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본 연구는 로봇을 이용한 1:1 활동과제(빨강망토와 늑대) 제시를 통해 일반아동과 ADHD위기아동, ADHD아동 간 주의력, 과잉행동-충동조절력, 작업기억력을 비교하여 본 콘텐츠를 이용한 ADHD아동의 선별가능성과 특성을 밝히고자 하였다. 연구대상은 일반아동 269명, ADHD위기아동 24명, ADHD 35명 총 328명을 대상으로 초등학교와 병원센터를 중심으로 모집하여 시행하였으며, 3단계로 구성된 콘텐츠를 로봇이 설명하여 시연한 뒤, 아동이 직접 수행하는 방식의 약 15분 소요의 콘텐츠를 적용하였다. 그 결과, 일반아동과 ADHD위기아동, ADHD아동의 이동경로에 대한 각 단계별 성공과 실패에 따른 결과에서 1단계와 2단계에서 유의한 차이가 있으며, 자극반응에 대한 각 단계별 성공과 실패, 누락반응에 있어서도 집단 간 유의한 차이가 있었다. 또한, 활동과제 수행중의 일탈행동에 있어서도 자극의 정반응 전 오반응시도와 이동음 전 이동시도에서 유의한 차이를 나타내었다. 따라서 ADHD아동들은 일반아동과 본 활동과제에서 낮은 수행력을 보였으며, ADHD위기아동과도 차이를 보이는 경우가 있었다. 따라서 기존 방식과 다른, 활동과제 수행을 통해서도 ADHD의 선별가능성을 보았다고 사료된다. This study was to compare to ADHD's diagnostic factors (Inattention, Hyper-activity, Impulsiveness) and working memory using active game task with robot. The subject of this study was 269 of normal children, 24 of ADHD at risk and 35 of ADHD who diagnosed by doctor in Y elementary school and H hospital, South Korea. The multimedia content consisted of diagnostic factors and working memory and conducted 3 levels of difficulty on task for 15 minutes per subject. In the task situation, there were 45inch TV and Kinect on the front, 3x3 digit mat on the center and humanoid robot moving with wheels on the front-right. All subject should step by step on the digit mat as directed from 3 to 5 digit units by robot and they also should correct-react by sudden stimulus of Wolf/Neighbor as directed in advance. The behaviors of their route, reactions of sudden stimulus, and deviant behaviors - moving before start direction, attempting incorrect (commission error) reaction before correct reaction, attempting deviated route and attempting to move before moving alarm. The results of this study were that It was a significant difference of success/fail on the route in first and second levels among the subjects, most ADHD children failed on the second level in more easier of level than ADHD at risk and normal children. In the response behavior of stimulus, it was a significant difference among the subject on the first and second level. The half of ADHD children have ommission error response and more ADHD at risk children have commission error than normal children. Finally, It was also a significant difference among subjects on 2 deviant behaviors - attempting incorrect reaction before correct reaction and attempting to move before moving alarm. Therefore, ADHD children showed most lower performance, and also their performance was different from ADHD at risk children.
Background: Evaluation of mortality and prevalence trends is important for health planning and priority decision-making in health policy. This study was performed to examine disease- specific mortality and prevalence trends for diseases in Korea from 2002 to 2015. Methods: In this study, 206 mutually exclusive diseases and injuries were classified into 21 cause clusters, which were divided into three cause groups: 1) communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions; 2) non-communicable diseases (NCDs); and 3) injuries. Cause specific trends for age-standardized mortality and prevalence rates were analyzed by the joinpoint regression method. Results: Between 2002 and 2015, the age-standardized mortality declined to about 177 per 100,000 population, while the age-standardized prevalence rate increased to approximately 68,065 per 100,000 population. Among the 21 cause clusters, most of the disease mortality rates showed decreasing trends. However, neurological disorders, self-harm, and interpersonal violence included periods during which the mortality rates increased in 2002–2015. In addition, the trends for prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, tuberculosis, transport injuries, and self-harm, and interpersonal violence differed from the overall prevalence rates. The annual percent change in prevalence rates for transport injuries increased during 2004–2007, and then decreased. The self-harm and interpersonal violence prevalence rates decreased from 2004 to 2014. Conclusion: Between 2002 and 2015, overall decreasing trends in the mortality rate and increasing trends in the prevalence rate were observed for all causes in Korea. Especially, NCDs represented an important part of the increasing trends in Korea. For clusters of diseases with unusual trends, proper management must be considered.
