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      • KCI등재

        학교 실내공기질 및 건강 영향

        양원호,Yang, Won-Ho 한국환경보건학회 2009 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.35 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Indoor air quality at classrooms is of special concern since students are susceptible and indoor air problems can be so subtle that it does not always produce easily recognizable health effects. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the time-activity pattern of school students, to determine the sources of poor indoor air quality in schools, and to demonstrate how indoor air quality in schools causes adverse health effects such as headache, upper airway irritation, fatigue, and lethargy. Recent articles ranging from 1987-2009 related to school indoor air quality were systematically reviewed. Building-associated health effects can increase student absences from school and degrade the performance of children while in school. The reduced ventilation rate was associated with a decreased ability to concentrate along with increased adverse health symptoms. There was an association between residential proximity to busy roads and a variety of adverse respiratory health outcomes in children. Consequently, the current findings suggest the need for control strategy for school indoor air pollutants with multidisciplinary approach methods because Korea has no other natural resources except manpower especially.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        통영연안 표층퇴적물에서의 유기물과 미량금속 분포 특성 및 생태위해성 평가

        양원호,이효진,김기범,YANG, WON HO,LEE, HYO JIN,KIM, GI BEUM 한국해양학회 2016 바다 Vol.21 No.4

        본 연구는 통영연안의 오염 현황을 파악하기 위하여 표층퇴적물의 유기물 분포 특성, 미량금속의 공간적인 분포 특성과 오염도 및 생태계 위해성평가를 하였다. 총질소(Total nitrogen, TN), 총유기탄소(Total organic carbon, TOC)와 산 휘발성 황화물(Acid volatile sulfide, AVS)은 협수로에 위치한 정점 35-38에서 높은 농도를 나타내었다. Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Hg, Zn의 공간적 분포양상은 유사하였으며, 이와 달리 Cu는 협수로에서 높은 농도를 나타내었다. 미량금속 원소의 오염도를 농축계수(Enrichment Factor, EF)로 평가한 결과, Cd이 모든 정점에서 오염되지 않은 상태(No enrichment), Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Hg이 약간 오염상태(Minor enrichment), Cu가 약간~중간 오염상태(minor-moderate enrichment)의 오염도를 나타냈다. 미량금속에 의한 생태위해성 수준은 오비도와 미륵도 사이의 협수로 정점에서 국지적으로 생태계에 잠재적 위해성이 있는 것으로 나타났다. We investigated the distribution of organic matter and trace metals in surface sediment from Tonyeong coast. To determine the status of trace metal pollution, we also conducted an ecological risk assessment. Relatively high concentration of TN (total nitrogen), TOC (total organic carbon), and AVS (acid volatile sulfide) was found in surface sediment located in the narrow channel (site 35-38). Spatial distribution of Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Hg, and Zn in surface sediment was similar and high Cu concentrations were found in narrow channel. The assessment of heavy metal pollution was derived using the Enrichment factors (EF). The enrichment factor indicated that Cd was no enrichment (EF<1), Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, and Hg were minor enrichment (1<EF<3). Cu was minor-moderate enrichment (1<EF<7) in all site, respectively. According to the potential ecological risk index, a few site between Mireuk Island and Obi Island is facing moderately potential ecological risk.

