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The target in this study is damage-controlled system with damper installed at beam end. This system should have different design method about strength and stiffness of the damper compared with the general parallel connection damping system(such as braces type or stud type etc.), because both arrangement formats of damper are different. However, the design method of damper installed at beam end is not yet available. And relevant internal and external researches have been limited mostly to the structural performance verification by the shape of the connection detail. Therefore, in this paper, it consider the available design value of damper installed at beam end through the analytical study. The purpose of this study is to present the design range of the damper/beam yield strength ratio and stiffness ratio, presented rationale is based on the performance efficiency of the damper and results of the damage analysis of the beam member. It conducted time history analysis to target the structure made up of the presented design range, to verify the validity of the proposed design value.
위체 평활근에 있어서 위상성 수축은 nifedifine-민감성 Ca2+-통로(nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+-channel)를 통한 Ca2+의 유입에 의하여 이루어지고 긴장성 수축은 주로 nifedipine-저항성 Ca2+-통로(nifedipine-resistant Ca2+-channel)을 통한 Ca2+의 유입에 의하여 발생되며 그리고 위상성 수축은 긴장성 수축에 비하여 세포막의 전기적 흥분성에 보다 의존적인 것으로 생각된다. The effects of nifediplne, extracellular Ca2+, K+ concentration and TEA (Tetraethylammonium) on the phasic contraction and tonic contraction were stuidied in order to elucidate Ca2+ mobllization relaxed with phasic contraction and tonic contraction respectively in the corpus muscle of guinea-pig stomach. Spontaneous contractions were suppressed by nifedipine (10-7-10-6M) but the tonic component of the basal activity was not suppressed. Acetylcholine-induced contracture was composed of repetitive phasic component and a tonic component abd the repetitive phasic component was inhibited by nifedipine 10-6M but tonic component was resistant to nifedipine. The development of the tonic component was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+concentration. The magnitude of the spontaneous contractions and tonic basal component were increased by TEA. The magnitudes of the phasic and the tonic components were larger in the 60 mM K+-contracture and the phasic component relatively increased more than the tonic component. From above all the results it is suggested that the phasic contraction is developed by Ca2+ influx through nifedipine-resistant Ca2+-channel and the phasic contraction is more dependent on the electric excitability of the cellular membrane than the tonic contraction.
In this study, we proposed the horizontal story shear strength distribution of buildings considering the predominant period characteristics ofseismic waves. The horizontal story shear strength distribution was calculated through trial-and-error method based on damage distribution. Asthe result of study, the damage distribution trend of analysis model according to the predominant period of seismic wave and thefundamental natural period of the building was that as the predominant period of seismic wave increased, the damage concentrated on thelower floors, and as the fundamental natural period of the building increased, the damage concentrated on the top floor. Based on theseresults, the horizontal shear strength of buildings in which the damage distribution is uniform according to the predominant period of seismicwave and the fundamental natural period of the building was calculated. The calculated horizontal shear strength coefficient distributionshowed a tendency to increase the coefficient of top floor and the curvature of coefficient distribution as the predominant period of seismicwave decreased. The optimum yield shear force coefficient distribution formula was calculated by multiple regression analysis of thecalculated horizontal shear strength distribution as dependent variables, the predominant period of seismic wave and the fundamental naturalperiod of the building as independent variables. The Damage distribution of analysis models designed with the optimum yield shear forcecoefficient distribution formula was controlled by the horizontal shear strength corresponding to the predominant period of seismic wave. 본 연구에서는 지진파 탁월주기 특성을 고려한 건축물의 수평 전단내력 분포를 산출하였다. 건축물의 수평 전단내력 분포는 비선형시간이력 해석을 통한 해석모델의 손상분포를 바탕으로 시행착오법을 통해 산출하였다. 해석결과 나타난 지진파 탁월주기과 건축물의 1차 고유주기에 따른 해석모델의 손상분포 경향은 지진파 탁월주기가 증가할수록 손상이 저층부에 집중하고, 건축물의 1차 고유주기가 증가할수록 손상이 최상층에 집중하였다. 이러한 결과를 바탕으로 지진파 탁월주기와 건축물의 1차 고유주기에 따라 손상분포가 균일하게 나타나는 건축물의 수평 전단내력을 산출하였다. 산출된 수평전단내력 계수분포는 지진파 탁월주기가 감소할수록 최상층 계수와 분포의 곡률이 증가하였다. 최적항복전단력 계수분포 산정식은 산출된 최적항복전단력 분포를 종속변수, 지진파 탁월주기와 건축물의 1차 고유주기를 독립변수로 다중 회귀 분석하여 산출되었다. 최적항복전단력 계수분포 산정식으로 설계한 해석모델은 지진파의 탁월주기에 수평 전단내력이 대응하여 손상분포가 제어되었다.
