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        한국 여성주의 미술의 몸의 정치학

        오진경(吳鎭敬) 한국미술연구소 2005 美術史論壇 Vol.- No.20

        몸은 서양미술사에서 가장 오랫동안 다루어졌던 전통적 주제 중 하나이다. 그러나 20세기에 접어들어 관념적이고 내재적인 가치를 추구하는 형식주의 모더니즘 미술이 주류 미술동향으로 자리 잡게 되면서, 몸에 대한구체적인 관심은 한동안 미술의 중심으로부터 멀어지는 듯이 보였다. 하지만 이러한 이성중심주의적인 모더니즘 미술도 1950년대와 60-70년대를 거치면서 팝아트나 네오-다다, 누보 레알리즘, 해프닝 등에 의해 도전을 받게 되었다. 이제 미술에서는 기성 오브제나 내러티브한 문학적 요소 그리고 일상적인 몸짓 등 모더니즘 미술이 배척했던 물질적이고 현실적인 요소들이 작품의 중요한 구성요소이자 주제로서 다시 부활되었다. 마침내 1960년대와 70년대를 거치면서 바디 아트라 불리는 선체를 활용하는 작업이 중요한 미술장르의 하나로 자리 잡았고, 특히 1990년대에 들어서면서부터는 몸을 표현대상이나 수단으로 삼는 미술이 가장 두드러진 경향의 하나가 되었다. 이제 미술가들에게 있어 몸은 자연에 속한 것이기보다는 사회의 코드를 따르는 문화적 산물로서, 사회 속에서 이루어지는 모든 의미화 방식을 느낄 수 있는 일차적이고도 구체적인 체험의 장소이자 자신의 정체성을 입증하는 가장 효과적인 표현수단이 된 것이다. 몸은 특히 여성주의적인 작업을 하는 여성미술가들에게 좋은 표현수단이 되었는데, 루이 즈 브루주아(Louise Bourgeois)나 신디 셔면(Cindy Sherman) 키키 스미스(Kiki Smith) 등과 같은 미술가들의 작업은 그 좋은 예이다. 서구의 페미니스트 미술가들 못지않게 한국의 여성 미술가들의 다양한 방식으로 몸을 다루면서, 한국 사회를 지배하고 있는 성별 이데올로기와 의미의 재생산 과정을 날카롭게 분석하였다. 본 연구는 이와 같이 몸을 통해 여성주의적인 발언을 하고 있는 몇몇 한국 여성미술가들의 작품을 시대적으로 고찰하면서, 작가들이 어떠한 방식으로 여성의 몸을 쟁점화하고 있으며, 그 서술구조는 어떤 점에서 시대성을 드러내는가 하는 것을 고찰한 것이다. 필자는 1960년대 후반 아방가르드적 해프닝에 참여하면서 사회를 향한 비판과 도전의 수 단으로 자신의 몸을 제공했던 정강자나, 심선희의 작품에서 부분적이긴 하나 여성주의적인 의도를 읽을 수 있다고 보았기에 논의의 출발점으로 삼았다. 이후 1970년대를 지나 1980년대 중반에 오면 보다 적극적이고 조직적인 여성주의적 작업이 ‘여성미술’ 이라는 이름으로 전개되기 시작한다. 80년대의 여성미술은 당시 한국의 정치 사회적인 특수성을 반영하면서 , 민족주의나 사회계급간의 갈등에 초점을 맞추었던 민중미술과 그 시각을 같이 하였던 운동이다. 따라서 여성마술에 재현된 여성이미지는 여성의 다양한 정체성을 나타내기보다는 저임금의 여성근로자, 어머니, 아내라는 극히 제한된 전형으로 나타나며, 작품 속에 재현된 여성의 몸은 대부분 사회의 지배계급으로부터 억압당하는 하층계급의 여성들의 현실을 드러내는 것이었다. 이에 비해 1990년대와 2000년대에 적극적인 활동을 하고 있는 이불, 이융, 김난영 등의 여성미술기들은 몸을 정체성의 메타포로 보면서 자신의 존재를 입증하고 선언하기 위한 수단으로 삼는다. 1980년대 여성미술에서의 몸의 표현이 보다 당시 한국의 정치 사회적인 특수성 을 반영하는 직설적인 화법을 사용하였다면, 1990년대의 여성미술기들은 일정한 양식에 머물거나 직설적인 서술방식을 거부한다. 이 신세대 여성미술가들은 몸을 기괴한 형태로 변형 시키거나 분절시키고, 통속적이고 키치적인 재현을 서슴치 않는다. 이러한 방식은 일종의 낯설게 하기의 시도라고 할 수 있는데, 그들은 이 낯설음을 통해서 기존의 사회가 여성의 몸에 대해 지녔던 신비주의적이거나 유미주의적인 기대와 환상을 여지없이 전복시켜버린다. 1960년대 말 이후 1990년대까지 한국 여성주의 미술의 궤적을 더듬어보면, 시대가 변하고 그에 따른 문화적 코드가 달라지면서 한국 여성주의미술 속에 등장하는 몸의 표현방식이나 그 함축의미도 함께 변해왔음을 알 수 있다. 그러나 시대적 어법은 다를지라도 여성주의 미술가들이 한국 사회에 내재한 성별 분리적인 사고와 제도에 도전하기위하여 몸의 정치학을 지속적이고도 창의적으로 수행해왔다는 사실은 주목해야 할 점이다. 몸의 정치학이야말로 여성 주의미술이 한국 현대미술사에서 하나의 중요한 흐름으로 자리 잡을 수 있도록 한 강한 추진력이었기 때문이다. Body has been one of the most traditional themes in western art throughout the ages. However, display of the artist's body remained largely repressed under the Modernist regime. The body has served for over two centuries as the 'phobic object' of artistic Modernism, threatening to undermine or even feminize the transcendent Cartesian subject. The resurging interest in the neglected realm of Body Art however, surfaced with the emergence of art practices such as Neo-dada, Pop Art, Nouveau Realism, Happening and Body Art in the fifties, sixties and seventies. Challenging the preconceptions of Modernism, these movements reinstated body as an important artistic theme as well as a medium of expression. Especially in the 1990s, the medium of body became particularly useful to many female artists who focused on issues related to identity and