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      • KCI등재

        ‘緣雨堂' 海南尹氏家의 學問과 藝術

        정윤섭(Jeong Yun-seob) 역사문화학회 2003 지방사와 지방문화 Vol.6 No.1

        This paper looks into the scholarship and art of the Yun family of ‘Nokudang' in Haenam, which has been a representative family name in Haenam and was a typical noble family of the Joseon Dynasty. The Yun family of Haenam in the Joseon Dynasty has produced distinguished figures such as Yun Seondo who was the best writer of tanga, a kind of short poem and Yun Duseo, one of the three best painters of the late Joseon Dynasty. The Yun family had grown into the noble family of Haenam area since Yun Hyojeong settled in Nokudang, Yeon-Dong, Haenam, and the family produced numerous figures ever since. These figures had prominent spirits of scholarship and art, and left an abundance of cultural heritages which are now designated and preserved as national assets. This paper pays attention to the spirit of family scholarship which made it possible to produce such a large collective cultural heritage and aims at systematically studying the spirit of scholarship of the Yun Family in Haenam. Tradition of scholarship of the Yun family in Haenam started with Yun Hyojeong and continued with conspicuous figures such as Yun Seondo, Yun Duseo, Yun Deokhui. The common spirit of scholarship of the Yun family in Haenam is that they studied a wide range of knowledge through the practicality of ‘seohaK' (western science). It was Yun Seondo who established the practice of reading a variety of subjects, which became the basis of approach to and study on various fields of knowledge by figures of the Yun family in Haenam. Such a practice of studying a wide range of subjects had a great impact on Yun Duseo's ‘silhak' during the late Joseon Dynasty when silhak began to be acknowledged as a new science. Gongjae Yun Duseo had materialized such practical science by studying seohak and associating with Namin scholars who led silhak at the time, which is well portrayed not only in his academic work but also in his paintings. the most important field of Yun Duseo. When it comes to the Yun family in Haenam, there has been a large amount of work son the literary viewpoint of Yun Seondo who was acknowledged as the best writer of tanga. Another popular subject of research has been paintings of Yun Duseo. Construction and gardening. economic history of Nokudang, and life of the Yun family in Haenam have also been subjects of various studies as well.

      • KCI등재

        경계인으로서의 윤동주와 본향의 자리

        윤지은(Yun, Ji-eun) 한국근대문학회 2017 한국근대문학연구 Vol.18 No.2

        윤동주와 그의 시세계를 재구성하는 과정에서 주목되는 것은 그에게 영향을 준 외부적 요인을 살피는 작업이다. 이 작업은 윤동주 작품의 창작 시점과 발표 시점이 시차를 갖기 때문에 당대의 맥락을 필수적으로 살펴야 한다는 점, 과작을 했던 만큼 시인의 시세계 전반을 구성하기 위해서 영향관계에 있던 요인을 빠짐없이 조망할 필요가 있다는 점 등에서 중요하다. 이러한 문제의식에서 출발하여, 본고는 윤동주의 애송가 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉를 새롭게 소개함으로써 시인의 이력을 세밀하게 조직해보고자 했다. 번안곡인 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉는 미 대륙에 끌려온 아프리카 흑인노예가 그의 고통을 위로받을 공간인 유토피아적 고향을 불러내는 노래다. 나아가 노래와 시의 관련성을 토대로 윤동주 시에 나타난 ‘고향'의 의미를 해명하였다. 윤동주 시에서 고향은 부조리한 현실을 뛰어넘어 진정한 자유를 성취할 수 있는 미래에 대한 욕망을 포함한 공간이다. 이 공간은 ‘진정한 고향' 혹은 ‘본향'으로 구체화된다. 제국 일본과 식민지 조선, 그리고 간도라는 중층의 경계를 의식했던 윤동주에게 ‘진정한 고향'을 형상화하는 것은 현실에 저항하고 시대를 전복하려는 혁명적인 시도였다. The external factors that affected Yun Dong-ju's poetry and poetics attract much attention when we study his poetry. The most important of such external factors is the contemporary context of Yun's writing. This is because the time when he composed poetry was different from the time when he published it. Furthermore, the poet's works are few, thus the external factors must be carefully examined iso that we can construct Yun's whole poetry. Taking this issue of order of composition as its starting point, this paper discovered Yun's favorite song 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉, and organized his career in detail. 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉 was a song based on African-American Spiritual 〈Carry me back to old Virginny〉. This song is about black slaves in America wishing to return to their homeland. Based on the relationship between 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉 and Yun's poetry, this paper explains the meaning of ‘home' in Yun Dong-ju‘s poetry. In Yun's poetry, home is a place that embeds the desire for the future that can achieve true freedom beyond the absurd reality. Yun Dong-ju defines this space as the ‘true home' or ‘homeland'. It was a revolutionary attempt to overthrow the era's oppressors and resist their reality, who was conscious of the boundary between the imperial Japan, the colonial Joseon, and Gando.