      • KCI등재

        주택의 실내공기질 개선 평가 방법

        양원호,손부순,임성국,Yang, Won-Ho,Son, Bu-Soon,Yim, Sung-Kuk 한국환경보건학회 2007 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.33 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Indoor air quality is the dominant contributor to total personal exposure because most people spend a majority of their time indoors. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the alternative method for improvement of indoor air quality in house after coating titanium dioxide ($TiO_2$) photocatalyst for interior part of the house using nitrogen dioxide ($NO_2$) multiple measurements. To evaluate the alternative method in indoor environment, daily indoor and outdoor $NO_2$ concentrations of an apartment and a detached house were daily measured for consecutive 21 days in winter and summer, respectively, Another daily 21 measurements were carried out after $TiO_2$ coating on wall paper of interior part in houses. All $NO_2$ concentrations were measured by passive filter badges. Indoor air quality models using mass balance are useful tool to quantify the relationship between indoor air pollution levels, ambient concentrations, and explanatory variables. Using a mass balance model and linear regression analysis, penetration factor (ventilation rate divided by sum of ventilation rate and decay rate) and source strength factor (emission rate divided by sum of ventilation rate and decay rate) were calculated. Subsequently, the decay constants were estimated. In this study. magnitude of improvement of indoor air quality could be evaluated by decay constant.

      • KCI등재

        구획모델을 이용한 주택에서 이산화질소의 발생강도 및 감소상수 동시 추정

        양원호,손부순,손종렬,Yang Won-Ho,Son Bu-Soon,Sohn Jong-Ryeul 한국환경보건학회 2005 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.31 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Indoor air quality might be affected by source strength of indoor pollutants, ventilation rate, decay rate, outdoor level, and so on. Although technologies measuring these factors exist directly, direct measurements of all factors are not always practical in most field studies. The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative method to estimate the source strength and deposition constant by application of multiple measurements. For the total duration of 60 days, indoor and outdoor $NO_2$ concentrations every 3 days were measured in 30 houses in Seoul, Asan and Daegu. Using a compartment model by mass balance and linear regression analysis, penetration factor (ventilation divided by sum of air exchange rate and deposition constant) and source strength factor (emission rate divided by sum of air exchange rate and deposition constant) were calculated. Subsequently, the source strength and deposition constant were estimated. Natural ventilation was $1.80{\pm}0.42\;ACH,\;1.11{\pm}0.50\;ACH,\;0.92{\pm}0.26\;ACH$ in Seoul, Asan and Daegu, respectively. Calculated deposition constant(K) and source strength of $NO_2,$ in this study were $0.98{\pm}0.28\;hr^{1}\;and\;16.28{\pm}7.47\;ppb/h,$ respectively.

      • KCI등재

        공단지역과 시골지역 주택 실내, 실외 및 개인의 이산화질소 노출평가

        양원호,임성국,손부선,Yang, Won-Ho,Im, Sung-Guk,Son, Bu-Soon 한국환경보건학회 2008 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.34 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Indoor air quality can be affected by indoor sources, ventilation, decay, and outdoor levels. Various indoor and out-door combustion sources produce nitrogen dioxide ($NO_2$), which is a by-product of high temperature fossil fuel combustion. Especially, the presence of gas ranges and smoking have been identified as major factors contributing to indoor $NO_2$ exposures. In this study, we compared an industrial complex area with a country area by assessing the personal exposure to $NO_2$with measurements of indoor and outdoor $NO_2$ levels in residences and by house characteristics and questionnaire. Personal exposure concentrations were significantly correlated with indoor $NO_2$ concentrations of residences in both the industrial complex area and the country area with correlation coefficients of 0.561 and 0.664, respectively, compared to outdoors. Multiple regression analysis, indicated that indoor $NO_2$ levels in residences were only affected by outdoor levels (p = 0.000) in spite of higher indoor sources such as smoking. Therefore, it is suggested that outdoor air quality as well as indoor air quality should be considered in the reduction of the personal exposure to air pollutants.

