http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
The canal wall down mastoidectomy can secure a good operation field and remove the pathology easily, but it accompanies a cavity problem. To reduce the cavity problem, mastoid obliteration is conducted using multiple materials. And proper hemostasis is an important prerequisite for a successful outcome in all operative fields. TachoSil ® is used in many surgical specialties, especially for diffuse bleeding. TachoSil® is not only used for hemostasis but also for closure of other anatomical structures. Recently, we experienced two patients with recurred huge cholesteatoma of middle ear. They underwent canal wall down tympanomastoidectomy with mastoid obliteration using the TachoSil® due to the exposure of dura was observed removing the huge cholesteatoma completely. These two cases report show the successful treatment of recurred huge cholesteatoma, for which no recurrence is shown.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) evolves most commonly from the pharyngeal recess posteromedial to the medial crura of the Eustachian tube opening in the nasopharynx. Therefore unilateral middle ear effusion with hearing loss is a common presenting symptom of NPC, and its presence in adult patients make physicians suspect NPC. Recently, we experienced a 72- year-old female patient with advanced NPC which invaded Eustachian tube and middle ear cavity. She had long standing chronic otitis media with large perforation of tympanic membrane. Because of tympanic membrane perforation, she did not have any Eustachian tube-related symptoms such as newly developing ear fullness or hearing loss and even the physician had overlooked the diagnosis of NPC. Her NPC was diagnosed at a very advanced stage after performing biopsy of middle ear tumor. This case report shows that NPC can present with very unusual findings like middle ear tumor. Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2014;57(11):787-91
The conscription system of Korea was established by the 1949 military service law. In the process of institutional stabilization of the draft system, the establishment of a reserve manpower mobilization system has played an important role. During the period of the first Republic of Korea, the Ministry of Defense suffered trial and error over the years to form a reserve power mobilization system. The first stage is the formation of the National Gurad. The National Guard was essentially the type volunteer military system borrowed by the US National Guard system. As a result, the Military Service Act was declared in 1949, and conscription was introduced systematically. In the long term, if the reserves were discharged through conscription, the National Guard that recruited civilians had no basis for existence. In addition, it was difficult to keep the National Guard forces smoothly due to the lack of material base in the early days of the military. Due to the lack of manpower to train and the equipment necessary for training, the military functions of National Guard were limited. Because of this, the National Guard was disbanded in 1950. The ROK Ministry of Defense attempted to reestablish the reserve mobilization system after the intervention of the Chinese communist army during Korean War. The Ministry of Defense mobilized the 2nd grade to form the National Defense Forces and foster them as reserve forces. The National Defense Forces based upon the characteristics of conscription system. However, the National Defense Forces dismantled in a short period of time without sufficient preparation, causing a lot of controversy. Since then, the organization of the National Defense Forces has been transformed into labor divisions. The Department of Defense organized a Citizen Armed Forces in 1953, learning from the failure of the national defense forces. In 1955, however, the Army organized 10 reserve divisions and the Citizen Armed Forces lost its ground for existence. The Ministry of Defense has unified reserve power mobilization into the command system of itself through the Reserve Division. The Citizen Armed Forces dismantled naturally as an efficient reserve power mobilization system was established. The establishment of the Army's reserve division was an opportunity to complete the reserve mobilization system within the framework of the draft system. Personnel trained in military service as active duty soldiers were able to be regularly called up into the reserve division to receive military education after they returned to society. As a result, the conscription system of Korea could be completed. 