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This study was carried out for the purpose of creating a restoration plan to improve the ecological quality of the Changwon and Nam streams. Based upon the results of comprehensive diagnostic assessment, restoration priority was given to the upstream reach, where conservation status is relatively superior. Restoration level was usually determined to practice active restoration as conservation, and the states of both Changwon and Nam streams were not so good. Restoration plans, by reach, were classified into "upstream", "midstream", and "downstream" were suggested in both terms of horizontal section frame and vegetation-based on the result of diagnostic assessment and the reference information. "Upstream", "mid-stream" and the "downstream" of Changwon and Nam streams were classified into "small-gravel- mountainous", "small-sand-plain", and "small-clay-plain streams" respectively (based on scale, and substrate and slope of river bed). The spatial arrangement of vegetation was laid out in diagram form by reflecting micro-topography and the water level of the horizontal section of river. Information regarding species composition was recommended as dominant species, which appear frequently in three vegetation zones composed of herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees and sub-tree- dominated zones divided by reflecting disturbance regime, depending on position on the horizontal section of river. Moreover, there have been prepared not only plans to improve the terrestrial ecosystems around the streams but also plans to create ecological networks, which can serve to improve the ecologic quality of the whole regional environment by serving to connect streams and terrestrial ecosystems, a process probably necessary and definitely recommended to realize true (genuine) restoration. Plans for ecological parks and networks were prepared by mimicking the species composition of Alnus japanica community, Zelkova serrata community, Carpinus laxiflora community, Quercus aliena community, and Q. serrata community.
The Changwon and Nam streams that run through the Changwon city were evaluated based on longitudinal and horizontal configurations and vegetation state in order to prepare a restoration plan. Riparian vegetation of the Changwon and Nam streams are normally dominated by herbaceous plants. However, the woody plants, Salix pseudolasiogyne, Rubus parvifolius, Salix koreensis, Robinia pseudoacacia,and Amorpha fruticosa have appeared. Planting to introduce various types of plants for landscape architecture has also been observed. Evaluation of naturalness based on the vegetation state of both Changwon and Nam streams showed very low naturalness of degree 1 or 2, with the exception of a few reaches of the upstream sector. In these few reaches of the upstream sector, Salix koreensis and Salix chaenomeloides showed heights at the subtree level, however, they were located at the position of shrubland close to the waterway. These reaches were, therefore, evaluated as degree 3 rather than degree 4 in naturalness. The result of diagnostic evaluation classified by reach indicated the requirement for active restoration, such as transformation of the channelized stream into a meandering one and a step-type cross section into a pool-type one, introduction of vegetation suitable to the region and site, and creation of an ecological network between the stream and the surrounding terrestrial ecosystems.
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This paper aims to explore from a typological prospective, describing how temporal stability relates to semantic type of predicate and to the ATM system respectively in Hungarian. Temporal stability refers to the difference between temporary phenomenon and rate of change over time. As many studies refer that some languages have been represented in temporal stability by morphological method. Otherwise some other language are expressed in vocabulary or postposition by syntactic method. The former is applicable to English, Portuguese and Russian. The latter is applicable to Japanese and Korean. In case of this Hungarian study is using morphological method, copula, prefix, Meg, but it's use is very limited. So syntactic methods such as the character of subject, words to represent time are used frequently. At this point, Hungarian has a similarity with Russian, Portuguese, English and Japanese. So Hungarian can be in the middle of expression method among languages. Even though morphological view point is different from each own language, temporal stability is correlated with the semantic type of predicate. In other words it is correlated with ATM, it is seen common to all language. 本稿は類型論的観点から、ハンガリー語における時間的限定性と述語の 意味的タイプとの相関性及び、ATM体系との相関性を記述し、時間的限定性の表し方について詳細に記述している。時間的限定性とは全ての述語を捉えるものであり、<一時的>か<恒常的>かという違いをとらえたものである。既に多くの研究から明らかになっているように、時間的限定性は述語の意味的なタイプと相関していて、ATM体系とも相関している。このようなことは世界の諸言語と同様にハンガリー語においても見られる現象であるが、時間的限定性をどのように表すかは言語ごとに異なっている。スペイン語やアイルランド語のように文法化された形態論的手段で時間的限定性が示される言語もあれば、日本語の標準語や韓国語のように時間を表す語彙や構文論的手段で示される言語もある。ハンガリー語はコピュラと動詞接頭辞「-meg」という形態論的手段があるものの、その使用がごく稀であって構文論的手段に頼ることが多い。このことから、ハンガリー語は時間的限定性の表し方において、アイルランド語やスペイン語などの側面と、日本語の標準語や韓国語などの側面が重なっていると言える。