gender ideology. For these artists, motif of the body was often a socio-political signifier rather than something naturally given. Like many female western artists working with the medium of body (Louise Bourgois, Cindy Sherman, or Kiki Smith to name a few), a number of Korean female artists considered the motif of body in multifarious manners seeking to act against the oppressive dominant ideology and the process of cultural meaning-making in the Korean society. Accordingly, this paper intends to analyze in a chronological manner, the works of Korean female artists utilizing their own bodies as a basic medium of feminist expression, and to reveal the ideological narratives and cultural underpinnings from which signifying bodies are produced. In order to select objects of discussion, the discussion on the conception of Korean feminist art seems inevitable. Interpretations may vary depending on scholars, but I argue that at least some feminist intention could be found from Jung Kang Ja's avant-guardian happenings in 1967 which used the body as a medium for social critique and resistance During the 1970s, art forms using body as a medium of expression were dominated by conceptual performances mostly executed by male artists. Although we find some activities of the female artists during the time, considering their works as feminist is quite questionable. Therefore, the discussion will be lead to the feminist works of the mid-80s which grew parallel to the Minjung Misul movement. Feminist art of the 1980s has grown out of the unique socio-political situation of Korea. In conjunction with Minjung Misul, feminist art of the time emphasized nationalism and social disparity between class status rather than issues related to gender ideology. Women's bodies represented in these works were often unsexualized images of women such as poorly-paid laborers, generous mothers or faithful wives. Here the images of women functioned as a metaphor for the victimization of the country and elicited both anger and sorrow. The image also functioned as a tool to promote patriotism and social morality. Unlike the feminist body images in the 1980s, works form the late 1980s to the 1990s problematized the question of sexual difference. The works existed as a probing investigation of the female identity which was in a constant state of fluctuation. The discourse on the body was neither monolithic nor politically specific as in the earlier decade, but rather exhibited many elements, having no coherent form or linear narrative structure. They ironically combined the effort to prove the subjectivity of the body with the effort to deconstruct identity. Among the artists who deal with the performance idiom in a serious and concerted manner, I analyzed works of Lee Bul , Lee Yum, and Kim Nanyoung. As such, the current study demonstrates a continuous feminist discourse in art from the late 1960s through the 1990s. The process involves continually rethinking the conditions of the Korean art world and the status of Korean women and feminist art criticism within that sphere. Whether being the object of expressio

