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이 논문은 이상 작품의 서구문학사조와의 관계에 초점을 맞춰 이상이 1936년에 발표한 「街外街傳」(가외가전)을 T. S. 엘리엇(T. S. Eliot)의 「황무지」(The Waste Land)와 비교하여 그 의미를 살펴보았다. 한국이 일본의 식민지로 있을 때 서구에서는 제임스 조이스가 ?율리시즈?를 창작하여 T.S. 엘리엇이 조이스의 작품이 신화기법으로 창작되었음을 밝혀 내 모더니즘의 중심과제로 등장해 있었다. 이러한 서구문학은 일본을 경유하여 유학파인 김기림, 정지용 등이 한국에 들여와 이상과 같은 한국 문인들에게 자극을 주었다. 엘리엇의 ‘신화기법’은 현대적인 것과 고대적인 것을 작품 속에 공존시킴으로서 흩어진 사건을 통합하는 방법이었지만, 이상은 한국의 신화와 동양사상에 대한 그의 지속적인 관심을 표현해 냈다. 이상은 식민지 치하에서 살지 않으면 안 되는 상황에서 편안한 대륙으로 암시된 고대 중국을 회상하면서 식민지 치하의 답답한 상황을 벗어나고자 하며, “손자(係子)도 탑재한 객차가 방을 피하나보다.”로 표현하여 중국을 원망하면서 한국의 삼족오 신화가 일본의 신화에 편입된 것을 일깨워 한국의 고유의 전통의식을 자극하고 있다. 엘리엇이 「황무지」에서 신화기법으로 현대문명의 위기를 그려낸 것처럼 이상은 「가외가전」에서 사라진 한국의 신화와 동양사상을 은유적으로 사용하여 한국의 식민지 상황을 그려냈다. 한국의 모더니즘을 주도했던 김기림이 이상을 한국의 ‘최후의 모더니스트’라고 지칭한 바와 같이 그의 ?가외가전?은 식민지 통치가 극에 달하고 있을 때 ‘서울의 모습’을 공개적으로는 말할 수 없어 ‘거리 밖의 이야기’로 그려낸 ‘폭로’적인 작품임을 알 수 있다. This paper is to examine an affiliation of Yi Sang and T. S. Eliot in Gawoigajeon(?街外街傳?) and The Waste Land written by them. For a Korean modernist Yi Sang, during the colonial period, potentially thought that the Korean myth had disappeared from Korean history into a Japanese myth caused by Japan’s colonial policy. He knew T. S. Eliot’s mythic narrative through Guinhoi and other sources. He became the last member of Guinhoi(九人會) and acted in various roles late in life. Through Guinhoi, he came to know a large amount of Western literary thoughts from abroad and created a variety of works, especially according to T. S. Eliot's mythic narrative explaining writing techniques of Joyce’s Ulysses. As Kim, Ki-rim called Yi Sang “Jupiter,” Kim, Yun-sik asked for researchers “Why did Kim, Ki-rim call him “Jupiter”? This question is very important to know Yi Sang, since both Kim, Ki-rim and Yi sang were Korean modernists in the1930s. I think it that both writers created their poems by Eliot’s mythic narrative technique. However, after Yi Sang’s death Kim Ki-rim called him Jupiter, the gratest god of the Greek-Roman myths. As we think of Yi Sang, we must consider Kim, Ki-rim’s The Weather Chart(氣象圖) written in 1935 with Yi Sang’s Gawoigajeon in 1936. ThoughKim was a pioneer for importing Western modernism in Korean Literature, Yi Sang was a representative practice writer written Gawoigajeon depicted the urbanSeoul by the Joycean mythic narrative in the colonial period.
Lee Sang(1910-1937) practiced paintings, novels, poems and essays, when Korea was a colonial country. Especially he participated Guinhoi(Nine Members Circle) discussing literary topics, which introduced to the Western modernism to Korea. As Bulfinch said that mythology is the handmaid of literature, the traditional myths form the backbone of the world literature. Creating his works I think Lee Sang used Sam Jog O(三足烏), a kind of mythic birds as the messenger living in the sun in the Oriental and Korean myth. It is similar to Phoenix in the Western myth, and when the young Phoenix has grown up and gained sufficient strength, it lifts its nest from the tree which is its own cradle and its parent`s sepulchre and deposits it in the temple of the sun. As Joyce` novels are the immediate example of the reinvestment of mythology in modernistic art at the colonial period of Ireland, through Guinhoi in the colonial period of Korea, Lee Sang interested in Joyce`s mythic narrative and in the process of writing he recognized a Korean traditional myth, Sam Jog O, the crow with three legs living in the sun. This myth was disappeared in the colonial period, however, it is refreshing now. At the colonial period Choi Nam-Sun researched the old Korean myth with Northern Asian and he asserted its importance. Like him Lee Sang also probably knew it. Kim Ki Rim, a Korean modernist, called him "Jupiter" of Greek-Roman myth in a poem of reconsidering Lee Sang. Through the above we know that Lee Sang composed his works by bird images in myths.