      • 윤이상의 주요음기법을 통하여 나타난 도교사상(Interludium A를 중심으로)

        양윤선 ( Yun Seon Yang ) 한국피아노학회 2009 피아노음악연구 Vol.3 No.-

        Isang Yun is one of the great artists from 20th century who combined East Asian art and philosophy to Western music, and produced a music that is performed by Western instruments. In Germany, he got the title of `The Most Important 56 composers in 20th century`, `Living 5th Composer in Europe`, and `The Most Important Composer in 20th century`. Isang Yun`s musics are considerable to European artists. His musics contain unique characteristics in which artists from Europe can not modify. Isang Yun who recognized Western and Eastern culture in a principle of music got spotlight from European musicians. Ideas Isang Yun focused on are Taoism, Buddhism, and `tone` concept from East Asia. He concentrated especially on Taoism. Idea of `Hauptton` which is basis of Isang Yun`s music originated from Eastern sound concept. Therefore, this thesis will be discussed on musical presentation and Taoism that are indulged in Isang Yun`s music through "Interludium A". This piece was created with creativity and unique characteristics of Isang Yun. His life in Korea and Europe, style of music during his life time, what is Taoism and balance of yin and yang, and analysis of hauptton in each parts will be discussed to prove the understanding and hidden meaning of "Interludium A".

      • KCI등재후보

        MARS 코드의 수평관내부 응축열전달 모델 평가 및 개선

        이현진(Hyun Jin Lee), 안태환(Tae Hwan Ahn), 윤병조(Byong Jo Yun), 정재준(Jae Jun Jeong) 한국에너지학회 2016 에너지공학 Vol.25 No.1

        최근 원자력 발전소의 안전성을 획기적으로 향상시키기 위한 연구가 활발하게 진행되고 있으며 특히 피동냉각계통의 연구개발이 아주 중요하게 부각되고 있다. 피동냉각계통의 열전달 방식으로는 응축열전달 양식이 주로 채택되고 있다. 이와 같은 맥락에서 부산대학교 Ahn & Yun (Ahn 등, 2014)은 새로운 수평관내부 응축 모델을 제시한바 있다. 본 연구에서는 먼저 Ahn & Yun 이 제시한 수평관 응축 모델을 MARS 코드에 삽입하고 PASCAL 실험데이터를 이용하여 평가하였다. 이 평가결과를 통해 Ahn & Yun 모델의 코드적용에 있어 문제점을 규명하고 새로운 적용방법론을 적용하여 다양한 실험데이터로 다시 평가함으로써 MARS 코드의 향상된 응축 열전달 해석능력을 확인하였다. Extensive researches have been carried out for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants and, especially, the development of passive cooling systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) and passive residual heat removal system, is increasingly important, where condensation is a crucial heat transfer mechanism. Recently, Ahn & Yun et al. developed a horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer model as one of the activities for the PCCS development. In this work, we implemented the Ahn & Yun 's condensation heat transfer model into the MARS code and assessed it using the PASCAL experimental data. Based on the results of the assessment, we identified the limitations of the Ahn & Yun's model and suggested a modified Ahn & Yun 's model, and assessed the model using various experimental data.