안지홍 ( Ji Hong An ),임치홍 ( Chi Hong Lim ),임윤경 ( Yun Kyung Lim ),남경배 ( Kyeong Bae Nam ),피정훈 ( Jung Hun Pi ),문정숙 ( Jeong Sook Moon ),방제용 ( Je Yong Bang ),이창석 ( Chang Seok Lee ) 한국물환경학회(구 한국수질보전학회) 2016 한국물환경학회지 Vol.32 No.2
In order to improve water quality in the Paldang Lake, a riparian vegetation belt, treatment wetland, and artificial floating island were designed for introduction in the upland field, the estuary of tributaries, and the section of water facing mountainous land, respectively. We synthesized vegetation information collected from a reference river and found that herbaceous, shrubby, and tree vegetation zones tended to be dominated by Phragmites japonica, Phalaris arundinacea, etc.; Salix gracilistyla, S. integra, etc.; and S. koreensis, S. subfragilis, and Morus alba, respectively. In our plan, the herbaceous vegetation zone, which is established on floodplains with a high frequency of disturbance, will be left in its natural state. A shrubby vegetation zone will be created by imitating the species composition of the reference river in the ecotone between floodplain and embankment. A tree vegetation zone will be created by imitating species composition on the embankment slope. In the treatment wetland, we plan to create emerged and softwood plant zones by imitating the species composition of the Zizania latifolia community, the Typha orientalis community, the P. communis community, the S. integra community, and the S. koreensis community. The floating island will be created by restoring Z. latifolia and T. orientalis for water purification purposes.
Since Gyungan stream is included in the protected zone of the water supply source of the Metropolitan area in Korea, the water quality needs to be continuously managed. Therefore, a measure is required that can inhibit the flow of water pollutant into the water body and facilitate the ecological restoration of riparian vegetation. A field survey was conducted on the hydrological characteristics of the landscape elements established on the downstream catchment of the Gyungan stream, the result of which showed that the paddy field and urbanized area can be regarded as point pollution sources. The upland field can be regarded as a non-point pollution source. In order to improve the water quality in the Paldang lake, we first recommended creating a riparian vegetation belt. We also suggested introducing a treatment wetland and an artificial plant island to places in which the creation of a riparian vegetation belt is not ensured. We recommend creating a treatment wetland equipped with diverse functional groups. For creating the plant island, we recommend Zizania latifolia and Typha orientalis, which showed the highest productivity among aquatic plants. The former could be introduced around the outlet of a paddy field and the estuary of tributaries, while the latter could be introduced to a water body directly sourced from mountainous land.
This study was carried out to investigate the distribution of alien plants in the Gyeong-In Ara Waterway. The alien plants were a total of 82 taxa: 17 families, 63 genera, 80 species, and 2 varieties. This number corresponds to 25.5% of the alien plants identified in Korea. The proportion of alien plants in every year increased from upstream to downstream. Given our analysis of vegetation stratification, a riverbank was covered with artificial materials to prevent vegetation from growing; it had a step-type cross section. The flood plain consisted of the waterfront area. The array of vegetation was not a typical dispersion, and terrestrial and alien plants dominated the Gyeong-In Ara Waterway. Evaluation of naturalness based on the vegetation stratification showed grade 3 or 4. In order to solve a problem, the method and level of restoration should be chosen based on diagnostic assessment. Therefore, we need to restore the step-type cross section as pool type one. From waterfront to bank in this waterway, we recommend introducing native plants by imitating reference species composition. Since the invasion by alien plants is expected to be accelerated by the continuous artificial disturbance,we recommend quantitative investigation of the invasion by alien plants and monitoring the change of distribution.
