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The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical reaction on the soil utilized the FARM-LIME. The soil used in this experiment consisted of sample A, virgin acid soil under cultivation and sample B, degraded paddy field soil and the FARM-LIME rained of 330.8mm. were divided into sample a, surface-layered lime and sample b, the lime under I m. from the surface. All of the determinations on the exchange acidity by Daikubara method and the exchangeable capacity by I N-ammonium acetate method of Schollenberger were respectively carried out on the soil sample A and B, together with FARM-LIME sample a and b acted on soil sample A and B respectively, and the following conclusions were drawn : 1) The neutralization value of the exchange acidity on the acid soil was larger than on the degraded paddy field soil and the difference on the milligram-equivalent of the xchangeable capacity was shown similar results to the neutralization value. 2)Although the same quantity of FARM-LIME, the neutralization value and the exchangeable capacity of FARM-LIME a were smaller than of FARM-LIME b.
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of the improvement of soil physical properties by application of soil conditioners on yield of rice plant in a reclaimed paddy soil . In general , the physical properties were slightly Improved by treatments of soil conditioners , and the properties such as bulk density, particle density, % solid space, water holding capacity were Improved in order by treatment of com-post , Miowon organic fertilizer, soil dressing gypsum and Peat. However, contents of organ3c matter and lime, which form aggregate of sell , were considerably increased by application of compost, Miowon organic fertilizer and gypsum. It seems, therefore, that long period application of the soil conditioners improve the structure of aggregate whilch is one of the important soil Physical properties . Concentration of salt in the soil was largly decreased by application of the conditioners especially, compost, peat, soil dressing and Miwon organic fertilizer compared with contrast. The salt concentration showed positive relationship to death number of rite plant after trans planting. The grain yield 1 n the treatments was in order as soil dressing compost, Miwon organic fertilizer, gypsum, peat and non-treatment, and this order showed identical tendency in the number of panicles per hill and Improvement of soil physical properties .
The study was conducted to investigate the change of salt concentration according to the application of some soil conditioners when rice plant was cultivated, and the relationship between phybicochemical properties of soil and the yield in the saline reclaimed soil. It was experimentalized in the saline reclaimed paddy field of Gyehwu island during two years (1987 to 1988), and the summarized of the conclution are as follow : 1 . The salt concentration of saturated soil solution in the used fine soil was high to 0.67 ~0.73% level. But, it was irrigated two or three times a week with irrigation water which salt concentration is 0.007% below during the cultivation and some soil conditioners were applied at the beginning to enter into the experiment. As the result, the salt concentration of saturated soil solution in fine soil was 0.22% ~0.26%, submerged soil solution and submerged water were 0.11 ~0.16% and 0.03~0.05%, respectively. They indicated that salt concentration was gradually decreased. Eventually, their salt concentration of the plots treated soil conditioners was lower than nontreatment. 2. In the gypaum plot. salt concentration was highest during three weeks after application of gypaum. But during two years after that time, salt concentration was lower than nontreatment. Therefore, the application of gypeum in the saline land was recommended 3. The added soil plot showed that salt concentration was lowest just after application of added soil. But, this plot preserved slightly higher salt concentration than compost plot after three weeks, and continued a similar concentration to compost from the latter ha]f of growing period to two fears. 4. The compost plot was slightly higher than added soil plot after application of compost, but it showed the lowest salt concentration after that time. The experiment was oonducte3 by following year, showed that it was a similar concentration to the Peat Plot and the added soil plot 5. All the plots were higher than general korean paddy field in salt concentration and pH. In the plot of compost and Miwon organic fertilizer, the content of T-N was higher. The content of O.M was higher in the plot compost pest, and Miwon organic fertilizer than other plots. C.E.C was less content than other general korean paddy field. but it is characteristic that degree of babe saturation was higher, due to increased content of exchangeable cation. 6. Because of high salt concentration of the very day when rice plant was transplanted, saturated soil solution in fine soil and submerged solution were 0.35 ~0.45% and 0.2 ~0.33%, respectively. Rice plant was suffered from saline damaged on the former half of growing period But irrigation was conducted by water which salt concentration was 0.007% below two-throe time a week. The salt concentration of saturated soil solution in fine soil, submerged soil solution and submerged water was 0.24-0.28%, 0.13-0.18% and 0.04~0.06%. respectively. Therefore the growth of rice plant was possible. 7. In exprimental period for two years, soil conditioners revealed an increased yield to be significant in comparison with nontreatment. But all the plots were the lower yield than general korean paddy field, and the grain yield between all the plots is as follow ; nontreatment< Miwon organic fertilizer<peat<Compost<Gypsum<Added soil. Finally, the application of added soil and gypsum demonstrated the effect as soil conditioners in a saline reclaimed soil.
