flowrate. During the 200days of operation, the MLSS level in the bioreactor with mixed liquor pretreatment was maintained relatively constant at the range of 8,000 ~ 10,000㎎/ℓ while it increased steadily up to 26,000 ㎎/ℓ in the absence of the pretreatment. Each reactor was equipped with two laboratory membrane modules where the flux for each module was 20, and 30ℓ/㎡․h, respectively. With pretreatment, almost constant transmembrane pressure(TMP) was observed throughout the operation at the flux of 20ℓ/㎡․h. Without pretreatment the membrane module at the same flux could also be operated at relatively stable condition. However, as the MLSS increases up to 25,000 ㎎/ℓ, a fast TMP increase was observed. In conclusion, a complete control of excess sludge production in the membrane-coupled bioreactor was possible without significant deterioration of the treated water quality. In addition, it was shown that stable operation in terms of TMP is possible with sludge pretreatment and recirculation
PURPOSES : In this study, various laboratory tests were performed to investigate the suitability of wasted vinyl as a modifier of asphalt binder. METHODS: Based on the ASTM specification, variations in material properties of asphalt binder such as penetration, flash point, softening point, ductility, penetration index (PI), and performance grade (PG) with vinyl content were tested and analyzed. RESULTS : Lavoratory tests revealed that penetration and ductility of the asphalt binder increased with the vinyl content. The flash point,softening point, and PI decreased, and PG changed from 64-22 to 70-22 with increase of the vinyl content. CONCLUSIONS: Wasted vinyl modified the material properties of the asphalt binder. However, the asphalt binder with vinyl content over 6.0% was unsuitable as a pavement material. PURPOSES : In this study, various laboratory tests were performed to investigate the suitability of wasted vinyl as a modifier of asphalt binder. METHODS: Based on the ASTM specification, variations in material properties of asphalt binder such as penetration, flash point, softening point, ductility, penetration index (PI), and performance grade (PG) with vinyl content were tested and analyzed. RESULTS : Lavoratory tests revealed that penetration and ductility of the asphalt binder increased with the vinyl content. The flash point,softening point, and PI decreased, and PG changed from 64-22 to 70-22 with increase of the vinyl content. CONCLUSIONS: Wasted vinyl modified the material properties of the asphalt binder. However, the asphalt binder with vinyl content over 6.0% was unsuitable as a pavement material.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the error tendency between preoperative expected refraction and postoperative manifest refraction based on axial length, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric data obtained by an automated keratometer and Pentacam<sup>® in cataract surgery cases and to report how their differences affect determination of intraocular lens (IOL) power. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 110 eyes of 84 patients who underwent cataract surgery. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured by A scan ultrasound biometry, while keratometric values were obtained by an automated keratometer and Pentacam<sup>®. IOL power was calculated using the SRK/T formula. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the axial length, anterior chamber depth, and the difference of keratometric values between the 2 devices. Refractive error was analyzed 2 months after surgery. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between axial length and anterior chamber depth among the groups; however, the K reading differences were statistically significant. Although the mean absolute error (MAE) of each group showed no statistical significance among the groups, the MAE was more pronounced in the group in which the keratometeric value measured by Pentacam<sup>® differed more than 1.00 diopter from the automated keratometer measurements. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference between axial length and anterior chamber depth among the groups. A difference of 1.00 diopter or more between the keratometric values obtained by an automated keratometer and Pentacam<sup>® significantly affects the postoperative refractive error; therefore, these factors should be considered when determining IOL power.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Bakhtin’s theory of dialogism illuminates pluralistic attitude in modern, even post-modern literature and culture. His refusal of monologic systems parallels the development of modern literary theory which emphasizes the heterogeneous elements and therefore, insists the possibility of various meanings of the text. Not many, however, noticed that besides Bakhtin’s dialogism, irony also witnessed the similar development. The difference between the speaking and the meaning in irony also implies the possibility of various interpretations of a text and denies unitary, monologic view on the world. In this sense, dialogism and irony have much in common. Both emphasizes heterogeneity and variety in text and interpretation. This paper therefore, reviews the development of irony and analyzes its similarity with dialogism. This approach thus helps to understand Bakhtin’s dialogism in a wider context, and makes it possible to have historical view on the modern literary trend based on plurality and heterogeneity of the text.