      • KCI등재

        조형예술의 측면에서 본 윤이상의 주요음(향)작곡

        윤신향 한국음악학학회 2004 음악학 Vol.11 No.-

        This study tries to investigate the relation between maintone(sound)-composition of Isang Yun and formative arts. The first two chapter summerize the music historical primise for the integrative-artistic aesthetic and the process of establishment of Isang Yuns identity as a composer in europe. Therby it is characteristic, that Yun is interested in the relation between music and pictures, while the western composers in the 1950s deal with graphical music and accidental music: the compositional situation tends to weaken the traditional note system, to expand the traditional instrumental medium, and to dismantle the traditional genre. The third chapter describes the relation between the formative image of west side in the acient tomb mural 'Sasindo', which is an about 1500 years old Korean traditional heritage. The line image of this mural is similar with the line image, which Yun draws in the dialog with the japanese composer Nishimura Akira about his maintone(sound)-model. An archetype of this line image is implemented in the beginning of the piece <flute-etu¨de>(1974) in the first section, and it is transformed in the beginning of the fifth section of the same work. Specially amorphous form ending of the maintone(sound)-model displays in this part an expanded form. The expansion of the amorphous form at the end of the maintone-model occurs also three times in <Re´ak>(1966). It is deduced, that this amorphous part form shaws alike in <Images> as a connecting part of the sound-surface. The last two chapter deal with the means of change the Korean traditional format image to modern sound. Yun saw always the picture of the mural in his living room and emphasized the line image of this picture in the explanations of his work, and draw this form in the air in the introduction of play. This phenomen is interpreted under two aspects: at one hand side, the image depicts the taoistic thouhgt, which Yun himself wont to identify with his work. On the other hand side, the connection of Yun's music with a Korean traditional image shaws the fusion aspect of composer. The formative essence of maintone(sound) based on spatial form. The formative mean is created through tile fusion of the line and colorful images. This aura of an image is consistently and endless open. As a result, his maintone(sound) -composition can be interpret as a try to form of an Asian image in the real space 'modern'.

      • KCI등재

        윤이상의 대관현악곡 「예악(Re´ak)」 (1966) : "제 3의 공간"의 음향언어 Eine Klangsprache "im dritten Raum"

