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This is to report a case of modification of the standard sinus lift procedure in the presence of sinus septa. This procedure was performed only on the anterior compartment of maxillary sinus with simultaneously demineralized freeze-dried bone graft and placement of Br^nemark titanium implants. The advantages obtained by this procedure are a decrease in quantity of grafted bone, easy operation, and a decrease in operating time. The incidence of sinus septa is unknown. If septa are not identified prior to the initiation of the sinus lift procedure, problems such as inability to infracture the bony window or an inadvertent perforation of the Schneiderian membrane may occur. Therefore, the presence or absence of sinus septa should be confirmed by means of a preoperative panoramic radiograph and computed tomographic scans. If the sinus septa are present, then successful results may be achieved through this modified sinus lift procedure.
This study investigated university students' conceptual understanding of mechanics and electromagnetism through three grades of students. From the analysis, we found that some students showed misconceptions and sometimes had difficulties in solving problem qualitatively without using mathematics. Also we could identify which test items showed low achievement. In the case of questions about electromagnetism, female students' achievement was lower than male students' achievement, and the freshmen students who have taken physics I or II in high school gained higher achievement. However, this effect was not found for the sophomore and the junior students. We also found which test item's achievement increased according to grade. Even though the questionnaire used in this study was not complete, we hope that the analysis technique could be utilized in further studies if more test items are developed and added to this questionnaire. 본 연구에서는 사범대학생 1, 2, 3학년생 87명을 대상으로 역학과 전자기 영역에서의 개념적 이해를 조사하였다. 조사결과, 특정 오개념을 보인 문항, 계산없이 개념적으로 해결할 수 있는 문항에서의 어려움, 전반적인 이해부족을 보인 문항들이 발견되었다. 역학정답률은 남학생과 여학생간 차이가 없었으나, 전자기 정답률은 여학생에 비해 남학생이 높게 나타났다. 그리고 고등학교 물리 I이나 II의 수강여부가 정답률에 영향을 준 것으로 나타났다. 그러나 물리 I이나 II의 수강여부에 의한 영향은 대학 1학년생에게만 나타났고, 2, 3학년에게는 나타나지 않아, 대학에서의 교육이 고등학교에서의 부족한 부분을 해결할 수 있음을 알 수 있었다. 기본적인 개념문항임에도 불구하고 1학년에서 2, 3학년으로 올라감에 따라 정답률이 상승하는 문항이 있어 1학년 과정에서 충분한 지도가 부족했던 개념이 무엇인지 알 수 있었다. 본 연구에서의 평가문항이 역학 및 전자기 개념 이해를 위한 완전한 도구일 수는 없지만, 분석과 해석방법은 앞으로의 관련연구에 널리 활용될 수 있을 것이다.
구강암 수술 후 재건은 외과적 절제와 더불어 중 요한 부분을 차지하며 초기에는 구강 재건을 위해 일차적 봉합과 설피판이 주로 이용되었다. 이후 1965년부터 1980년에 이르기까지 결손부의 크기가 비교적 큰 경우에는 대흉근근피판, 활배근근피판, 승모근근피판, 삼각흉근근피판 등과 같은 국소 유 경피판이 광범위하게 사용되었으며, 이러한 유경피 판은 수술시 환자에게 보다 만족스런 구강 재건을 제공해줄 수 있었다. 그러나 이들 근피판은 경우에 따라 부피가 너무 크거나 피판의 이동에 무리가 있 고, 피판의 유동성이 적어 혀의 운동, 연하, 저작기 능의 회복이 원만치 못한 경우가 많다. 또한 하악 골이 분절 골절단되어 상실된 경우나 코만도 술식 (commando operation)과 같이 하악골의 상행지와 후방평행지를 절제하거나 또는 전방 악골을 절제하 여 발생하는“Andy Gump”변형 등이 발생한 경 우에 상실된 악골의 재건을 위해 요즘은 비골, 장 골능 및 요골 등의 미세혈관수술을 동반한 유리 피 판이식술이 자주 사용되고 있다. 구강악안면외과 영역에 미세혈관수술의 도입은 종래에 재건이 불가능하였던 여러 증례의 악안면재 건술을 가능케 하였고 구강암수술후 이를 이용한 즉시재건술로 환자의 기능적 심미적 정신적 회복을 가능케 하는 새로운 치료의 장을 열게되었다. 한편 구개암 수술 후 재건에 사용할 수 있는 치과적 보 철물은 구강과 비강을 격리시켜 좋은 결과를 얻을 수도 있으나, 종종 유경 형태의 측두근 또는 측두 조직판으로 재건하기도 한다. 또한 구강암 환자는 치료 기간동안 저작계의 기 능 및 외형 등에 손상이 발생하게 되며 이의 완벽 한 재건은 쉽지 않다. 그러나 최근 악기능 재건에 치과용 임프란트 및 골신장술 등과 같은 다양한 술 식들이 도입되어 종래의 통상적인 보철술식으로는 재건이 불가능하였던 많은 증례들에서 좋은 결과를 얻고 있다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of timing of implant insertion on osseointegration after tooth extraction. Fifteen mongrel dogs, weighing 15 kg or more, were used. The lower right 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th premolars and 1st molar were extracted under general anesthesia. Implants were inserted at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after extraction of the teeth, being designated as 2-4-, and 8-week groups, respectively. Results obtained were as follows. 1. Macroscopically there was neither an infection at the implant site nor an exposure of the implant. 2. Histologically the surrounding bone of the implant was less mature in the 2-week group than in the 4-week and 8-week groups. 3. The implant-bone contact ranged from 75 to 82%, with no significant differences among the groups. No increase in the implant-bone contact was found with increasing healing periods from 4 to 12 weeks after implant insertion. 4. The average depth (0.64 ㎜ ) of the fibrous connective tissue ingrowth in the 2-week group was slightly deeper than those in the 4- (0.51 ㎜) and 8-week (0.53 ㎜) groups at 12 weeks after implant insertion. 5. The implant-bone interfacial bond strengths were 73.05 kgf in the 2-week group. 69.71kgf in the4-week group and 73.76 kgf in the 8-week group. No significant difference was noted in pullout force among the groups. The degree of confidence of interfacial bond strength was highest in the 8-week group, followed by the 4-and 2-week groups. These results indicate that at least 4 weeks of healing period will be required before implant is to be inserted following tooth extraction.
