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Background and Objectives:Necortizing fasciitis in the cervical region is a very rare disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment results, complication and prognosis of necrotizing fasciitis patients. Materials and Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the inpatient charts treated for cervical necrotizing fasciitis at our Otorhinolaryngology clinic. We diagnosed necrotizing fasciitis by the clinical findings such as swelling, redness and pain of infected area and necrosis of subcutaneous fat layer and fascia observed during surgery. Twenty such patients were identified and treated from January 2011 to December 2016. Results:20 adults consisting of 14 male and 6 females with cervical necrotizing fasciitis were diagnosed and treated. The most commonly known associated preceding illness were dental abscess and tonsillitis. The most pathogen was Streptococcus species (12/20), followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (6/20), Staphylococcus species (2/20). The mean duration of hospitalization was 32.2 days (range,14-86). The mean Modified Laboroatory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (M-LRINEC) score is 7.4 and more than 4 points was eighteen. All patients received parenteral antibiotics and surgical drainage after admission. Conclusions:The reason for the high survival rate in the study was the early diagnosis, as well as the early surgical procedure and antibiotics. After the operation, frequent betadine irrigation could improve the patient’s condition and recover without severe complication.
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal and paranasal mucosa and it usually affects substantial impaired quality of life. CRS is a highly heterogeneous disease and currently defined as subgroups of patients based on nasal endoscopic findings, accompanied either by CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) or CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). However, clinical phenotypes does not adequately reflect the pathophysiologic diversity within patients with CRS. Thus, CRS was also classified according to the inflammatory endotypes, which defined as subtypes of disease with an immunologically different from others by the involvement of a specific molecule or cell. To date, it has been well known that CRSsNP patients characterized by a predominant T helper cell type 1 inflammatory response, whereas CRSwNP patients from Western driven by a T helper cell type 2 inflammation and increased eosinophil infiltration. Meanwhile, CRSwNP patients from Asian displayed a mixed T cell profile with a non-eosinophilic inflammation pattern. However, recent some studies have reported the new discoveries regarding immunologic different endotypes of CRSwNP, such as innate lymphoid cells and activated B-cell mediated immune response. Therefore, herein we describe concepts and new discoveries of immunologic endotype in patients with CRSwNP. Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg 2017;60(9):431-6
A solar array is main electrical energy source for Low-Earth-Orbit(LEO) satellite. The solar array cannot generate electrical energy during eclipse period, a battery supply electrical energy to the satellite. The electrical power of the solar array is changed in accordance with operating voltage and the solar array has the maximum power point. The solar array regulator makes the solar array supply electrical energy to the satellite and charge the battery. The solar array is connected to the solar array regulator input and the battery is connected to the solar array regulator output. The solar array regulator consists 2 of 3 hot redundant. One solar array regulator contains 3 DC-DC converters, and the solar array regulator operates stably even if the failure occur in one DC-DC converter. In this paper, the solar array regulator, the battery and the solar array operation is analyzed when the failure occur in one DC-DC converter. 저궤도 인공위성은 전기 에너지 원으로 주로 태양전지 배열기를 사용한다. 태양전지 배열기는 인공위성이 식구간에 들어가면 전기에너지를 발생시키지 못하므로, 식구간에서는 배터리가 인공위성에 전기 에너지를 공급한다. 또한 태양전지 배열기는 동작 전압에따라 출력하는 전력이 변하며, 최대 전력을 출력하는 최대전력점이 존재한다. 일광구간에서 태양전지 배열기가 최대전력을 출력하여위성에 전기 에너지를 공급하고 남은 에너지로 배터리를 충전할 수 있도록 태양전력 조절기기가 필요하다. 태양전력 조절기의 입력에는 태양전지 배열기가 연결되고, 출력에는 배터리가 연결된다. 태양전력 조절기는 안정적인 동작을 위해 2 of 3 Hot Redundant로동작한다. 즉, 3개의 DC-DC 컨버터가 하나의 태양전력 조절기를 구성하며, 이 DC-DC 컨버터 하나가 고장이 발생하더라도 태양전력 조절기는 안정적으로 동작한다. 본 논문에서는 태양전력 조절기 동작 중 DC-DC 컨버터의 제어기에 고장이 발생한 순간 태양전력 조절기가 어떻게 동작하는지 분석하고, 배터리와 태양전지 배열기에 어떠한 영향을 미치는가에 대하 분석한다.
It is challenging to clinically distinguish between convulsive syncope and true seizure. We describe a 7-year-old girl presenting with generalized tonic seizure caused by acquired complete atrioventricular block related to acute myocarditis. After hospitalization following 6 episodes of new-onset fever with seizure, she had a short episode of abrupt complete atrioventricular block followed by another generalized tonic seizure. The concentrations of cardiac enzymes were elevated, and her echocardiogram showed a decreased left ventricular function. This case underlines the necessity of cardiac investigations in children with convulsive syncope.