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The widespread use of echocardiography has contributed to the early recognition of several distinct cardiac diseases in women. During pregnancy, safe monitoring of the disease process, as well as a better understanding of hemodynamics, is possible. Duringthe use of potentially cardiotoxic drugs for breast cancer chemotherapy, echocardiographic patient monitoring is vital. Comparedto men, the addition of an imaging modality to routine electrocardiogram monitoring during stress testing is more informativefor diagnosing coronary disease in women. This review briefly discusses the role of echocardiography in the management ofseveral women-specific cardiac diseases where echocardiography plays a pivotal role in disease management.
In order to evaluate physical work capacity in Korean men, exercise stress test using bicycle ergometer was carried out in 82 apparently normal male aged 20 to 60 years. Exercise test was consisted of 1 minute unloaded cycling and increment by 25 Watt each minute until to the point of exhaustion. During exercise, expiratory air flow was measured via a pneumotachograph and oxygen uptake was measured with automatic gas analyzer every 30 seconds. The heart rate and rhythm was monitored throughout exercise. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1) Oxygen uptake at the maximal exercise by age groups were 39.6ml/min/kg in 20~29year old group, 37.1 ml/min/kg in 30~39 year old group, 34,2 ml/min/kg in 40~49 year old group and 33.5 ml/min/kg in 50~60 year old group. Equation which can predict maximal oxygen uptake with age in Korean men over 20 year old was Maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg/min) =46.27-0.26×Age (yr). 2) Anaerobic threshold was identified as the oxygen uptake the ratio minute ventilation/oxygen ptake increased while the ratio minute ventilation/CO2, output did not increase in 80 of 82 cases. Anaerobic threshold by age groups were 1,50L/min in 20~29 year old group, l.22 L/min in 30~39year old group, 1.29L/min in 40~49year old group and l.32 L/min in 50~60 year old group. The percent of anaerobic threshold to maximal oxygen uptake was 57%. 3) Mean heart rate per minute on maximal work by age groups were 188. 5 in 20~29 year old group, 182.5 in 30~39year old group, 172.8 in 40~49year old group and 168.0 in 50~60 year old group The ratio of mean heart rate at the level of anaerobic threshold to maximal heart rate was 73%. 4) Minute ventilation at maximal exercise were 82.4L/min in 20~29year old group, 74,1L/min in 30-39 year old group, 66.8 L/min in 40~49 year old group and 65.1L/min in 50~60 year old group and its ratio to maximal voluntary ventilation was 65%. 5) The correlation coefficient between maximal oxygen uptake and body weight were 0.6141 in 20~29year old group, 0. 7075 in 30~39 year old group, 0.5058 in 40~49 year old group and 0.6256 in 50~60 year old group. 6) The regression equation concerning relation between the heart rate and oxygen uptake by age groups were as follows; Oxygen uptake(ml/kg/min) =0. 31×heart rate-20.69(r=0.8834) in 20~29year old group, Oxygen uptake(ml/kg/min) =0.31×heart rate-21.34(r=0.9412) in 30~39year old group, Oxygen uptake(ml/kg/min) =0.34×heart rate-23.39(r=0.9401) in 40~49year old group, Oxygen uptake(ml/kg/min) =0.33×heart rate-22.37(r=0.8987) in 50~60 year old group.