On the basis of the ensemble theory, the partition function and the probability distribution function for a system of particles with no interaction-force have been derived in the unified formalism of the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, and Fermi-Dirac statistics. On the assumptions that Boltzmann particles independently occupy the energy states in separate singleparticle energy levels, the grand cannonical partition function for the Boltzmann system has been obtained. Both the grand cannonical partition function and the probability distribution function of the total system are factorized by those functions for the subsystems of particles occupying the separate single-particle energy levels. The grand cannonical probability distribution of Maxwell-Boltzmann particles is a Poisson distribution, which property results from the statistically independent behaviors of Boltzmann particles. The probability of Bose-system is superpoissonian and that of Fermi-system is subpoissonian. That is, bosons possess a positive correlation and fermions possess a negative statistical correlation, as predicted by the Boltzmann probability distribution. The partial derivatives of the grand cannonical partition functions with respect to some macroscopic variables, such as inverse temperature and chemical potential, give the mean values and fluctuations of the macroscopic quantities conjugate to the macroscopic variables. While, the partial derivatives of the grand cannonical partition functions with respect to a microscopic energy of single-particle energy give the mean occupation number and fluctuation of particles in that energy level. The average value of the statistical weight function in the particle-distribution into the single-particle energy levels yields in the constant reference value of the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, which result is consistent with the third law of thermodynamics. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the correspondence principle between classical and quantum statistical mechanics. For examples, in the limit of low densities and high temperatures the grand cannonical partition functions, the grand cannonical probability distribution functions and the energy-level mean occupation numbers in the Bose and the Fermi-particle system reduce to those functions and the mean occupation number of the Boltzmann system, respectively.
Thennal relaxation of a linear quantum oscillator coupled to a heat bath was examined within the (conditional) canonical density operator obtained by unitary transfonnation of the equilibrium density matrix of bath oscillators. The generalized Langevin equation with fluctuation and dissipation for a oscillator coupled to heat bath was derived and solved by Laplace transfonnation method. In the conditional density matrix fonnalism the symmetrtied correlation function for the heat bath oscillators leads to fluctuation-dissipation relation. With the solution of Langevin equation the phonon population was obtained. The population depends on both time and temperature. Emission and absorption spectra are a1so calculated, which emission spectrum contains the contribution due to spontaneous emission. Phonon population, emission and absorption spectra depend on the oscillator’s natural frequency, coupling strength and temperature of the heat bath, altogether.
The main purpose of this study was to derive managerial priority for pollutants in drinking water using the Delphi technique and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. We collected fundamental existing items based on a literature review for water pollutants, and deduced a total of 36 sub-items from nine core sectors, as follows: organic matter; inorganic substances; pathogenic organisms; chemicals; heavy metals; radioactive substances; sediment deposits; heat; and oil, and then conducted the first round of an expert study to ensure that objective indicators properly evaluate major issues for management of for drinking water quality. In the following round, the necessity and importance assessments of adjusted items were implemented using a content validity ratio index. Finally, items modified by Delphi surveys were applied to AHP. We computed weighted values by pair-wise comparison of sub-items and each of five sectors modified by the second round. According to the results of AHP, the managerial priority for pollutants in drinking water was as follows; while heavy metal placed first in importance, pathogenic organisms came second, followed by inorganic substances, organic matter and chemical substances from the sector perspective.
This study conducted panel data analyses using time series data from 20 months (May 2016 to December 2017) of 17 metropolitan cities to investigate the negative effects of air pollution on domestic travel demand. In this study, a travel demand model with air pollution factors such as fine particulate matter (PM10), ultrafine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ozone (O3), including climate factors (precipitation, temperature) and demographic variables (income, age), was established. The diagnosis was finally interpreted as an estimate of the fixed effect model with first-order autoregressive disturbances. According to the main results, when the index of ultrafine dust is changed from the 'good' level to the 'normal' level, domestic travel demand is reduced by 27.9%, and when worsened to the 'bad' level, demand decrease of 9.5% is added. In addition, the change from the 'good' level to the 'normal' level caused by fine dust and ozone pollution showed 14.8% and 8.2% reduction in travel demand, respectively. The point is that the regional characteristics should be taken into account when establishing tourism policies to cope with ultrafine dust.