The area of reclaimable tideland distributed in southwestern Korea peninsula is approximatly 442.000ha, The study was made to figure out Changing process of soil properties after reclamation. And the result of the study for silt clay Loam ( SiCL) soil are following as physical reclamation maturity was developed. 1. In the topographical distribution of reclaimable tideland, subtidal zone was mainly distributed in the Jeonbuk area, Intertidal zone in the Jeonnam area, and saltmash in the Gyeonggj area. 2. The Gyeonggj and Jeonnam area showed coarse silty soil, in the Jeonbuk area Coarse loamy - sandy, and in the Chungnam Various soil types. 3. n -factor· was 1-4~2.0(virturally unmaturity) which proportional to the submersion time of the area. While n-factor was above 2.0(unmaturity) where the submersion time is longer. n-factor was affected by clay and water content. 4. As reclamation maturity was developed, soil structure changed in progressive sequence from puddle→massive→subangular blocky→prismatic structure. 5. Coneresistance was increased as water contents decreased at the 1st year of the study it shows 1.1 kg/cm2, and at the 3th year the it increased up to 2.4kg/cm2. 6. Vertical penetration depth of, surface crack was reduced as the depth of soil was thicker while horizontal penetration was increased. 7. Anticipated desalinigation period was calculated by vandal Molen equation for safe rice farming. It will be seven years for silt in Gyonggi province. eight years for fine silt Loam in Chungnam, three years for sandy soil in Jeonbuk and ten years for silt clay Loam in Jeonnam province. 8. Test result of water holding capacity were following. Available water contents was 3.6% for Sandy soil, 9.3% for the Loam soil, 17.4% for the Silt Loam soil and, 23.3% for Siltclay loam were evaluated and it was in-creased according to the amounts of clay, silt and organic matter contents.
In a red-yellow acid soil of Yesan Series in the reclaimed hilly area of the Honam district some fertility experiments for red-pepper cultivation were conducted. The pH was remarkably increased in the surface soil of the slaked lime treated plots; the phosphorus level was highest in the plots whose phosphorus absorption coefficient was controlled to 10%, while the phosphorus absorption coefficient was lowest; the organic matter content was highest in the compost treated plots; the lime requirement was lowest in the slaked lime treated plots. The plots of all treatments showed the same tendency, but in a less degree, in the improvement of fertility as the other plots of each treatment. However, the increment of exchangeable bases and C.E.C. was highest in the plots of all treatments, which showed the highest Fertility. The yield pattern well reflected the improvement of fertility from each treatment. Thus the plots of all treatments produced the highest yield, and the yields of the other plots decreased in the following order of arrangement: the plots whose phosphorus absorption coefficient was controlled to 10%, the compost treated plots, the slaked lime treated plots, the rice straw ash treated plots, and the N-P-K treated plots. Economic analysis showed income increased according to the improvement of fertility from each treatment, and mulching treatments increased income more than nonmulching treatments. On the whole income from the plots of all treatments was highest. The yield from the plots of all treatments increased by 25% as compared to that from upland soils of high fertility.
미원유기질비료(味元有機質肥料)의 시용(施用)이 인삼(人蔘)의 발아(發芽)와 생육(生育) 및 토양(土壤)의 이화학성(理化學性)에 미치는 영향을 조사(調査)하여 연구(硏究) 검토(檢討)한 결과(結果)는 다음과 같다. 1. 인삼종자(人蔘種子)의 발아율(發芽率)은 대조구(對照區)에 비(比)하여 미원(味元) 유기질비료(有機質肥料)를 질소성분량(窒素成分量)으로 10a당(當) 2.5kg, 5kg, 10kg을 처리(處理)한 구(區) 순(順)으로 양호(良好)하였으며 15kg을 시용(施用)한 구(區)는 대조구(對照區)와 비슷하였다. 2. 묘삼(苗蔘)의 결주율(缺株率)은 질소성분량(窒素成分量)으로 10a당(當) 15kg 시용(施用)한 구(區)가 가장 높았고 또한 묘삼(苗蔘)의 생육(生育)도 불량(不良)하였다. 10kg구(區)는 대조구(對照區)와 비슷하였으며 2.5kg, 5kg의 순(順)으로 결주율(缺株率)이 낮아서 5kg/10a구(區)가 가장 양호(良好)하였다. 3. 묘삼(苗蔘)의 근중(根重)은 10kg구(區)와 5kg처리구(處理區)에서 비슷하게 가장 무거운 중량(重量)을 나타내어 다른 처리구(處理區)에 비(比)하여 유의성(有意性) 있는 증가(增加)를 보였으나 2.5kg, 대조구(對照區), 15kg처리구(處理區)의 순(順)으로 묘삼(苗蔘)의 중량(重量)이 가벼웠으며 수량(收量)도 적었다. 4. 미원유기질비료(味元有機質肥料)의 시용량(施用量)과 균삼채굴전(菌蔘採掘前) 후(後) 각(各) 처리구토양(處理區土壤)의 리화학적성질(理化學的性質)을 비교(比較) 검토(檢討)한 결과(結果) 다른 성질(性質)은 큰 변화(變化)가 없었으나 C.E.C. 및 유기물함량(有機物含量)은 증가(增加)하였다. 유기질비료(有機質肥料) 시용량(施用量)과 $NO_3-N$량(量)은 고도(高度)의 정상관(正相關)을 나타냈다. 5. 