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Recently, it has been concerned about overconsumption of the energy use of the newly-built curtain wall buildings with a large WWR(Window to Wall Ratio). However it is estimated that the influence of the window area on energy is changed according to the building size, preferably, WFR(Window to Floor Ratio) is correlated with building energy. EnergyPlus is used for a building energy simulation in this study. The results of the simulations show a building energy is relative to WWR, but there is a limitation to use for the index because of the building size. However, building energy is mostly relative to WFR, the correlation of this can be expressed a linear equation. Therefore, developing synthetic index according to WFR is acutely needed. And, in case of the solar gains according to a window area, the correlation can be expressed a logarithmic function, the more WWR become the more solar energy gains. The solar gains are about 5.04~5.40 times as large as an annual horizontal global radiation. If the synthetic index is developed through analysis of glazing performances(U-factor, SHGC, VLT), the index should be used for the window design of buildings.
In recent years, the Government of South Korea has provided execution plans to achieve the successful implementation for the goalof greenhouse gas reduction goal by 2020 for a variety of sectors such as industry, building and transportation. However, the goal andreduction measures proposed by the government have limitations to provide detailed reduction measures that reflect emission characteristicsof urban cities. Thus, this study aimed to provide a measure that can establish greenhouse gas reduction plans in detail by developinga carbon emission index. The number of population is the most basic data to calculate the greenhouse gas emission amount in the transportation sector. Accordingly,a greenhouse gas emission baseline can be set up using the greenhouse gas emission amount per capita in local governments and greenhousegas reduction goal. In this paper, therefore, a greenhouse gas emission amount per capita was set as the carbon emission index in thetransportation sector. To review the effectiveness of the carbon emission index, three methodologies were used to calculate the greenhouse gas emissionestimated in the transportation sector in No. 1 District of Geomdan New Town. The three methodologies are: first, emission calculatedbased on the number of registered vehicles as per vehicle type, second, emission calculated by the number of registered vehicles as pervehicle type and average driving distance, and third, emission calculated by the traffic volume by transport means and average trafficdistance. Emission calculated by the above methodologies showed that if Geomdan New Town is developed as the same as other existingNew Towns, the carbon emission index was estimated to produce 2.1 tCO2/capita·year. On the other hand, if Geomdan New Town introducesurban planning elements (walking incentive, bicycle incentive and public transport incentive polices etc.) with regard to transportationsector to create a green city, the carbon emission index was estimated to produce 2.0 tCO2/capita·year, resulting in reduction of 0.1 tCO2per capita. As such, the carbon emission index can provide information with regard to the greenhouse gas emission characteristics oflocal governments as per emission sector so that it can be utilized as criteria that determine effectiveness of policies for greenhouse gasreduction.
Waterproofing of the roof of the construction department directly exposed to external radiation is a part of. However, the existing waterproofing method of construction only for the purpose of water has been. In this study, thermal performance, considering the complex waterproofing method for waterproofing method compared to conventional insulation is to evaluate the performance.
This study focuses on thermal performance variations according to insulating glazing units and the set point temperature. We used the EnergyPlus rating, which is validated by the U.S. DOE. The results are as follows:In the case of a non-extended-type household: (1) The influence of SHGC rather than that of U-factor was found to be relatively high. Therefore the composition of glazing that may maintain SHGC at 0.5 or greater is deemed to be more desirable for energy savings. (2) When the manufacturing method of Low-e glass varies, the influence on the building energy consumption can change. Therefore, the designer is required to understand the composition of glazing in advance at the planning stages of the building. (3) In the case of Low-e insulating glass and Low-e triple glass, almost no difference exists between the influences of such on the energy demands of the building; however, Low-e insulating glass is deemed to be more reasonable from the economical aspect. In the case of an extended-type household: (1) The entire energy consumption increases in this case as compared with a non-extended-type household (2) In the case where a window faces the outdoor air, unlike a non-extended-type household, the U-factor and SHGC all have great influence on the building energy consumption, and therefore the construction of glazing in consideration of this is desirable. Lastly, as the set point temperature increases/decreases by 1℃, cooling/heating loads were found to increase/decrease by approximately 16% representing that the change in living patterns greatly influences on the reduction of building energy consumption. Further comprehensive studies on the influence of change in set point temperatures on the consumption of building energy should be conducted based on the expanded scope such as a block, unit complex, or district unit in order to recommend the method for reducing energy in apartment type housing.
In compression systems, instability has long been an important issue. However, compared to axial machines, relatively little work hasbeen done on the stability of centrifugal machines. Especially, many analytical models of stabilities have been developed to predict andcontrol rotating stall, using compressor characteristic. However, stability models for centrifugal compressors are not scarce. Much researchon compressor stability has focused on stalling flow coefficient and rotating stall phenomenon at the stalling flow coefficient. Given this situation, this paper presents a stability analysis of centrifugal compressors to predict rotating stall inception as well as thespeed and number of cells. This analysis involves the use of compressor geometries, a steady compressor characteristic, and threedimensionalflow analysis in the diffuser. The flow field perturbations at the axial inlet duct, impeller, and radial exit duct are determinedvia an eigenvalue analysis. The predictions are validated against experimental results from compressors with three different diffuserwidths. The model accurately predicts the rotating stall inception flow coefficient. As the compressor characteristic becomes less steepwith increasing diffuser width, the stalling flow coefficient increases. Also, experiment validates the model prediction that, depending onthe dominant mode of flow perturbation, the number of rotating stall cells can be changed from three to two cells in the tested configurations. Furthermore, the cell speed increases as the flow coefficient decreases for a given number of stall cells. However, when the stallcell number is reduced, the cell speed decreases.