        윤신향 민족음악학회 2003 음악과 민족 Vol.26 No.-

        Diese Studie analysiert das representative Werk Isang Yuns fuer grosses Orchester: 「Reak」(1966). Die Analyse verbindet die Struktur-Analyse mit der Hoeranalyse der Klanggestalt. Als charakteristisch fuer die Klanggestalt des Stueckes werden folgende Merkmale herausgestellt: der Klang fliesst still und dynamisch, monistisch und heterophon entlang einer Wand-Flaeche in eine Richtung, und hat trotz aller heterophonen Zuege einen ganzheitlichen Charakter. Bei diesem wird stets eine fuer Yun eigentuemliche Spannung geladen. Das zweite Kapitel untersucht die Gestaltungsweisen der je eine Klanggruppe bildenden Instrumentengruppen. finsichtlich der musikalischen Semantlk sind die Konstellationen der Instrumentengruppen bzw. Klangfamilien von wichtiger Bedeutung. Im Laufe des Stueckes veraendem sich d e Klang gestaltender Instrumentengruppe gleichsam vom Kollekven zum Individuellen. Dies verursacht einen Funktionswandel der Einzelinstnunentengruppen: der Wandlungsprozess der koreanischen Mehrklangpeitsche Pakgruppe und Harfengruppe ist hierbei bedeutsam . Das naechste Kapitel analysiert am Beispiel des dntten Teils die bei 「Reak」vollendete Hauptklangtechnik. Das den Hauptklang konstruierende Tonbuendel fis3-gis-(cis2-e)-h bei der Floetengruppe, und h-cis-fis bei der Trompetengruppe bestehen aus einem Bruchteil des meldschen h-Moll-Tonleiter, so dass der Ton h den Charakter eines tonalen Zentnuns hat. Hinsichtlich des klanglichen Merkmals dieses Teils laesst sich es nicht verkennen, dass Yun versucht, den Charakteristik der koreanischen Musikelemente nicht allein n i t der westeuropaischen atonalen Technik zu vermitteln, sondem auch vermittels einer dramatischen Spannung mit der Eigenarten der musikahschen Romantik. Die Kraft des Gesamtklanges, die den Klangfuss dieses Stueckes traegt, liegt in der dynamischen Funktion der Hauptklaenge, die das Klangmaterial veraenderen und erweitem. Weiter wird das Verhaeltnis der Hauptklangkomposition Isang Yuns zur Klangflaechenkomposition Gyorgy Ligetis untersucht. Waehrend bei Ligeti die Einzeltoene nicht als solche wahrgenommen werden, haben Einzeltoene bei Yun eine gestaltbare Bedeutung und beanspruchen eine entsprechende Wahrnehmungsweise. Besonders kennzeichnend 1st die Ausdrucksgeste, mit sich die Hauptklaenge stets praesentieren. Ekachtenswert ist, dass solche Charakteristka normalerweise am Ende einer Phrase bzw. Abschnittes oder eines noch groesseren Teils vorkommen. Das Kemelement der Spannung, das dialektische Zuege und somit Widerspruch beinhaltet, liegt im Konfikt zwischen den Geste und Flaeche, also dem Klangfluss und Gegenstaendhchkeit, der bei der Verknuepfung mit der Klangflaechenkomposition verursacht wird. Das letzte Kapitel untemimmt eine kultursoziologische Interpretation ueber 「Reak」, der die vorangegangene Hoer-Analyse wie aesthetische Betrachtung zugrundeliegen. Zwei Bedeutungen konnten dem Stueck zugeschneben werden: zum einen reflektiert sich in Reak~ die Einwanderergesellschaft der aussereuropaeischen Voelker in der westeuropiaschen Gesellschaft, zum anderen widerspiegelt sich die Aussenseite des Werksystems den Veraendemgsprozess der traditionellen koreanischen Musiktradition. Folglich hat die Klangsprache Yuns ein doppeltes Spannungsverhaeltnis gegenueber der koreanischen wie der westeuropaischen Musiktradition. Der verrnittels der Hauptklangtechruk konstruierende endlose Klangfluss des 「Reak」-Stueckes, dessen eigene Struktur eine Klangflaeche bildet, kontrapunktiert scheinbar die Kollektiv-Emotion der koreanischen Volksgruppe.