Purpose: The purpose was to develop a preliminary scale to measure Korean adolescents" health behaviors through a qualitative approach, to evaluate the scale psychometrically, and to develop a final scale. Methods: Participants were 61 adolescents for qualitative interviews and 1,687 adolescents for the psychometric evaluation. Procedure included content analysis of interviews to identify health behavior categories for Korean adolescents, pre-test to confirm that preliminary scale items were understandable, content validity by an expert panel, development of the web-based computer-assisted survey (CAS), and psychometric analysis to determine reliability and validity of the final scale. Results: A final scale was developed for both paper-and-pencil and CAS. It consisted of 14 health behaviors (72 items), including stress and mental health (10), sleep habits (5), dietary habits (12), weight control (4), physical activity (4), hygiene habits (5), tobacco use (5), substance use (2), alcohol consumption (4), safety (4), sexual behavior (9), computer use (3), health screening (4), and posture (1). Conclusion: The scale"s strong points are: 1) Two thirds of the final scale items are Likert scale items, enabling calculation of a health behavior score. 2) The scale is appropriate to Korean culture. 3) The scale focuses on concrete health behaviors, not abstract concepts.
Objective: This study aimed to develop a web-based exercise program based on a preliminary survey and to evaluate its effect for promotion of exercise among chronic patients. Methods: For the preliminary survey, an investigation of internet use among chronic patients and a review of existing 20 exercise-related web-sites were undertaken. The web-site was developed and evaluated by user satisfaction with the site and expert validity. To evaluate the effect of the site, exercise stage and commitment to a plan for exercise were compared before and after using the site. Results: The content of the web-site included exercise and health, exercise prescription, chronic disease and exercise, and my page. The users rated 3.89 for system, 3.81 for content, and 3.60 for design in the satisfaction with the site. Experts rated 4.62 for feedback and privacy, 4.31 for purpose, 4.23 for authorship, 3.76 for content, 3.71 for design, 3.62 for functionality in the evaluation of the site. The commitment to a plan for exercise after using the site was significantly higher than that before using it. Conclusion: This site can be facilitated to enhance physical activity for chronic patients and further effort to continuously use and revise the site is recommended.
Purpose:The purpose of this study was to develop a mentoring program for stress management among Korean adolescents and to assess the effects of the program. Methods: The nonequivalent control group (CG) pretest-posttest design was used in this study. The mentoring intervention was delivered to 18 middle school students (males and females) but nothing was done to the control group consisting of 18 students. The mentoring intervention was conducted by seven nursing students who participated in the program as mentors using various methods such as individual meetings and group activities. The dependent variable was stress level. Results:The program consisted of group and individual mentoring. At follow-up, although the mentees's satisfaction was high and they stated qualitatively positive experience, the difference of stress level between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion: If future mentoring programs reflect the limitation of the current program, they may have potential as developmentally appropriate interventions for stress management of adolescents, and enable nursing students to gain confidence in their professional capability.