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        팝아트를 중심으로 본 복제의 미학

        오진경(吳鎭敬) 한국미술연구소 2014 美術史論壇 Vol.- No.38

        If the most prominent features of a work of art happen to be elements of machine-based mass production, i.e., standardization, repetition and replication, this is likely because, in whatever respect,the work reflects an aestheticrelated to the culture of mechanization. This paper examines the works of Futurists, Purists, Dadaists and of Fernand Leger, in order to explore the meaning of the replication in Pop within the larger context of art history. In the early twentieth century, artists thought of replicationas either a weapon against the arrogance and parochilaism of previous generations, or a strategy to transcend the traditional notion of art as bound by a hierarchy and broaden the definition of man-made beauty. As part of a trend that had continued since the mid-nineteenth century, replication implicated the social significance of a new aesthetic not removed from daily life. This aesthetic of replication was succeeded bythe following generation of art movements including Neo-Dada, Pop and Nouveau Realisme, and especially by artists in the United States. Raised in a culture of consumerism repsresented by an excess of mass-produced goods, photographs, advertisements and ready-to-eat foods, American artists were emboldened by the confidence that theirs could be the generation that establishes Pop as the most American form of art, and thus actively introduced increasingly commercial and replicated materials in their works. As did their previous generation in the 1910s, American Pop artists strived to express in detail the reality of a consumerist society where everything is reproduced and consumed, using replication as a means to challenge formalist modernism, which had pursued “art for art’s sake.” In this respect, they succeeded the perspective of Realists, who believed art should bear testimony to the spirit of the times. And while their blatent ordinariness make the works appear extremely apathetic and mechanical, ironically, it also allows the art to speak to the viewer in a more serious, piercing voice. Through the act of replication, without which the structure of consumerist societies cannot be explained, Pop art provided an opportunity to once again reflect upon the world we live in, raising the oldest, most fundamental question about art and aesthetics, “What does it mean to create art?”

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        다다와 초현실주의 미술에 나타난 평범함의 정치학

        오진경(吳鎭敬) 한국미술연구소 2009 美術史論壇 Vol.- No.28

        With the rapid growth of urban population by industrialization and the progress of mass production technique by machine, leisure activity for city workers have got to be possible, accordingly, cultural consumption structure has changed, and popular culture started to rise to the surface targeted for many ordinary masses, not only for some elite classes. Art has naturally come to reflect such social change in its materials and expression styles. Mass-produced objects, printing materials and photo images often introduced in modern art productions are the expressions of life pictures living in the modern society in which mass production and consumption has become a routine reality. As their representative examples, this paper looked into the photo montages of Berlin Dadaists having struggled to re-combine the fragments of photo images keeping specific factuality as an extraordinary way, and transmitted strong political messages. And Merz-collages of Kurt Schwitters gathering up miscellaneous printing materials dumped as wastes and creating delicate formativeness ranking next to abstract painting. In the same context, and also it explored readymades of Marcel Duchamp picking up mass-produced commodities, nullifying the practical traits and converting the meaning of plain things to unique and original art works. Banality to Dadaists became weapons to scold the selfishness and arrogance of the older generation bringing about a tragedy so-called first world war, and to attack the hierarchial and prejudiced vision of existing art communities, and in addition, effective means to shape art not split from the life of all plain people. Banality playing a critical and challenging weapons to dadaism served as the ground of 'aesthetics of routineness' to find out a door heading for surrealist world in daily life, as it was linked with the positive view of surrealism seeking an alternative art to reconstruct Europe ruined by the first world war. A surrealist production often takes an outrageous and illogic expression pattern, so it was misconceived as art turning a deaf ear to the reality and tracking fantasy. However, indeed Surrealism was a humanistic movement which came up with a specific and practicable alternative to drastically recognize realistic problems and resolve them. and struggled to rights and freedom to lead the chaotic realistic world to an orderly direction all people dream of. The production of surrealists utilizing routine objects and reproductive images were the attempts to realize that goal in a formative way. Rene Magritte reaped an unexpected formative effect by putting the images of familiar and common routine objetcs side by side with an extravagant combination against physical rules and logical thoughts, and produced painting leading the spectator to a mystical world 'depaysement' process. Max Ernst created a strange and wonderful world like alchemy through collages illogically attaching cuts and photo images containing concrete reality. Savador Dali tried to intentionally shamming the free imagination of an organized mental disease called paranoia, and express the another world of truth invisible to the eyes of normal people. And the box series of Joseph Cornell, arranging in a small box bead, glass cup, tobacco pipe and routine goods, an astronomical chart, and old map, displayed the transcendental world of time and space where the past, the presence, internal space and the universe co-exist. In a word, banality to surrealists was a formative means to materialize the belief that they can find out, even in daily repeating routine, a door heading for mystical, wonderful and poetic world, in other words surrealite : the world of absolute reality. This kind of strategy of banality revealed by Dada and Surrealism was inherited to all art trends actively applying to art production mass-produced objects, images and re-production technique such as Neo-Dada, Pop Art, Nouveau Realisme, Nouvelle Figuration

