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Background: Chronic rhino-sinusitis and persistent allergic rhinitis is often cited as risk factor for developing adenoid hypertrophy or adenoiditis, but this relationship has not been studied extensively. In this study, we evaluated the mucosal barrier, squamous changes of ciliated epithelium, IgA secretion and BCL-6 expression in adenoids, and adenoid size. Methods: Six children with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, nine children with only allergic rhinitis, nine children with only sinusitis and six children without any history of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis were enrolled. H-E stain of adenoid for squamous metaplasia, immunohistochemical study of adenoid for IgA and BCL-6, cytokeratin stain for evaluation of mucosal barrier and lateral view X-ray for adenoid size were performed. ANOVA test was used in the analysis and data showing p value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The number of ciliated cells had tendency to be decreased and squamous metaplasia had tendency to be increased in three experimental groups (p>0.05). Deterioration of mucosal barrier had tendency to be detected in three experimental groups than control group (p>0.05). BCL-6 had tendency to be increased and IgA secretion had tendency to be decreased in three experimental groups (p>0.05). There is no difference in adenoid size between three experimental groups and control group. Conclusion: Despite the expectation that adenoid would be affectecd by allergic rhinitis and rhino-sinusitis, we found no evidence for influence of adenoid immunity.
Background: Defective or immature antibody responses to pathogens in children may explain the increased susceptibility to acute otitis media. However, there is no study in Korea patients whether a correlation exists between otitis media with effusion and the levels of serum immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses, IgA, IgM and IgE. Methods: 45 children with otitis media with effusion more than 4 episodes in 12 months or 3 episodes in 6 months, 62 children with otitis media with effusion less than 3 episodes in 12 months and 102 children for control group took part in the study at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the KyungHee University from May 2004 to Feburary 2007. Serum immunoglobulin levels were determined by nephelometry. And then the relationship between otitis media with effusion and serum immunoglobulin level was evaluated. Results: In otitis media prone group, serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, and IgA level was lower than those level of control group, it was significantly decreased (p<0.05). In otitis media group, serum IgA, IgE, and IgG4 level was lower than those level of control. But it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: Lower immunoglobulins in children with otitis media with effusion suggest a generalized decreased antibody responses. Lower levels of serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, and IgA may be related with chronicity or intractability of otitis media with effusion.