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The predominant immunoglobulin in external secretions of humans and various other mainmals is a special form of IgA known as secretory IgA, a molecule composed of a dimer of serum-type IgA plus a J chain :and a distinctive polypeptide chain known as secretory component (SC). Histological localization of SC and a chain of IgA in normal mucosa has been studied by immunchistological methods and identified in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in mucous membranes, spaces between these cells, and secretion. On the other hand. carcinoembryonic antigen is a fetal glycoprotein which may reappear during malignant transformation of entodermal epithelial cell. The purpose of this study is ito compare distribution of SC in normal and malignant epithelial cell to understand local immunological defense mechanism, especially along the luminal surface replaced by tumor mass. Each 5 cases of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded well, moderately and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of colon were selected and immunoperoxidase staining of Avidin-Biotin-Complex method mere performed using anti-CEA, SC, and IgA antiserum and compared distribution of each antigen between normal mucosa and carcinoma. The result obtained are as follows : 1. Carcmoma of the colon revealed strong CEA positive reaction along the luminal surface of the gland structure or in the cytoplasm while normal Lieberkuhn epithelial cell showed negative reaction. 2. Normal Lieberkuhn epithelial cells showed SC positive reaction in the cytoplasm while carcinoma cells of the colon disclosed no SC in the cytoplasm, regardless of degree of differentiation of the tumor cell. 3. IgA positive plasma cells were noted mainly along the lamina propria and epithelial cells lining Lieberkuhn's crypt also revealed positive reaction while neither tumor cell not interstitium revealed any evidence IgA. Above findings suggests that mucosa of colon which is replaced by carcinoma is devoid of local immunological defense mechanism as far as SC and IgA are concerned. And disappearance of SC in colonic carcinoma cell seems to be a useful indicator in the field of histologic differential diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma.
The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of utilizing fly ash and loess, as alternative to activated carbon, for the adsorption of diazinon in water. Batch adsorption experiment was performed to evaluate the influences of various factors like initial concentration, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of diazinon. The adsorption data shows that fly ash is not effective for the adsorption of diazinon. The equilibrium data for both activated carbon and loess were fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. The pseudo-secondorder kinetic model appeared to be the better-fitting model because it has higher R2 compared to the pseudofirst- order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG), the enthalpy (ΔH) and the entropy (ΔS) were calculated. Contrary to loess, the ΔG values of activated carbon were negative at the studied temperatures. It indicates that the adsorption of diazinon by activated carbon is a favorable and spontaneous process. The positive ΔH values of activated carbon and loess suggest that the diazinon adsorption process is endothermic in nature. In addition, the positive ΔS values show that increased randomness occurs at the solid/ solution surface during the adsorption of diazinon.
현재 군에 보급되고 있는 접착식 전투화용 고무의 대표적인 노화현상은 열에 의한 정기적인 스트레스 노화가 대표적 이다. 본 연구에서는 전투화용 고무의 노화시험을 실시하고, 아레니우스 관계식을 이용하여 노화온도(60℃, 80℃, 100℃)에 따른 반응속도 상수 k를 구하였다. 제품의 수명한계를 인장강도는 30% 감소시점, 신장률은 50% 감소시점, 내마모도는 380% 로 가정하였으며, ln(P/P0) 및 활성화 에너지와 상수를 고려한 수명예측을 하였다. 이를 통해 노화온도에 영향을 받은 전투화 용 고무의 수명을 예측하였고, 그 결과 실온(20℃)에서 예상수명이 10년 이상임을 확인할 수 있었다. Typical aging for the rubber using the current military adhesive combat boots was spread with a regular aging caused by heat stress. In this study, the aging test of the rubber for combat boots was carried out and the reaction rate constant, k was calculated at aging temperature 60℃, 80℃ and 100℃, using the Arrhenius equation. The lifetime limit was assumed that the tensile strength of the product is reduced to 30%, the elongation is reduced to 50% and abrasion resistance ratio is 380%. ln(P/P0) and the lifetime was predicted with the consideration of the activation energy constant. According to the above, the lifetime of the rubber for combat boots with influenced by aging temperature was predicted. As the result, the estimate lifetime at 20℃ was confirmed more than 10 years.
Infiltration plays an important role in the urban water cycle. Infiltration has a potential to contribute to groundwater recharge in addition to runoff reduction. However, infiltration in urban areas has been considered only as a means of runoff reduction. Conventional design methods for infiltration facilities assume soils to be fully-saturated for the sake of simplicity. The amount of groundwater recharge can not be estimated properly with this scheme. Hence, the characteristics of the unsaturated soil condition need to be considered. The finite element model using SEEP/W to estimate infiltration under the unsaturated condition is presented. Infiltration tests for Joomonjin sand are performed and the infiltration behavior of Joomoonjin sand under the unsaturated condition is measured experimentally to verify the validity of the finite element model. The results from comparing infiltrated volume between the saturated and the unsaturated conditions under the same soil and rainfall conditions show that the infiltrated volume in the unsaturated condition is two times bigger than that in the saturated condition.