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This study investigates the behavioral characteristics and forms of phosphorus in the sediment according to the oxygen condition (aerobic/anaerobic). In the behavioral characteristics analysis, Al-P and Fe-P concentrations were the highest among the forms of inorganic phosphorus, and therefore had the strongest impact on sorption and release correspond¬ing to environmental condition changes. In the experimental investigation of the inorganic forms of phosphorus in the sediment according to the oxygen condition, we determined that the forms of inorganic phosphorus did not greatly affect the sorption or release reaction because the distribution ratios of the inorganic forms remained constant corresponding to changes of dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. In contrast, the forms of organic phosphorus in the sediments affected both sorption and release. Furthermore, labile-P and moderately labile-P forms were the major mechanisms of sorption in sediment. Moderately labile-P was the greatest contributor to phosphorus release action in sediment. As environmen¬tal changes are important for the behavioral characteristics of phosphorus in sediment, the forms of phosphorus should be considered to have a greater effect, especially in the organic phosphorus case. Therefore, based on the present study results, sediment evaluation aimed at controlling internal pollutants in reservoirs should include an examination of the forms of phosphorus present, as well as the release characteristics of environmental changes, which are influential factors of phosphorus control. Further research in this field is required.
This study was performed to analyze the water quality from small urban stream and to restore the stream and the take to the amenity environment by purifying urban stream. The amenity environment of the urban stream influences on ecosystem and the water quality of the lake. In this study sampling sites were set for the Shingal stream, the Jigok stream and the sewages which flow in the Shingal stream. The flow rate, pH, EC, concentration of DO, BOD, COD, NH_4-N, NO_2-N, NO_3-N, T-P, PO_4-P and Cl^- in stream were analyzed from April, 1995 to March,1996. The results obtained from these investigations were as follow; The annual average pH was 7.63. Concentrations of SS, BOD, T-N and T-P were 10.6㎎/1, 3.42㎎/1, 8.58㎎/1 and 0.275㎎/1 at the upstream and 24.8㎎/1, 16.64㎎/1, 14.25㎎/and 0.88㎎/1 at the downstream, respectively. It indicates that rapid contamination of water quality occurred during its flow from upstream downstream. The suggested plans to improve the water quality of the Shingal stream and lake Shingal are as follows. ① Reduction of inflow loading with construction of wastewater treatment plant. ② Educate environmental consciousness for getting the reduction of municipal sewage inflow. ③ In the industrial area, reinforce wastewater emission control level with more strict requisitions. ④ Dredging of sediment for self-purification.
Seasonal variation of streamwater quality was observed every months from May 1997 to April 1998. Beside, temporal variation of streamwater quality and discharge were examined during rainfall-runoff period. Based on these data, we evaluated annual loading of pollutants discharged from forest basin. Main results obtained in this paper are as follows: Annual average pH was 7.31 and percentage of saturated DO concentration was represented 89∼96% in each site. Streamwater quality was determined by amounts of rainfall, soil profile of sites and recharging underground water in rainy days. However, Streamwater quality was determined by only recharging underground water in sunny days. Annual runoff loading was investigated that Ca^(2+) is 23.8ton/yr, Na^+ is 7.0ton/yr, K^+ is 2.4 ton/yr, Cl^- is 1.9ton/yr, NO₃-N is 1.6ton/yr, Mg^(2+) is 1.7ton/yr and SO₄^(2-) is 2.6ton/yr. In rainy days, runoff loading was contributed to annual loading about 20%.
We investigated the patterns of soil horizon evolution and its water distribution on three different forest stands covered with Larix leptolepis, Pinus koraiensis, and Qercus mongolica on the Experimental Forest of Kyunghee University, located in Kwangju, Kyunggi-Do. Compared to the properties of depths of O and A horizons evolved on the Pinus koraiensis stand, the depths of O and A horizons on the forest stands of Larix leptolepis and Qercus mongolica were shallower, indicating that the soil horizon were deeply influenced by geographical characteristics, its erosive and sedimentary distinction, vegetation cover and its population density. And the bulk densities of the sites selected were lower in the high slope gradient than that in the lower slope gradient at the same depth of soil profile. Therefore, the changes of the soil bulk densities were closely related to the soil organic matter and the vertical transport of soil particle throughout soil depths. On the other hand, the bulk density and organic matter content in soil can influence the water transport phenomena, resulting in decrease of the hydraulic conductivity as the increase in the bulk density, while the organic matter can not affect the hydraulic conductivity on the soil surface layer. For a rainfall infiltration characteristics from a lysimeter experiment established on the stand of Larix leptolepis, the bulk density and slope gradient strongly influenced the vertical transport of water, as well as the lateral movement of rainfall. Conclusively, the characteristics of water movement and distribution in the forest stand can be determined not by the geographical factor such as slope gradient but also by the bulk density and organic matter content remained in soils.
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We analyzed the particulate matter (PM10) for 2001~2015 using simple and seasonal näive methods, time series regression methods, exponential smoothing methods, exponential smoothing state space methods, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average methods and seasonal trend decomposition using loess method to forecast the degree of fine dust pollution in Seoul with PM10 data from the web site of Seoul metropolitan government. The best model among the various time series analysis methods was selected to predict the fine dust concentration in 2014 and 2015. The coefficient of determination for 2014 was 0.75 or more, RMSE was also lower than that of 2015, and the additive Winters smoothing was judged as an appropriate model. The coefficient of determination in 2015 was low at 0.40, and the RMSE was also higher than in 2014, but the ETS(M,A,M) of the state-space exponential smoothing method relatively well. This is because the concentrations of PM10 in February and March of 2015 were higher than those of the previous year and the PM10 concentrations of September were observed to be lower. 본 연구는 2001년에서 2015년까지 서울시 월별 평균 미세먼지 PM10 농도에 대한 다양한 일변량 시계열 모형 적합 및 예측 문제를 다루었다. 2001~2014년 자료를 사용하여, 가변수 회귀분석, 지수평활, ARIMA, 상태공간지수평활(ETS 방법), 시계열분해(STL 방법) 등을 적용하였다. 분석 결과 가변수 회귀, ETS, STL을 적용한 모형의 결정계수는 0.60 이상으로 나왔으며 평균오차제곱, AIC, BIC 등의 통계량 역시 낮은 수준으로 비교적 적합이 우수함을 볼 수 있었다. 모형 예측력을 평가하기 위해, 각 시계열 분석 방법 중 최적 모형을 선택하여 2014년과 2015년 미세먼지 농도를 예측하였다. 2014년 추정치의 결정계수는 0.75 이상이며, RMSE 역시 낮게 나타났고, 가법 윈터스평활이 적절한 모형으로 판정되었다. 2015년 추정치의 결정계수는 0.40 대의 낮은 수준이며, RMSE가 2014년에 비해 높게 나타나 예측이 2014년에 비해 정확하지는 못하였지만, 상태공간지수평활인 ETS(M,A,M) 모형이 비교적 적절하게 작동함을 볼 수 있었다. 이는 2015년의 2, 3월의 PM10 농도가 전년에 비해 높게 관찰되었고, 9월의 PM10 농도가 낮게 관측되었기 때문이다.