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One of the most important factor to be considered for the analysis of sheet metal forming processes is the tool surface description for arbitrarily- shaped sheet metal parts. In the present study , finite element approach is used to describe the arbitrarily shaped tool surface. In finite element mesh approach, tool surfaces ar, described by finite elements. The finite elements mesh description of the tool surface, which is originally described by CAD data, needs much time and time-consuming graphic operation. The method, however, has been widely used to describe a complex tool surface. In the present study, the contact searching algorithm for the finite element mesh approach is developed based on cell strategy method and sheet surface normal scheme. For the verification purpose, a clover cup drawing, Baden-Baden oilpan problem and a trunk floor drawing were investigated. The computational results based on the finite element approach were compared with the results of available parametric patch approach and experiments.
Puntive damages are assessed in addition to compensatory damages to punish the defendant for the commission of an aggravated or outrageous act of misconduct and to deter him and others from such conduct in the future. In Korea, the measure of recovery in all civil cases is compensation for the injury sustained. Thus, punitive damages as part of the civil liability are not allowed by the statute. None the less, The court may be face with the stigma of the punitive damages problem in respect of enforcement of foreign judgments involving punitive damages award. Recently the U.S. Court has been asked on several occasions to clarfy constituional issues surrounding punitive damages. The constitutional objection to punitive damages receiving the most attention recently is that punitive damages violate the clause relating to excessive fines. The United States Constitution Eighth Amendment provies: "Excessive bail shall not he required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted." The Eighth Amendment has never been employed by the United States Supreme Court to ascertain the excessiveness of a fine. Its main use has been in criminal cases, to examine whether a punishment is cruel and unusual, or proportional to the crime for which it has been imposed. Thus, the Court refused to apply the Eighth Amendment prohibition against cruel and unusual punishments in a civil case. The second and more complex set of constitutional challenges to punitive damages come under the due process clause of the fifth and Fourteenth Amendments. The process for imposing a punitive damages sanction is so lacking as to deny defendants the due process guaranteed by the fifth and fourteenth amendments. But, the court held that the fifth and Fourteenth Amendments do not apply to punitive damages awards in cases between private parties. Punitive damages are not distinctly criminal penalties. In punitive damages cases a defendant does not face incarceration, the most distincitve attribute of criminal sanctions. There are a number of other constitutional challenges which might be made. The defendant, for example, challenged the constitutionality of the punitive damages award under the contract clause. Another commentator has listed a number of additional constitutional challenges, including challenges for double jeopardy, equal protection and right to privacy. The Court did not reviw the challenges, saying they were improperly raised. It is likely that lower court rulings on the constitutionality of punitive damages will become relatively common and that eventually the U.S. Supreme Court itself will rule on the constitutionality of punitive damages. None the less, the more challenges that are placed before the courts, the more likely it is that definition of the limits of punitive damages will be emerging, first from the states and ultimately from the Supreme Court.