징병제가 제도적으로 안정화 되는 과정에서 예비전력 동원체제의 확립은 중요한 위치를 차지하고 있다. 제1공화국 시기 국방부는 예비전력 동원체제를 형성하는 과정에서 수년간에 걸쳐 시행착오를 겪었다. 그 첫 번째 단계는 1948년부터 추진된 호국군 편성이다. 호국군은 본질적으로 미국의 주방위군 제도의 영향을 받은 모병제 성격의 제도였다. 이 때문에 1949년 병역법이 선포되고 징병제가 제도적으로 도입되자 모병제에 기반한 호국군은 모순적인 존재가 되었다. 장기적인 관점에서 징병제를 통해 예비역이 배출되면 민간인을 모병 대상으로 한 호국군은 존립할 근거가 없었다. 또한 건군 초기 부족한 물질적 기반 때문에 호국군을 원활히 유지하기도 어려웠다. 교육을 실시할 수 있는 인력과 훈련에 필요한 장비 부족 때문에 호국군의 군사적 기능은 제한될 수 밖에 없었다. 이 때문에 호국군은 1950년 해체되었다. 대한민국 국방부가 예비전력 동원체제를 다시 구축하려고 시도한 계기는 중공군의 참전이었다. 국방부는 제2 국민병 대상자를 동원하여 국민방위군을 편성하고 이를 예비전력으로 육성하려 했다. 병역법에 규정된 제2 국민병 대상자를 동원한 것에서 나타나듯 국민방위군은 본격적으로 징병제의 성격을 가진 예비전력 동원체제였다. 그러나 국민방위군은 충분한 준비 없이 단기간에 급조되면서 많은 물의를 일으켰고, 호국군과 마찬가지로 군사 훈련에 필요한 물적 기반이 없었기 때문에 단기간내에 해체되고 말았다. 이후 국민방위군의 조직은 노무사단 등으로 전환되었다. 국방부는 국민방위군의 실패를 교훈 삼아 1953년 민병대를 조직했다. 민병대의 운용방식은 호국군에 가까웠으나 동원 방식에 있어서는 징병제적인 성격을 가지고 있었다. 그러나 1955년 육군이 예비사단을 편성하면서 민병대는 존립할 근거를 잃었다. 국방부는 예비사단을 통해 예비전력 동원을 국방부의 지휘계통으로 일원화 시켰다. 효율적인 예비전력 동원체제가 수립되면서 민병대는 자연스럽게 해체되었다. 육군의 예비사단 창설은 징병제의 틀 안에서 예비전력 동원체제를 완성하는 계기였다. 징병을 통해 현역병으로 군사교육을 받은 인력은 사회로 복귀한 뒤에도 정기적으로 예비사단에 동원되어 군사교육을 받을 수 있었다. 이로서 한국의 징병제는 징집 및 소집 체제를 완전히 갖출 수 있게 되었다.
The Army ROTC program of the Republic of Korea originated from an officer education system of the United States. But there is an important difference between the two nations" systems. In the United States, introduction of ROTC was led by people who opposed the concept of military conscription. On the other hand, in the Republic of Korea, the Ministry of Defense played a critical role in adopting the ROTC system. Before and After the Korean War, the Army of South Korea was in drastic needs of capable officers. It did not have an officer recruiting system for a modern army of mass conscription. After failing to secure proper military training methods for students, the ministry of defence prepared to introduce the ROTC system. ROTC training turned out to be successful in South Korea. Before the introduction of ROTC, for students there was only one way to meet military obligations: conscription. The ROTC system was met with positive responses by many students who had been dissatisfied with the previous policy of student conscription. The ROTC system shortly became the primary method of officer recruitment for the Korean army. By the year of 1965, universities came to provide nearly two-third of new officers for the ROK army, through the ROTC system. The success of the Korean ROTC program tells us many things. It had originated from the culture of a volunteer army, but was adopted as an institution of mass conscription for the South Korean army.
During the Korean War, the military draft system was implemented in South Korea. The characteristic of Korea in the mid-1950s is that the ruling elites of the society show dual positions on the universal conscription. The ruling elite class of society were in a position to defend the conscription system. At the same time, however, they prevented the operation of conscription and avoided military service. In such a situation, it was difficult to persuade the people to accept the universal conscription. The amendment to the Military Service Act in 1957 was aimed at carrying out the so-called “egalitarian military draft”. However, the conflict between the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Education in the process of enacting amendments to the Military Service Act showed the duality of the ruling elite with regard to conscription. As a result, the implementation of “egalitarian military draft” has become an incomplete task.
The present study has been conducted on a cooling wheel to enhance the cooling efficiency by performing reverse engineering. Through pipe simulation, pressure and velocity distribution of each point is calculated. This result is then applied to the 3D thermal fluid analysis of which results show temperature distribution of the cooling wheel. With a component replacement and system modifications, such as incresement of pump capacity and the number of cooling channel, the cooling wheel temperature is significantly dropped to reasonable range.