복강경 수술은 외과의의 기술과 경험이 축적되고 수술 기구의 발달로 인해 점차 그 수술의 영역이 확대 되고 있다. 저자들은 위내시경으로 유문부의 IIc형 조기위암과 점막하 종양 및 관상선종으로 진단된 3례에서 복강경하 위 설상절제술을 시행하여 좋은 결과를 얻었기에 보고하는 바이다. Laparoscopic surgery has been currently popularized with benefit of simple, minimally invasive technique with prompt recovery and short hospital stay. Its application is expanding rapidly with accumulation of new techniques and improvement of equipments over last several years. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach was carried out with gastroscopic assistance as a new surgical procedure for the resection of early gastric cancer and benign gastric tumor. Under the general anesthesia with the patient supine, a laparoscope was inserted through a 10-mm supraumbilcal cannula. Under direct vision, a 18-mm port was made on the mid-clavicular line in the left hypogastrium for introduction of a 60-mm Endo-GIA(Auto Suture), and a 10-mm cannula was placed in the epigastrium to the right of the falciform ligament for instrument access. An internist put a gastroscope into the stomach to raise up the lesion with light illumination. The raised area was grasped with a laparo-Babcock's forceps. A cuff of stomach was excised out by Endo-GIA cutting. Laparoscopic gastric resection would allow excision of small gastric tumors with assessment of the regional lymph nodes and the liver, without the risk of open surgery.
In the event of an earthquake, non-structural components require seismic performance to ensure evacuation routes and to protect lives from falling non-structural components. Accordingly, the seismic design code proposes horizontal force for the design and evaluation of non-structural components. Ground motion observed on each floor is affected by a building's eigen vibration mode. Therefore, the earthquake damage of non-structural components is determined by the characteristics of the non-structural component system and the vibration characteristics of the building. Floor response spectra in the seismic design code are estimated through time history analysis using seismic waves. However, it is difficult to use floor response spectra as a design criterion because of user-specific uncertainties of time history analysis. In addition, considering the response characteristics of high-rise buildings to long-period ground motions, the safety factor of the proposed horizontal force may be low. Therefore, this study carried out the horizontal force review proposed in the seismic design code through dynamic analysis and evaluated the floor response of seismic waves considering buildings and predominant periods of seismic waves.
철골 데크플레이트 시스템은 시공의 편의성과 공기단축 때문에 건설현장에서 널리 사용되고 있으며, 그중에서도 특히 철선과 데크플레이트가 혼합된 시스템 (트러스 데크플레이트 시스템)이 우수한 구조적 성능과 및 경제성에 의해서 최근에 매우 각광을 받고 있다. 그러나 트러스 데크플레이트 시스템은 많은 장점에도 불구하고 래티스 철선과 데크플레이트에 용접을 하므로 철판이 용접부위에서 녹이 발생하게 되고, 용접부의 균열과 이에 따른 누수가 발생하는 등의 결점이 있다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해서 용접을 하지 않고 녹발생이 없는 새로운 데크플레이트 시스템, 즉, TOX 데크플레이트 시스템의 적용성을 검토하였다. 본 연구에서는 15개의 실험을 통해 시공단계에서의 데크플레이트 시스템의 구조적 안전성을 평가하고자 한다. 실험변수는 슬래브의 두께, 경간의 길이, 상부, 하부 및 래티스 철선의 직경 그리고 아연도금강판 재료 등이다. 실험결과 제안된 TOX 데크플레이트 시스템은 처짐과 내력에 있어서 구조적으로 충분히 안전성이 있는 것으로 보인다. Owing to the decreased work term and the convenience of construction work in Korea, the steel deck plate system has been widely used in the construction field. Most of all, due to its good stiffness and economic consideration, the steel-wire-integrated deck plate system (or truss deck plate system) has become very popular in recent years. But although it has many advantages, the truss deck plate system has a critical defect: it gets rusty in the welding joints between the lattice steel wire and the deck plate, resulting in the cracking of such welding joints and water leakage. To address these problems, a new type of truss deck plate system, which need not be welded and does not rust, was proposed herein: the TOX deck plate system. In this study, tests were conducted on 15 specimens to evaluate the structural safety of the proposed deck plate system during the construction stage. The test parameters were as follows: the depth of the slab the length of the span the diameters of the top, bottom, and lattice steel wire and the material properties of the zinc-coated steel sheets. The test results show that the TOX deck plate system can guarantee structural safety owing to its deflection and strength.