인삼(人蔘)의 발아율(發芽率)과 결주율(缺株率) 그리고 근중면(根重面)에서 고찰(考察)하여보면 산야초퇴비(山野草堆肥)의 양(量)을 질소성분량(窒素成分量)으로 20kg/10a 및 미원유기질비료(味元有機質肥料)를 성분량(成分量)으로 10kg/10a을 시용(施用)하는 것이 묘삼재배(苗蔘栽培)에 있어서 가장 좋은 것으로 생각된다. In order to find out the application effect of commercial organic fertilizer on the germination rate of ginseng seed, growth of ginseng plant and changes of the physicochemical properties of soils, a Miwon organic fertilizer, byproduct of amino acid fermentation, was applied to the ginseng nursery bed. The application rates of Miwon organic fertilizer were 0kg-N from organic fertilizer and 30kg-N from wild grass compost per 10a as control(namely 0kg-N/10a), 2.5kg-N and 27.5kg-N/ 10a(2.5kg-N/10a) 5.0kg-N and 25kg-N/10a(5.0kg-N/10a), 10kg-N and 20kg-N/10a(10kg-N/10a), 15kg-N and 15kg-N/10a(15kg-N/10a) respectively, The obtained results are as follows: 1. The germination rate of ginseng seed were better in the plots that received 2.5kg, 5.0kg and 10kg-N/10a as compared with control plot. However no difference was found on germination rate between control and 15kg-N/10a, 2. The higher rate of missing plant was found in the 15kg-N/10a plot that showed poor growth. However control and 10kg-N/10a plot showed similar rate of missing plant. The best result, lower rate of missing plant, was obtained in the order of 5kg-N and 2.5kg-N/10a respectively. 3. The significant heavier ginseng root weight was obtained in 5kg-N/10a and 10kg-N/10a plot. However the root weight was decreased in the order of 2.5kg-N/10a, control, 15kg-N/10a. 4. In the physicochemical changes of soils between control and organic fertilizer treated soil before and after harvesting the increment of pH, C.E.C. and organic matter content along with the rate of organic fertilizer application were found. There were significant correlation between nitrate nitrogen and the rate of organic fertilizer application. 5. In the view points of germination rate, missing rate of plant and yield of ginseng root, it can be stated that the best result could be obtained from the plot that received 10kg-N/10a from Miwon commercial organic fertilizer and 10kg-N/10a from wild grass compost.
Studies were made to determine the effect of application of Zn-KM, ZnSO4, and FTE on yields and nutrition of rice in a newly reclaimed saline soil at Gyehwa-Do, Jeonbug. Three rates of each zinc material (0, 2.5, 5.0kg/10a) were applied in combination with gypsum (300kg/10a) and rice straw (600kg/10a), The results are as follows: 1. Application of zinc resulted in significant increases in yields of rice. No difference was obtained between zinc materials. 2. Application of zinc in combination with rice straw Save higher yields than that with gypsum. 3 The highest yields were obtained at 5.0kg/10a of Zn-KM and FTE, and at 2.Skg/10a of ZnSO4. 4. Application of gypsum and rice straw resulted in desalinization of the soil, thus reducing Na content of soil at harveet. 5. Zinc concentration in rice tissue without application of zinc showed below critical level of 20 ppm. 6 . Application zinc resulted in significant increase in zinc concentration in rice tissue at harvest. Application of 5.0kg/10a of FTE showed the highest zinc concentration of 32 ppm. 7 Application of gypsum, rice straw and 2inc resulted in increases in total nitrogen content in rice tissue at harvest.
To investigate the effect of root nodule bacteria and soil conditioner treatment on the yield and nitrogen efficiency of soybean and the change in physicochemical property, the experiments were carried out through three years from 1978 till 1980. The results obtained were summarized as follows : 1 . Jeonnam, Songieong and Yesan soil series were treated with double superphosphate lime for the control of 5% phosphorous absorption coefficient and slaked lime of lime requirements by O.R.D. method as a soil conditioner. and root nodule bacteria by coating method were inoc-ulated into all the above three soil series. Their treatment plots were generally improved the Physicochemical properties of soil and increased the factors of fertility compared with the other untreated plots. 2. The increase in yield of soybean was observed in treatment number 8>9>7>6>5>4 in order of degrees of increase. And the activity of root nodule bacteria was also activated in these plots of yield increase and the formulation of root nodule was a qreat quantity. The positive correlation and the significant difference between fresh weight and yield of root noduleper hill were observed. 3. In considering the relation between the fresh weight and nitrogen efficiency of root nodule, nitrogen efficiency was high in the increased plots of fresh weight of root nodule, and correlation between them was positive. 4. The positive correlation and the highly significant difference was observed between the nitrogen efficiency and yield of soybean.