      • KCI등재후보

        윤극영의 동요세계

        윤삼현(Yun, Samhyun) 한국아동문학학회 2011 한국아동문학연구 Vol.- No.20

        윤극영은 한국 동요사에 굵직한 발자국을 남긴 동요시인이며 작곡가이다. 그는 식민지 암흑치하에서 태어나 1988년 85세를 일기로 타계하기까지 평생을 아동문화운동과 아름다운 동요 창작에 생애를 바쳤다. 일제하에서는 색동회 창립동인으로 활약하여 어린이들에게 희망을 심어주었고 동요단체 다알리아회를 조직하여 동요보급에 선구자적 역할을 다 했다. 간도에서는 한 때 예술단을 운영하여 활발한 활동을 펼치던 중 일본군정의 압력으로 해산하기도 했다. 해방 후 1946년 귀국하여 동시인 윤석중을 비롯한 여러 동시인들과 호흡을 맞춰 격조높은 동요를 작곡하는 한편 지속적인 동요 동시 창작을 전개하였다. 일제강점기 윤극영의 동요는 1920년대 색동회 동인들이 주도했던 창작동요의 빛깔과 분위기를 그대로 수용하고 있다. 분열과 대립이 없는 순수동심적 원형과 음악적 기질에서 국권상실기 식민지 백성으로 살아가는 일이 구차하고 핍진하였음에도 불구하고 동요를 통해 이를 극복하고 정신적 에너지의 원천으로 삼고자 했던 그의 예술정신을 엿보게 한다. 외부에서 맞딱뜨린 고통과 상처를 내부의 순수동심과 정화작용을 통해 승화시키고자 한 태도를 볼 때 그의 동요창작이 그에게 신앙과도 같은 것이었음을 짐작케 한다. 윤극영 동요세계의 특질은 어린이 생활과 전통적 정서를 리듬감있게 표출하고 있다는 점, 동심의 원형적 원리에 따른 순수동심의식을 맑고 서정적인 언어로 그려내고 있다는 점으로 요약할 수 있다. 일제강점기 여섯 편의 동요들 중 ‘반달'은 예술성과 대중성을 확보한 1920년대 대표격 동요로 평가 받는다. 또한 ‘설날'은 한국 최초의 창작동요로 드러났다. 애상적 어조가 주류를 이루던 당대의 분위기를 탈피하여 동심원형적 시의식을 역동감있게 담아낸 창작태도 그 밑바탕에는 어두운 시대를 살아가는 어린 동심주체들을 겨냥해 밝고 긍정적 아동상을 심어주고자 한 동심사랑 정신이 깔려있다. 그의 여섯 편의 동요는 자연친화적 낭만주의에 입각한 밝고 진취적인 이상성을 반영하고 있다. 이를 바탕으로 하여 우리 고유의 정서를 용해시켜 친밀감을 높임으로써 한국적 동요의 맛과 멋을 자아내는데 성공하고 있다. 그동안 그의 음악적 성과에 비하여 문학적 성과를 조명하는 작업이 참으로 빈약한 감이 있다. 향후 그의 해방 이후의 동요나 동시에 대한 연구도 속속 이루어져 윤극영의 총체적 문학세계가 밝혀져야 할 것이다. Yun Geuk-young was a poet and composer who left his mark greatly on Korean children's songs. He was born during Japanese colonial period and died at the age of 85 in 1988. Until he died, he devoted all his life in children's culture drive and creative writing of beautiful children's songs. Under Japanese colonial period, He did active work as one of Saekdonghoe's founder members and gave hope to children. Also he formed a organization for children's songs, Daalriahhoe and was a pioneer in the field of diffusion of children's songs. When he was in Gando for some time, he operated an art troupe and did active work there. But his art troupe was dispersed by Japanese military government. After Korea was liberated from Japanese colonial rule in 1945, he came back to Korea in 1946. He composed elegant children's songs with contemporary poets as well Yun Seok-jung and developed continuous creative writing of children's songs and children's poems. Yun Geuk-young's children's songs during Japanese colonial period actually accepted color and atmosphere of creative children's songs which Saekdonghoe's members led in 1920s. He had innocence of childhood's mind without division and opposition and musical temperament. Even though he had to live pitifully as Japanese colonial people during loss of sovereignty of a nation, he made an effort to overcome it through children's songs. He made it his mental source of energy. So we can recognize his sprite of art. He tried to elevate his pain and wound which had got outside through innocence of childhood's mind and purification of mind. I guess that creation of children's songs was something like religion to him. Characteristics of Yun Geuk-young's children's songs are two things. One is that he expressed children's lives and the traditional emotion together with rhythmic sense. The other is that he expressed innocence of childhood's consciousness into pure and lyrical language according to the original theory of innocence of childhood. Half moon, one of his six children's songs which were made during Japanese colonial period established artistry and popularity and it was estimated as the representative children's song in 1920s. Also ‘Lunar New Year's Day' was revealed as the first creative children's song of Korea. Sorrowful tone was the mainstream of the contemporary atmosphere in those days. But he tried to escape this atmosphere. There was innocence of childhood's poetic consciousness in his attitude for creation. Under the basis of his attitude, he had the sprite of innocence of childhood's love to establish bright and positive model towards children, even though Koreans were in the dark times. His six children's songs reflected bright and progressive ideal which was based on nature-friendly romanticism. Being based on it, he melted it into traditional emotion and enhanced the sense of closeness. He succeeded in creating in Korean children's song's feeling and emotion. Compared to his musical achievement, his literary achievement has been estimated very poorly. From now on, his works about children's songs and children's poems should be progressed and Yun Geuk-young's whole world of literature should be revealed.