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        유럽 대학의 사례를 통해 본 정보화시대의 미술사 교육

        오진경(吳鎭敬) 한국미술연구소 2002 美術史論壇 Vol.- No.14

        As a scholarly endeavor studying human behavior through an, the study of An History attempts to understand the representational meanings underlying various works of alt. The study may involve research on the historical background of an art work, or analysis on personal histories related to an artist, but in any case, the study is primarily based on direct visual confrontation with the an work. Such condition becomes a source of difficulty in our research and education in Art History because to visit all the works dispersed in various parts of the world is utterly impossible not only time wise, but for spatial and economical reasons. Such condition forces many conventional art history classes to rely on reproductions of the original images: slides, videos and printed matters. However, in today' s Information Age, we are opened to new possibilities as we see images from museums worldwide light on top of our PC screens thanks to the web and the internet. We are now at the turning point regarding art historical research and teaching methodology, moving away from the remote and restricted nature of the 35㎜ slides. If we can utilize the benefits of multimedia, we carl not only analyze a works formal, chromatic, compositional, and materialistic specificities in a scientific manner, but also obtain information on current exhibitions taking place around the world. In addition, the utilization of the online remote learning systems will allow us to plan and coordinate collaborative educational programs involving art historians and museum curators from various parts of the world. In response to today's rapidly changing Information Age, the current study intends to investigate new possibilities in art historical curriculum and pedagogy by analyzing previous teaching models found in European universities. In Europe, the electronicization of art historical data has steadily taken place during the past twenty years under the support of European Union, not to mention various projects in various scales conducted by university research centers or art history departments. Narcisse, Joconde, Mus nor are a few notable results marking this effort, allowing the public to access art historical databases and image banks through the internet. This indeed is a great achievement benefiting not only the Europeans, but all art historians, art students and art-interested individuals around the world. However, the use of digitalized resources is not entirely free from problems. There still are some major issues to be resolved regarding the standardization of format, computer compatibility, index usage, and copyright problems extending to legal matters. What makes the problem worse may be indicated by the result of a survey undertaken in part of the current study: the number of art historians at the European university showing apprehension regarding the active collaboration of up-to-date information technology in the study of humanities was surprisingly high. We also find that many of the art historians who have interest in utilizing digitalized resources find themselves unequipped in terms of technical knowledge, The rapid changes in the development of technology makes the cutting-edge technologies of today too old tomorrow, and it is extremely difficult to use the right material at the light time even if innovative, outstanding digitalized resources are produced. In order to resolve such complex issues, the art history professors of European universities are showing collaborative effort, In the past 4, 5 years, several research groups were formed centering around the theme 'Art History and Informatization' showing active involvement in the publication of researched results. Their ceaseless effort will be an asset to the development of art history and art culture in Europe in the coming years. Given the fact, it is worthwhile to note that there is no comprehensive art-related electronic resource system in Korea to speak of, except for some data

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