"Ogamdo", which means map viewed from crow, written by Lee Sang is a Korean modernist poem. Although many scholars have studied this work, they haven`t explained completely contents of it. When Korea was occupied from Japan and was become a colonial country, Lee Sang practiced painting, first, and then wrote his works, that is, novels, poems, and essays. Then he was participated Guinhoi(Nine Members Meeting) with Kim Ki-rim, Jeong Ji-Yong, etc. to talk and discuss a literary topics included the western modernism and others. That time, I think, he recognized Korean traditional myth related to the three legs crow in the old Korean myth. In the old myth the crow has lived in the sun and given the human bing help. When Lee Sang had composed Ogamdo, he used it as symbols to explain the various preassure from Japan in the colonial period. And so I think he was interested in the western modernism related to James Joyce`s mythic narrative included T. S. Eliot, and when wrote works he used this method. Now Lee Sang`s works have been studied till deconstruction theory, and in this sense I think scholars must review Lee Sang`s works by postcolonial theory.
This paper is to examine the affiliation of Yi Sang’s Twelfth December and Emile Zola’s Experimental Novel by Edward W. Said’s Traveling Theory. Yi Sang wrote it with the main character ‘he’ as alta ego, Yi Sang himself. He dealt with the social background of 1920s in it. Naturalism in literature deals with the evil aspects of human life and is in varying degrees deterministic view. This current thought was affected to Yi Sang with various trends via Japan from Europe. The naturalistic writer uses the knowledge and attitudes of current science in his depiction of human life. He described a segment of human existence according to the laws of scientific causality. The writer analyzes his characters and their social situations as the effects proceeding from various combinations of physical, emotional, and environmental causes. After all man was a phenomenon caused by certain hereditary and environmental forces. As we read it by comparative literary theory we should read the work according to context. Consequently, we can understand Yi Sang wrote the social situation in December Twelfth with Zola’s limited determinism in the 1930s’ colonial situation in Korea.
This paper is to examine Yi Sang’s “Kim You Jeong” in terms of Western naturalism, since Yi Sang, as an experimental writer, wrote the graduated album’s memo, ‘exposure’, a theme of naturalism, focused on ‘a discovery rather than an invention’ in 1928. His ‘exposure’, found in Western naturalism, especially American naturalism, is the origin of his works. It is certain that naturalism is a deceptive term, which is not fixed meaning. He wrote the real description using a scientific method which is affinity to science. Western naturalists took a definite concept of man which aimed to express in the writing the scientific thought in literature. Korean scholars in 1930s didn’t drew a sharp line between realism and naturalism like Western scholars, and so, Choi Jai Suh wrote Yi Sang’s works as ‘more deepening and expending than realistic method.’ According to the above, we can say Yi Sang wrote his works with more naturalism than realism.
This paper is to examine the double consciousness of Jews in Philip Roth's Operation Shylock (1993). This novel revolves around the ironic use of doubles and postmodernist bluring of the boundaries between fact and fiction, all related from Roth's particular Jewish perspective. He developed his art of impersonation into Operation Shylock's most excessive and audacious form. In Operation Shylock, subtitled with "A Confession", Philip Roth, author, insists that "it is not truth, but fiction." The novel describes an adventure in which Philip Roth, who is the main character of the novel and the same name with author, encounters Philip Roth, an impostor who claims himself as the novelist. The struggle between them, enacted mainly in Jerusalem, involves much verbal argument and soliloquy about the past, present, and future of the Jew, and it is full of controversial. As some critics said fiction is a world made of words, Roth wrote Operation Shylock in this manner with words. From this, we can see that he created the double consciousness of Jews, which is Zionism to build a new country in Jerusalem with the greatest hope for Jews in the past, and the Diaspora to rebuild a country in Europe through the history of Jews on the earth. We can also see he wrote it by using the main character Shylock in The Merchant of Venice written by William Shakespeare as a parody for metafiction, which is fiction itself, that is, fiction with self-consciousness. < Jeonju University >