      • KCI등재

        한인 이주예술가의 장르구성과 젠더구성에 관한 단상(斷想)

        윤신향 ( Shin-hyang Yun ) 한국음악학학회 2016 음악학 Vol.24 No.2

        본 연구의 목적은 서구로 이주한 한인 이주예술가들의 창작활동이 이주민사회를 어떻게 매개, 또는 표지하는가를 고찰하는 데 있다. 먼저 이론의 기초가 되는 이산(離散)의 언어와 부재(不在)의 미학, 그리고 장르와 젠더에 대해 약술한 다음, 대표적인 예술가 윤이상, 백남준, 박영희의 장르 구성방식을 시, 영상, 음성을 중심으로 살펴보았다. 윤이상의 <나비의 과부>(Widow of Butterfly, 1968) 시작 장면과 끝 장면에서, 베일 커튼 뒤의 합창단이 고대중국의 한시를 원어로 부르는데, 이것은 부재(不在)하는 극동아시아 문화, 나아가 이 문화권의 이주 공동체를 음악극적으로 매개한다. 백남준은 1965년<달은 가장 오래 된 텔레비전>을 전시하고, 총체 전자오페라 구상(1967)과 더불어 전자 오페라 시리즈를 제작함으로써 근대 음악장르의 미디어적 공연예술화를 시도한다. 여기에 나타나는 `기술의 육화` 과정은 전통의 소리를 시각화해 온 한국 현대예술의 혼종적인 `성 정체성`도 투영한다. 박영희는 <눈>(1979)에서 김광균의 <설야>(雪夜)의 시어 일부를 음향적으로 재료화 함에 있어서, `追悔`와 `哀喪`, `흰 눈`과 `눈`이라는 단어를 오선보 한 가운데에 세팅하였다. 관객에게는 들리지 않는 이 문자기호들은 작곡자의 문화적 모국어가 이산하는 과정에 있다는 사실을 의미하며, 기호가 함유하는 모국어적 음성요소는 문화 사이의 `상생공간`이라고 할 수 있다. 윤이상의 `이주 무대노동`이간(間) 장르적 `사이구역`(intersection)이라는 의미에서 백남준과 박영희에게도 적용될 수 있는데, 이들은 각기 고유의 방식으로 이주민사회를 표지하면서 이 사회와의 관계망을 형성한다. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how the works of the korean migrant artists relate to the migrant community. So the study examines how the representative artists Isang Yun, Nam June Paik, Younghi Pagh-Paan make up the poem, image, and the music theater. As the theoretical basis the dispersion of the language, the aesthetics of absence, and the relationship between genre and gender are outlined. The main chapter focuses on the characteristic of the production of the chorus in the Widow of Butterfly (1968) by Yun, the Electronic Opera (1969-1972) series of Paik, which was conceptualized at the similar time like the production time of Moon is the oldest TV (1965-1976), and the Nun (1979) based on the Korean poem by Pagh-Paan. The three artists mediate or display the migrant society in different ways. The old chinese poem of Ma Chi Yuan `Hundred years light and shadow`, where the chorus is sung behind the veil curtain in the beginning and in the end in the Widow of Butterfly of Yun, mediates the Far-East culture narrative. This is absent for the Western audience. The construction of the music theater of Yun relates with the cultural-ecological structure of the korean migrant community. Yun and migrant community share the `gender identity`. Nam June Paik, who had a poetic mind in the sense of the symbolism, tried to express the resistance against the Western modern music genre through the Moon is the oldest TV series (1965-1972), and through the Electronic Opera series (1969-1972). The process of the `embodiment of technology` by the TV- exhibition of Paik projects the hybrid `gender identity` of the Korean modern art which visualized the Korean traditional sound. Younghi Pagh-Paan materialized the key words from the Korean poem Sol Ya of Kwang-Kyun Kim in the Nun (1979) for avantgarde sound. This is characterized with the appearance of the letter signs of the poem in the music note system: `追悔` (memory), `哀喪` (white cloth), `흰 눈` (white snow) `눈` (snow). This letter signs display the mother language of the composer which is unheared voice to the Western audience. The voice of the lyric in the her early or middle period transfers to the voice of the chamber opera Moon Shadow (2002/2005). The `heart of the poem` by Pagh-Paan includes the space of the musical symbiotism, `between zones` (intersection) as well as `between genre` (intergenre).