This study was to figure out the children with Autism Spectrum disorders' understanding about the robot after they first saw the robot named Enkey. The participations were 5 Autistic children in the daily care center and preschool. We observed children's behaviors and collected data, and then transcribed their behaviors using movie clips. In order to analyzed of data, we made some categories, extracted the meaning of data, and draw out a conclusion. The results of this study were that all of participants experienced by cognitive process from piaget's theory when they met the robot. But some of participants couldn't progress to accommodative stage, stayed at assimilative stage in figurative schemas so they couldn't communicate and interplay with robot. Moreover, they took a more time for going through every stage. Therefore, this study suggest to insight of cognitive skills as well as to improving social skills for the children with autism spectrum disorder when making intervention using robot. 본 연구는 자폐스펙트럼장애 유·아동과 로봇간의 상호작용 이전 자폐스펙트럼장애 유·아동이 로봇이라는 대상을 인식할 수 있는가에 중점을 두고 처음 로봇을 보았을 때 로봇에 적응하기 위해 어떻게 로봇을 인식하는지 구체적으로 알아보고자 하였다. 장애전담어린이집에서 교육을 받고 있는 유·아동 5명을 대상으로 하였으며, 관찰기록에서 얻은 자료의 분석을 통해 다음과 연구결과를 도출하였다. 첫째, 자폐스펙트럼장애 유·아동은 로봇을 인식할 때 피아제의 인지적 형성과정과 정단계의 순서로 탐색하며 대상의 도식을 형성한다. 둘째, 자폐스펙트럼장애 유·아동들 중 기존도식에서 벗어나지 못하고 새로운 대상을 기존도식에 동화시켜려 할 경우 친숙한 상호작용이 불가능하였다. 셋째, 모든 자폐스펙트럼장애 유·아동이 로봇을 인식할 때 나타나는 행동특성은 일반 유·아동과 비슷하였지만 소요되는 시간은 길었다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 자폐스펙트럼장애 유·아동의 사회적 상호작용을 증진시키는데 있어서 로봇을 활용할 경우 유·아동의 사회적 능력 외에도 인식능력까지 함께 통찰할 수 있어야 함을 보여준다.
This study was to examine the papers for intervention using robot in order to improve social skills for autism spectrum disorders and emotional and behavioral disorders, and to consider roles and interventional models of robot. We collected data of 33 articles (12 in domestic, 21 in foreign research) from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2013. Robot’s roles have three categories - Interventional tool, Social mediator, Social Agent. In role of robot as interventional tool, frequency of application as interventional tool has been decreased slowly. In role of robot as social mediator, Frequency of application as social mediator has stabilized for every year and robot as social mediator have been applicated until recently in foreign research. However, In domestic research, there are no papers using robot as social mediator until 2012 and some papers presented in 2013. In role of robot as social agent, data was deficient in this field due to many papers published in 2013. Therefore, there has changed the trend of robot’s role since 2001 and many researchers has searched for meaning of robot’s role. Eventually, We found all robot have used for human interaction through robot’s role. In other words, It’s important not only to improve a part of social skills using robot, but also to consider why and what purpose robot use. 본 연구는 자폐스펙트럼장애 및 정서․행동장애 아동의 사회적 기술 증진을 위한 국내외 로봇적용연구를 살펴보고, 로봇의 중재활동에 대한 역할에서의 고찰을 통해 향후 자폐스펙트럼및 정서․행동장애아동의 사회적 기술증진을 위한 로봇의 중재적 모델 및 치료적 지향점을 제시하였다. 현재까지 연구된 논문들의 대부분은 로봇을 중재적 도구로써 활용되어왔으나, 최근에는 국내외 모두 중재적 도구로써의 로봇 역할은 서서히 줄어들고 있음을 볼 수 있다. 사회적 매개체로써의 로봇 역할에서는, 국외의 경우 가장 꾸준히 모든 연도를 비롯하여 이루어지고 있으나, 국내연구에서는 2013년에 이르러서야 사회적 매개체로써의 역할을 하는 로봇을 활용하여 대상아동을 중재한 연구들이 나타났다. 사회적 대리인의 경우, 국외와 국내에서 가장 최근인 2013년에 들어선 연구이며, 아직 연구들이 많이 부족한 실정이다. 결론적으로 로봇 역할이 변화하고 그 역할이 가지는 각각의 의미는 결국 ‘인간과 인간’ 의 상호작용을 위한 연결을 위함이라는 강조하게 되었다. 다시 말해, 로봇을 활용해 사회성기술의 일부를 익혔다는 기능적 부분도 중요하지만, 그것을 확장하여 결국 인간과 인간간의상호작용에 궁극적 목적이 있을 때 로봇의 활용은 극대화될 수 있을 것이다.