      • KCI등재

        필터방식을 이용한 이산화질소 및 호흡성 분진의 동시 측정

        양원호,임성국,김문현,Yang, Won-Ho,Im, Sung-Kuk,Kim, Moon-Hyeon 한국환경보건학회 2008 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.34 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Coated filters were developed to replace the glass impinger methods that use reagent solutions. The purpose of this study was to simultaneously measure nitrogen dioxide ($NO_2$) and respirable suspended particles (RSP) by a filtration method with a cyclone connected to a pump. A first pre-filter for RSP and second filter for $NO_2$, which was soaked in a TEA (Triethanolamine) solution, were loaded into a filter cassette with a pump flow rate of 1.7 l/m. After sampling, the TEA soaked filter was removed from the cassette, placed in a large test tube (10 ml), mixed, and allowed time to develop. The absorbance (abs) of the diazo compound of the $NO_2$ and N-(1-Napthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride) in the color reagent was measured at 545 nm on a spectrophotometer. The collection efficiency(%) of $NO_2$ by each 3 filter soaked in TEA solution and used in the cyclone with a pump flow rate 1.7 l/m was $89{\pm}3%$ and the correlation coefficient between the true $NO_2$ concentration and that determined by the TEA soaked filters was 0.993(p<0.001).

      • KCI등재

        고엽제 노출에 따른 건강위해의 보건학적 고찰

        양원호,홍가연,김근배,Yang, Won-Ho,Hong, Ga-Yeon,Kim, Geun-Bae 한국환경보건학회 2012 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.38 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Objectives: Controversy regarding the relationship between exposure to Agent Orange and disease has progressed for more than four decades, both at home and abroad. Recently, the allegation by US veteran Steve House of the burial of Agent Orange at the US Army base Camp Carroll located in Waegwan-eup, Korea, has emerged. We reviewed published articles and reports related to Agent Orange. Methods: Articles and reports were collected online using the keywords 'agent orange' and 'health' and then reviewed. Results: A number of epidemiologic studies have reported disease outcomes due to exposure to Agent Orange, while others were unable to establish a link to the injuries of veterans of the Vietnam War. This can be explained by the fact that accurate exposure assessment should be carried out since exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies can affect estimates of risk. In the case of the burial of Agent Orange at Camp Carroll, an exposure pathway could be through underground water supplies, which differs from the cases of Vietnam and Seveso in Italy. Conclusion: There still remains a dispute among academics regarding the relationship between exposure to Agent Orange and disease, although Agent Orange is a highly toxic chemical. This dispute indicates that accurate exposure pathway and exposure assessment is needed.

      • KCI우수등재

        Monte-Carlo 시뮬레이션을 이용한 실내 이산화질소 노출의 분류 오류에 관한 연구

        양원호(Won Ho Yang),배현주(Hyun Joo Bae),김현용(Hyun Yong Kim),정문식(Moon Shik Zong),정문호(Moon Ho Chung) 한국환경보건학회 2000 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.26 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Indoor combustion sources like gas range, kerosene heaters, wood-burning appliances and cigarette smoke are potential nitrogen dioxide(NO₂) emitters. For nitrogen dioxide, exposures to indoor air may pose a potentially greater health threat than outdoor air exposures , because most people spend over 90% of their time indoors. However, until recently epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have relied on measurements of ambient air quality that are obtained from fixed location monitoring stations, rather than on the actual exposures of the individuals whose health status is being tested, to draw inferences regarding possible exposure disease relationships. Many epidemiological studies have used house characteristics associated with indoor sources as simplified proxies for personal NO₂ exposure. Range type and presence of a pilot light have often been used as the two key characteristics, but significant overlaps have remained in the NO₂ concentrations in the exposed and unexposed groups. Thus, characterizing residential N02 concentrations can help investigators determine personal exposures and related health effects. In this study, NO₂ levels were measured in total 87 houses. After mean and standard deviation of NO₂ concentrations were obtained, frequency distributions were plotted using Monte-Carlo simulation. Presence of gas range was the most significant factor contributing to indoor NO₂ level in house characteristics (p=0.000). Overlap by one factor like gas range, gas water heater, inside smoker, and attached house were 47.0, 54.7, 41.9, and 54.9%, respectively. Overlap by two factors like gas range and gas water heater, gas range and inside smoker, and gas range and attached house were 34.9, 20.0, 23 .0%, respectively.

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