      • KCI등재

        윤이상의 목소리, 기타, 타악기를 위한 「가곡」(1972) : 소리예술에서 음색작곡으로 Von der Stimmkunst zur Klangfarbenkomposition

        윤신향 민족음악학회 2002 음악과 민족 Vol.24 No.-

        Anhand der Analyse untersucht diese Studie zuna¨chst das Verha¨ltnis von Yuns Gagok zum koreanischen traditionellen kagok und zum volkstu¨mlichen Epengesang p´ansori-Vortrag. Yuns Gagok weist zwar die formale Anlage und den durch vokalen Fluss charakteristischen Gesangsstil der traditionellen kagok auf, zugleich entfremdet sich aber davon durch die Elemente, die fu¨r die weltweite Vorherrschaft der westeuropa¨ischen Musik von Bedeutung waren: durch den Begriff von Metrik, durch die auf Tonalita¨t basierende Zentralto¨ne, durch die westeuropa¨ische Stimmtechnik, und durch die Sapnnung gleadene Dialektik. Festzustellen ist auch, daβ die traditionelle Musikelemente aus anderen koreanischen Gattungen Selbst zur Entfremdung der koreanischen traditionellen kagok beitragen. Durch die Anwendung der koreanischen Mehrklangpeitsche pak und des ch'uimse-Elements bei Gagok entfremdet sich as koreanische kagok. Wa¨hrend die in Yuns Gagok Elemente des koreanischen kagoks auf einer formalen Ebene bleiben, wurde es deutlich, daβ der Ausdrucksgehalt von Yuns Gagok mehr Bezu¨ge zum koreanischen volkstu¨mlichen Epengesang pansori hat. Die emotionale Einflusse bwziehungsweise Gesten vom p´ansori-Vortrag bei Gagok werden unter vier Aspekten festzustellen: Erstens, der sowohl dramatische, als auch epische Charakter des Stu¨ckes, Zweitens, das chu´imsea-Element des p´ansori-Vortrages, das von Instrumentalisten vokal eingesetzt wird. Drittens, die Ausdrucksweise der Stimme, die durch Ornamente und Mikroto¨ne getragen wird sowie deren Nachahmung durch atonale Figuren und ungewohnte Spieltechnik der Instrumentalisten, Viertens, die schamanistische Spielgeste im letzten Teil. Das letzte Kapitel handelt vom Verha¨ltnis von Yuns Gagok zur westeuropa¨ischen Klangfarbenkomposition. In den 1970er Jahren war es gela¨ufig, dass durch Einfu¨hrung des neuen Klangmaterials sowie ungewohnte Spieltechnik der traditionllen Instrumente gera¨uschhafte Kla¨nge erzeugt werden. Die Verknu¨pfung der Haupttontechnik aus den 1960er Jahren mit der Klangfarbenkomposition vom Beginn der 1970er Jahre in Westeuropa ist soweit gediehen, daβ die Einzelto¨ne durch eine gera¨uschhafte Fa¨rbung minimalisiert werden. Hierdurch werden die Zentralto¨ne der Haupttontechnik gera¨uschhaft gefa¨rbt. Der wandel der koreanischen traditionellen Stimmkunst zur Klangfarbenkomposition bedeutet eine Darstellung der die schamanistische Ekstase symbolisierenden traditionellen Stimme in Gestalt des anonymen Klangobjektes in die westeuropa¨isch-ku¨nstlerische Spha¨re.