안지홍 ( Ji Hong An ),임치홍 ( Chi Hong Lim ),임윤경 ( Yun Kyung Lim ),남경배 ( Kyeong Bae Nam ),피정훈 ( Jung Hun Pi ),문정숙 ( Jeong Sook Moon ),방제용 ( Je Yong Bang ),이창석 ( Chang Seok Lee ) 한국물환경학회(구 한국수질보전학회) 2015 한국물환경학회지 Vol.31 No.6
A landcover map watershed of downstream reach in the Gyungan stream was made by using the existing land use map and interpreting satellite images and aerial photos. Based on the map, we analyzed land use patterns of this basin. Broad-leaved forest occupied the largest area among landscape elements established in this watershed. The total area of the zone designated as the waterside district by the central government was 4.7 km2, and broad-leaved forest occupied the largest area as 33.9% in this zone. Therefore, the area did not meet the qualifications of riparian zones. Riparian vegetation established in the Gyungan stream watershed was composed of Phragmites communis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Salix gracilistyla, Salix koreensis. But terrestrial vegetation elements such as Ambrosia trifida, Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia also appeared in this area. On the other hand, Phragmites japonica, Salix gracilistyla, Salix koreensis, Salix integra, Ulmus davidiana and so on appeared in the riparian zone the reference streams. Differently from the vegetation established on the reference streams, terrestrial vegetation elements appeared frequently in the Gyungan stream watershed. This result would be due to that the Gyungan stream watershed is exposed to excessive human interferences.
김세미 ( Se Mi Kim ),안지홍 ( Ji Hong An ),임윤경 ( Yun Kyung Lim ),피정훈 ( Jung Hun Pee ),김경순 ( Gyung Soon Kim ),이호영 ( Ho Young Lee ),조용찬 ( Yong Chan Cho ),배관호 ( Kwan Ho Bae ),이창석 ( Chang Seok Lee ) 한국하천호수학회 2013 생태와 환경 Vol.46 No.2
조성연도가 다른 일본잎갈나무조림지를 대상으로 조림후 시간이 경과함에 따라 식생의 발달과정을 분석하였다. 일본잎갈나무의 높이와 직경은 조림 후 24년까지 빠르게 생장하였고, 그 이후 양 생장이 모두 둔화되는 경향이었다. 일본잎갈나무의 밀도는 8년생 식분과 17년생 식분에서는 유사한 밀도를 유지하였으나 24년생 식분에서 크게 감소하였고 그 이후에는 큰 변화를 보이지 않았다. 서열법을 적용하여 비교된 일본잎갈나무조림지의 종 조성은 조성연도에 따라 뚜렷한 변화경향을 나타내지 않았고, 조성연도가 다른 조림지 간의 차이가 대조구와의 차이보다 컸다. 주요 종의 직경급 별 빈도분포를 통해 분석한 결과 일본잎갈나무조림지는 신갈나무가 우점하는 자생식생으로의 천이경향을 보였다. 종 다양성은 모든 연령의 식분들이 대조구의 것보다 높았다. 이상의 결과에서 보여지듯이 일본잎갈나무조림지에서 나타난 대조지소와 유사한 종 조성, 자생식생으로의 천이 경향 그리고 높은 종 다양성은 생태적 복원의 성공을 의미하는 조건으로서 기능적 복원으로 출발한 일본잎갈나무조림지가 성공적인 복원을 이루어낸 것으로 평가할 수 있다. Developmental process of vegetation over years after afforestation was analyzed in the Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) plantations with different stand ages. The height and diameter of Japanese larch increased rapidly until 24 years after afforestation and tended to be blunted thereafter. The density of Japanese larch was similar with each other in the 8 and 17 years old stands but was reduced greatly in the 24 years old plantation and changing little thereafter. The floristic composition of the Japanese larch plantation did not show any clear trend depending on stand ages. The differences of species composition among plantation themselves with different ages were bigger than those between plantations and the reference stands, Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) stands. Japanese larch plantations showed a trend of succession to native vegetation dominated by Mongolian oak based on the results of analysis of frequency distribution by diameter class of major tree species. Species richness and diversity of all plantations were higher than those of the reference vegetation. As were shown in the above mentioned results, it can be evaluated that Japanese larch plantations practiced in the level of the functional restoration achieved successful restoration based on the floristic composition similar to the reference vegetation, the successional trend toward native vegetation, and higher species diversity compared with the reference vegetation.