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This paper shows the simplified equation to predict the ultimate moment capacity and corresponding rod stress in reinforced concrete beam with external post-tensioning rods. Because the stress of external post-tensioning rod depends on the beam deflection, the previous analytical model for post-tensioned beams requires a tedious iteration process. Also, the stress equations in ACI code or other researchers' models are suitable only for internal tendons in concrete beams. In this study, given the lack of analytical approaches to predict the nominal stress of the external unbonded rod, a simple and robust equation has been proposed for externally post-tensioned concrete beams. It is concluded that the proposed equation predicted the stress of external steel rods in post-tensioned concrete beams reasonably well.
This paper shows the test results of continuous reinforced concrete beams with external post-tensioning rods. Six three-span beams were prepared and tested to fail. Three beams were designed to have flexure-dominating behavior and the others to have shear-critical behavior. In each group, one beam without external post-tensioning rods was designated as a control beam and two beams had the external post-tensioning rods of 18 mm or 22 mm diameter. External post-tensioning rods were installed within an interior span of 6000 mm. They show V-shaped configuration because two anchorages were located at the top of interior supports and a saddle pin at mid-span was installed at the bottom of the beam. Test results show that the load and shear capacities of strengthened beams were increased when compared with the control beam. Additionally, the measured shear strength was compared with the strength predicted by ACI 318-11 code equations. The detailed ACI 318-11 equation predicted the measured shear strength and failure location of the continuous beam reasonably well.
paper describes the analysis results for tensile behavior of tubular column to H-beam connection with Tstifeners. Using the elasto-plastic finite element method, analysis results are compare with experimental results. Parametric analyses with diferent size of T-stiffener have conducted to understand the stress distribution at the connections. Stres concentration in elastic region and PEEQ distribution in plastic region are plotted for shape. The results of analysis were applied to design equations and were checked for the aplicability of design equations. 본 논문에서는 외부 T 스티프너를 이용해 보강한 각형강관 기둥 -H 형강보 접합부의 인장거동을 3차원 비선형 유한요소 해석을하였다. 비선형 해석을 통하여기존의 실험결과와 비교함으로써 비선형 해석의 신뢰성을 높였다 . 접합부의 전체적인 응력흐름을 파악하기 위해 실험에서 수행되지 않았던 수직 , 수평 스티프너의 형태를 변수로 하여 해석을 하였다 . 해석한 결과를 탄성범위에서는 응력의 변화 , 비탄성범위에서는 소성변형도의 분포등을 파악하고 제안된 설계식에 적용하고 설계식의 적용가능성을 검토하였다 . 수직 및 수평 스티프너의 다양한 변수 T스티프너의 최소의 치수를 제안하였다 . 또한 해석을 통해 얻은 결과로 접합부 T스티프너에 대한 설계 기본 자료를 제공하였다 .
The tactical network has several different characteristics compared with commercial internet network such ashierarchical topology, dynamic topology changing and wireless link based connectivity. For considering IP mobilitymanagement in the tactical network, current mobility management using Mobile IP(MIP) is not suitable with somereasons such as non-optimal routing paths and single point of failure. Proxy Mobile IP(PMIP) which supportingnetwork-based mobility in hierarchical manner can provide optimal routing path in the tactical network environment,but centralized anchor is still remained a threat to the stability of the tactical network which changes its topologydynamically. In this paper, we propose PMIP-based distributed mobility management for the tactical networkenvironment. From our design, routing paths are always configured in optimized way, as well as path is recoveredquickly when the mobility anchor of user is failed. From numerical analysis, comparing to other mobility scheme,result shows that the proposed scheme can reduce packet transmission cost and latency in tactical network model.
External post-tensioning is considered one of the most powerful techniques used for strengthening or rehabilitation of existing structures and had grown recently to occupy a significant share for the construction market. The anchoring device on external post-tension system is on of the most important element because of the stress concentration at the anchoring location. This paper presents the results of experimental investigation of the anchoring devices on external post-tension system. The test results of 11 anchoring device specimens with three different types are described. The main anchoring elements used are chemical anchors and steel pins inserted in concrete beam. The behavior at both the ultimate strength and the failure mode is evaluated. The experimental results showed that the suggested details for the anchoring device resisted up to the strength of the high-tension bar. All specimens failed beyond the yielding point of the high strength bar, however, the ductility of some specimens need to increased. The important points to reduce the premature failure and to increase the ductility are suggested. The details suggested in the study could be used in the construction field for strengthening the beam.