      • 恭齋尹斗緖의 書藝硏究

        윤영실(Yun, Young-Sil) 한국서예학회 2008 서예학연구 Vol.0 No.12

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        <自畵像>에서 날카로운 눈초리로 응시하고 있는 恭齋尹斗緖(1668-1715)는 숙종 연간에 활동한 선비화가이자 서예가로 조선중기에서 후기로 넘어가는 전환기에 새로운 경향의 그림을 제시한 사실주의적 회화의 선구자이다. 그는 서예부분에서도 玉洞李漵와의 끊임없는 교류를 통해 ‘옥동체' 등장에 큰영향을 미치게 된다. 그는 자신의 시대를 서예가 무너진 시대로 여기고, 正道의 회복을 꿈꾸며, 이서와 함께 왕희지체에 바탕을 둔 서체를 이룩하였고, 전서체에 대하여 깊은 관심을 기울였다. 이러한 지향은 고대 전범으로의 복귀를 통한 개혁이자 창조로써 이른바 법고창신의 의미라 할 수 있으며 조선후기 서예계에 강력한 영향을 미치게 되었다. 흔히 옥동체의 계보를 말할 때, 옥동의 유고집인 「弘道先生遺稿」를 참고하여 ‘옥동 이서는 동국진체의 창시자이고, 이후 막역한 사이인 공재 윤두서에게 전해지고, 다시 윤두서의 이질인 白下尹淳(1680-1741)을 거쳐 그와 사승 관계였던 圓嶠李匡師(1705-1777)에 이르러 완성 되었다'고 말하곤 한다. 이처럼 윤두서는 옥동과 함께 우리 풍토에 맞는 글씨를 쓴 당대의 명필이었으나 그의 뛰어난 그림에 가려져 밖으로 드러나지는 않았고, 전하는 서예 작품이나 글씨에 대한 소견을 피력한 글이 전해지지 않아 그의 서체에 관한 연구가 활발히 이루어지지 않은 실정이다. 이에 그의 서예작품과 화제를 중심으로 내용을 풀이하고 서체를 전서, 예서, 해서, 행초서로 나누어 분석해보고, 그의 창조성과 예술성을 고찰해 보았다. 이로 인해 그가 미술사뿐만 아니라 서예사에서도 중요한 위치에 있음을 인식하는 계기가 되기를 바란다. Gong Jae Yun Du Seo(尹斗緖1668-1715) who gives gimlet eye in <Self-Portrait(自畵像)> was a artist as well as a scholar during the period of King SukJong and a pioneer of realistic pictures that presented a new trend during transition period from the middle to the latter term of Jo Sun and is called as one of three talented artists with Kyum Jae Jung Sun · Hyun Jae Sim Sa Jung in the latter term of Jo Sun. He had a great influence on appearance of ‘Ok Dong Style' through ceaseless interchange with Ok Dong Yi Seo in the field of calligraphy as well. He regarded his period as collapse of calligraphy and completed a style that is based on the style of Wang He Ji with Yi Seo dreaming restoration of the right path and was deeply interested in seal characters. This inclination can be considered as the meaning of so-called BuB Go Chang Sin as a reform and creation through return towards a ancient law and had a powerful influence on the field of calligraphy of the latter term of Jo Sun. The society of Jo Sun experienced confusion through overall society with going through the disturbances of two wars and ideological union of the ruling class became to be developed into practical science with growth of consciousness of the populace at that time. That practical science was a beginning to look for features of Jo Sun's own that were based on realism and Yun Du Seo grew in that kind of periodic background and showed a great talent to the full with consolidating learning and ideological foundation in his art through interchange with close friends and transmission of family learning succeeded to Go San Yun Sun Do. Yun Du Seo's saying I won't try to accomplish reputation even though I can't reach there by learning a saint is considered as the most proper words that represent him than other various beautiful compositions and remarks.

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