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This study was conducted to reveal the effects of local climatic conditions on the yearly cone production in progeny test stand of Korean white pine. For this, yearly cone production by locality of progeny test stands was first measured and analyzed. The effects of climatic conditions on the cone production was analyzed by the estimation of yearly local climates based on both a topoclimatological method and a spatial statistical technique. From yearly climatic estimates, 19 climatic indices affecting cone production were computed for each of the progeny test stand. The yearly cone productions were then correlated with and regressed to the climatic indices to examine effects of local climatic conditions on the reproductive growth. According to correlation analysis, it was found that some typical climatic indices by locality were significantly correlated with the cone production. Also, the optimal regression equations which can estimate cone production by local climatic conditions were provided for applying to each of the progeny test stand of Korean white pine.
The purpose of this study is to develop an applicative software which is easy to use for analyzing the forest stand inventory data. The software, SIDAS(Stand Inventory Data Analysis System), has been developed to have several data analysis functions such as stand statistics, the distributions of diameter, height, and volume per hectare. The results of this study can be summarized as follows : 1. SIDAS, which has simplified the computation processes, can be easily used to analyze the stand inventory data by the unprofessional as well as foresters. 2. According to the verification, the precision and reliability of SIDAS were satisfactory although it is of more or less narrow range in analyzing the data. 3. SIDAS which is constructed with GUI(Graphic User Interface) and has pull-down menu system in Korean language is easy to use and offers obvious results composed of graphs and tables. Consequently, it has unified the intermittent procedures from data input to graphic display of results.
본 연구는 천연 활엽수림을 대상으로 9가지 간벌 시나리오를 적용하여 향후 30년 동안 매 10년 단위로 임분구조 변화를 예측하여 목재생산 뿐만 아니라 생태적으로 건전한 활엽수림 조성에 적합한 무육방법을 제시하기 위하여 수행되었다. 연구 대상지를 현재의 ha당 흉고단면적에 근거하여 5가지 임분밀도로 구분하고 경급별 직경생장율을 적용한 결과, 하층간벌 또는 상층간벌을 실시할 경우 간벌강도를 흉고단면적 10%를 제거하는 것이 가장 적합한 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구에서 얻어진 결과는 앞으로 천연 활엽수림의 친환경적 시업 방법의 하나로 활용할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. This study was conducted to provide a method of tending practice appropriate for both timber production and ecological sustainability in natural deciduous forest. For this, the change of stand structures by every ten years for next 30 years was predicted based on stand attributes such as number of trees per hectare, basal area per hectare, volume per hectare, mean DBH, and mean height. Also, current stand density was classified into 5 categories by basal area per hectare and the future stand structures were predicted by adopting the growth rate of DBH class. As a result, it was found that removed 10% of basal area by low thinning or crown thinning was the most appropriate in terms of timber production and ecological sustainability in natural deciduous forest. It is also expected that the results obtained in this study could be used as valuable information about an environment-friendly tending method.
본 연구는 천연 활엽수림에 적용할 수 있는 수고생장 예측식을 개발하기 위해 수행하였다. 이를 위해 먼저 천연 활엽수림의 개체목 간의 경쟁관계를 파악할 수 있도록 거리독립경쟁지수를 추정하였으며, 이 경쟁지수를 본 연구에서 사용된 6가지 수고생장 예측모형의 독립변수로 사용하였다. 최적 수고생장 예측식의 개발을 위해 연구 대상지에서 수집한 127개 표본점 자료에 근거하여 6가지 수고생장 모형의 희귀계수를 추정하였다. 그 결과 모형Ⅰ을 제외하고는 수고생장 예측식에 대한 설명력을 나타내는 결정계수는 모형들 간에 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 다음 단계에서는 천연 활엽수림의 최적 수고생장 모델을 선발하기 위해 모형의 평균편의, 모형의 정도, 그리고 모형의 표준오차와 같은 3가지 평가통계량을 통해 검증을 실시하였다. 최종적으로 모형 Ⅵ이 천연 활엽수림의 수고생장 예측에 가장 적합한 것으로 판명되었으며, 이 모형에 근거하여 수고생장 예측식이 개발되었다. This study was conducted to develop the optimum tree height growth prediction equation applicable to the natural deciduous forests. For this, the distance-independent competition index was employed to identify competition relationships among individual trees in stands, and the competition index was used as an independent variable in the six candidate growth models used for tree height growth prediction. The regression coefficients for the six models were estimated based on the data collected in the 127 sampling plots. As a result, except for model I, the values of coefficients of determination (R²) for the height growth prediction equations did not show any significant difference by models. In the next step, three evaluation statistics such as mean difference(MD), standard deviation of difference(SDD), and standard error of difference(SED) were tested to select the best height growth model for the natural deciduous forests. It was revealed that the model Ⅵ was selected the best model for tree height growth prediction in the natural deciduous forests, and the final height growth prediction equation was developed based on the model Ⅵ.
Two types of ridge regression estimators were compared with the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator in order to select the $quot;best$quot; estimator when multicollinearitc existed. The ridge estimators were Mallows's (1973) C_P-like statistic, and Allen's (1974) PRESS-like statistic. The evaluation eras conducted based on the predictive ability of a yield model developed by Matney et al. (1988). A total of 522 plots from the data of the Southwide Leblolly Pine Seed Source study v as used in this study All of ridge estimators were better in predictive ability than tire OLS estimator. the ridge estimator obtained by using Mallows's statistic performed the best. Thus, ridge estimators can be recommended as an alternative estimator when multicollinearity exists among independent variables.
To understand various aspects related to regeneration methods and tending practices for Quercus mongolica-Abies holophylla natural mixed stands, the vertical structure and horizontal distribution of Abies holophylla, the Korean fir, in disturbed mixed stands were investigated. Seedling and sapling advance regenerations of Abies holophylla were found on the forest floor beneath high shade from a mixed broad leaved forest canopy. These seedlings and saplings were showed the suspended growth from and grew very little for an extended time as about 5cm in height with the age of 10 years old, 1.2cm in height with 50 years old, and 2m in height with 60-70 years old. The horizontal distribution of seedlings and saplings of Abies holophylla was subject to restriction by the Sasa borealis(Hack). Makino, condition of soil moisture, boggy ground, and exposed rocks. Because of no appearance of Abies holophylla individual trees between 50 to 110 years old at diameter height(DBH) age(between 100 to 160 years old at collar age)in this stand, we could presume that a disturbance occurred during these periods. However, we could not estimate the magnitude of the disturbance to this natural mixed stand. Silvicultural system associated with regeneration methods and tending practices for this Quercus mongolica-Abies holophylla natural mixed stand are also discussed. These include : 1) possibility of selection method application, 2) time of release from overstory broad leaved tree canopy for growth promotion of Abies holophylla advance regenerations, 3) possibility of Abies holophylla as advance planting for the species of under planting in natural mixed broad leaved forest.