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Glelmia littoralis (Umbellife rae) is the medicinal plant used traditionally for treatment of immune-related di seases. Prostaglandins and ni tric oxide (NO) have been implicated as important mediators In the processes of inflammation and carcinogenesis. For understanding the mechani sms for pharmacological activities of Glehnia littoralis, we evaluated the inhibitory activity of Glehnia littoralis on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO production in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cell s. The results showed that the extract of Glehnia littoralis inhibited LPS- induced PGE2 production effectively, but not NO. Additional study revealed that the extract of GJehnia Jittoralis suppressed cyclooxygenase - 2 (COX- 2) expression in a dose-dependent manner. Present study suggests that GJehnja littoralis may have anti -inflammatory and/or cancer chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of PGE2 production by the suppression of COX-2 activity.
Glehnia littoralis (Umbelliferae). a perennial herb distributed along the coastline of northern Pacific countries, is the medicinal plant used traditionally for treatment of various diseases. This review focuses on the various pharmacological activities of Glehnia lIttoralis for understanding about its traditional medicinal applications, medicinal uses in the modem society, and potentials for drug development. Glehnia littoralis was reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-amnesic, blood circulation-promoting, irnrnunomodulatory, anti-microbial, and allelopathic activities. However, their mechanisms remain to be clarified. Because Glehnia littora/is has been prescribed in traditional Oriental medicine as a tonic herb, Glehnia httoralis can be better than other chemical drugs and medicines which exert the equal pharmacological activities. Although the activities of Glehnia IIttoralis are not specifically high-potent with unique mode of action, it may turn out that it can be beneficial to exert multiple pharmacological activities. In view of low toxicity, relative cheapness, presence in the diet, and occurrence in various herbal remedies of Glehnia littorah's, it needs to be prudent to evaluate its properties and applications further.
Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Leguminosae) is a well-known herbal medicine that has long been valued as a demulcent to relieve inflammatory disorders. To compare the influence of different solvents on the anti-inflammatory efficacy of G. uralensis, we measured the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells by extracts produced using different solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, or n-hexane). The results showed that methanol was the most effective solvent for the inhibition of both NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. However, there was no difference among the extracts for inhibition of TNF-α. Further study must be performed for the analysis of correlation between the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts produced using different solvents and the content of major bioactive compounds in G. uralensis, such as glycyrrhizin and liquiritin. The present study suggests that methanol may be a more appropriate solvent of G. uralensis than other solvents (water, ethanol, and n-hexane) to yield the greatest anti-inflammatory activity for food additives and medicine.
Obesity has become one of the main public health problems. Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae), syn Aucklandia lappa and Saussurea costus, is a well-known herbal medicine that has been used for treating various ailments, such as inflammatory and gastrointestinal diseases. The present study examined the anti-obesity effect of S. lappa extract (SLE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model. SLE significantly inhibited the differentiation from preadipocytes to adipocytes of cultured 3T3-L1 in dose-dependent manner. In addition, SLE significantly decreased the body weight gain and the food efficiency ratio of mice fed HFD during 9 weeks. Further study must be performed for the pharmacological mechanism and safety of SLE as well as the identification of active compound in SLE. Our results revealed that S. lappa suppresses the adipogenesis in cultured cells and the obesity in rodent models. Therefore, S. lappa may be useful toward the development of new potent anti-obesity drugs.
Rhubarb is the well-known and frequently used herbal medicine for the treatment of constipation, inflammation, and cancer. As described in the Korea and Chinese Pharmacopoeia, rhubarb consists of the roots and rhizomes of Rheum palmatum, R. officinale, and R. tanguticum. However, the pharmacological differences among rhubarb have not been scientifically established. In the present study, we investigated and compared the inhibitory effects of 70% ethanolic extracts from R. palmatum (RPE), R. officinale (ROE), R. nobile (RNE), and R. franzenbachii (RFE) on the production of inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interlukin-1beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. ROE, RNE, and RFE significantly inhibited the release of NO, PGE2, IL-1β, and TNF-α. RPE significantly reduced the release of IL-1β, but not NO, PGE2, and TNF-α. Overall, RFE was found to inhibit the release of PGE2 and IL-1β, to a far greater degree than RPE, ROE, and RNE. Our results indicate that RFE possess the strongest anti-inflammatory activity among 4 tested rhubarb.
This study was carried out to investigate the distribution of native Asparagus cochinchinensis and ecological characteristic in South Korea. Natural vegetative areas were investigated at 5 areas; Taean, Buan, Geoje, Namhae and Jindo. In this study, the 5m×5m quadrat was established for recording coverage and appearance species by phytosociological method. The flora of the studied area in native habitats were listed as 130 species. The native habitats was classified into Pinus thunbergii community and typical community. Two communities were located in a coastal cliff and have been destroyed. Therefore Asparagus cochinchinensis native habitats must be protected by regulation. In the studied sites, soil pH, organic matter, nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable K, exchangeable Ca, exchangeable Mg and cation exchange capacity were ranged from 5.1~5.7%, 1.77~3.59%, 0.19~0.54%, 5.4~18.7 (mg/kg), 0.24~0.48 (cmol+/kg) 0.76~2.83 (cmol+/kg), 3.11~6.22 (cmol+/kg) and 8.7~24.5(cmol+/kg), respectively.
The roots of both Aralia continentalis and Angelica biserrata, known as ‘Dokwhal' in Korea, have been used widely as a traditional oriental medicine to treat inflammation and thrombosis. However, the pharmacological differences between A. continentalis and A. biserrata have not been fully established. In the present study, we investigated and compared the inhibitory effects of 70% ethanolic extracts of A. continentalis (ACE) and A. biserrata (ABE) on the production of inflammatory mediators and secondary swelling from chemically induced ear edema. In RAW264.7 macrophages, both ACE and ABE significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interlukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a dose dependent manner. In addition, the swelling from TPA-induced edema in mouse ears was reduced by ACE and ABE. Overall, ACE showed stronger activities than ABE in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that A. continentalis roots possess stronger anti-inflammatory activity than A. biserrata roots.