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The purpose of this study was to review and summarize the characteristics and results of physical activity and sedentary behavior studies among young children in Korea. Studies on physical activity, sedentary behavior of young children in Korea were searched using academic search engines. A total of 14 studies for physical activity and four studies for sedentary behavior were identified. There were two methods of assessing physical activity and sedentary behavior. One was a direct measurement using activity devices(e.g. accelerometer, pedometer) and observation, and the other was an indirect measurement using a questionnaire filled out by parents or guardians. The level of physical activity of young children was estimated at around 6,000 steps per day, and the average TV viewing time was 1.36 hours per day. It is important to develop and research measuring tools for young children's physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Furthermore, examining the association between physical activity and sedentary behavior is needed in future research to improve physical, psychological and social health among young children in Korea. 하루 24시간의 활동은 크게 신체활동, 좌식행동과 수면으로 이루어지며, 유아들의 활동 조사를 위한 도구의 개발 및 연구가 필요하다. 나아가 유아의 신체활동 및 좌식행동의 독립적 그리고 상호적인 관계를 알아보는 것은 유아의 신체적, 정신적, 사회적 건강을 향상시키기 위해 매우 중요하다.
Dr. Lawrence H Jones developed innovative approach for the treatment of neuromuscular and musculo-skeletal disorders such as fibromyalgia, myofacial pain syndrome, any other muscle pain. This technique is called Strain/Counterstrain technique which uses effect of neuromuscular reflex for treatment of strain. First, Relieving spinal or other joint pain by passively putting the joint into its position of greatest comfort; secondly relieving pain by reduction and arrest of the continuing inappropriate proprioceptor activity. This was accomplished by markedly shortening the muscle that contains the malfunctioning muscle spindle by applying. mild strain to its antagonists. In other words, the inappropriate strain reflex is inhibited by application of counterstrain. Many other techniques have been developed for treating of muscle pain due to somatic dysfunction, but we want to introduce you to strain/counterstrain technique because this is basic concept and theory of Chum therapy for controling motor system.
송윤경,진선경,한의식,안미령,정주연,이이다,조일영,김동섭,지은희,박효영,오정미,신원,이선희,김인규,Song,,Yun-Kyoung,Jin,,Sun-Kyung,Han,,Eui-Sik,Ahn,,Mee-Ryung,Jung,,Ju-Yeon,Lee,,Rhee-Da,Cho,,Il-Yong,Kim,,Dong-Sub,Ji,,Eun-Hee,Park,,Hyo-Young,Oh, 대한약학회 2011 약학회지 Vol.55 No.4
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Gastritis is the most common disease among Korean. The demand for the development of gastritis drugs has been increasing. Currently, however, there is no guideline available for the clinical evaluation of gastritis drugs worldwide. As a consequence, domestic and international pharmaceutical companies make errors in the drug development processes, and it becomes difficult for them to establish the scientific validity and objectivity of newly developed drugs. The objective of this study was to develop the Guideline for Clinical Trials Evaluation of Gastritis which can be used in improving the quality and consistency of clinical trials. First, we collected and reviewed the clinical trials on gastritis drugs that were available from Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency and Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA), and investigated the recent research trends on clinical trials of gastritis drugs. Reviewers from KFDA and National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation and scientific experts from the pharmaceutical industries developed the guidelines through regularly scheduled meetings. Opinions and consultation from academic fields and industry experts were also obtained. This project will provide the clinical trial practitioners, investigator and reviewers the scientific and rational guidelines for performance and evaluation of clinical trials for gastritis drugs. Furthermore, we hope this guideline contributes to establishing the national competitiveness, improving the quality of clinical trial, and encouraging researches on drug development for gastritis.
Background and Objectives : Vowels are characterized on the basis of formant patterns. The first formant(F1) is determined by high-low placement of the tongue, and the second formant (F2) by front-back placement of the tongue. The fundamental frequency(F0) of a soprano often exceed the normal frequency of the first formant. And the vocal intensity is boosted when F0 is high and a harmonic coincides with a formant. This is called a formant tuning. Experienced singers thus learned how to tune their formants over a resonable range by lowering the tongue to maximize their vocal intensity. So, the current study aimed to identify the formant tuning in one experienced soprano by comparing the first formants of vowel [i] in three different voice production : speech, ascending scale, and vocalize. Materials and Method : All voices recordings of vowel [i] in speech, ascending scale (from F4 note to A4 note), and vocalize(:Ridente la calam") were made with digital audio tape-corder in a sound treated room. And the captured data were analyzed by the long term average(LTA) power spectrum using the FFT algorithm of the Computerized Speech Lab(CSL, Kay elementrics, Model, 4300B). Results : Although the first formant of vowel [i] in speech was 238Hz, those of ascending scale [i] were 377Hz, 405Hz, 453Hz respectively in F4(349z), G4(392Hz), A4(440Hz) note, and 722Hz, 820Hz, 918Hz respectively in F5 (698Hz), G5(784Hz), A5(880Hz) note. In vocalize, first formants of [i] were 380Hz, 398Hz, 453Hz respectively in F4, G4, A4 note, and 720Hz, 821Hz, 890Hz respectively in F5, G5, A5 note. Conclusion : These results showed that the first formant of ascending scale and vocalize sustained higher frequency than fundamental frequency in high pitch. This finding implicates that the formant tuning of vowel [i] in ascending scale was also noted in vocalize.
Background: The automation system for blood typing and antibody screening has been developed and is nowused widely. In this study, we evaluated the economic effectiveness between automation system QWALYS-3(DIAGAST, Loos Cedex, France) and manual testing. Methods: Clinical samples from March 2012 were used for comparison of the costs and TAT for ABO-RhD bloodtyping and antibody screening. The costs included those of materials (reagents and consumables), labor, andequipment depreciation. TAT was analyzed for either blood typing only for one, 16, and 32 samples or bloodtyping and antibody screening for the same number of samples. Results: The blood typing TAT for one, 16, and 32 samples was 4.5, 35.1, and 70.1 minutes by manual and24.0, 36.0, and 38.1 minutes by automated system. Both blood typing and antibody screening TAT for one, 16,and 32 samples was 27.5, 75.0, and 129.9 minutes by manual and 45.0, 52.0, and 54.0 minutes by automation. Conclusion: The blood automation system reduced TAT only for the batch test, therefore, when using theautomation system, blood bank test size and emergency situation should be considered.
This paper aims to understand the current situation of teaching Korean pronunciation and intonation in the field of Korean Language Education, and to suggest a new pedagogical ground for teaching pronunciation and intonation in the Korean language classroom. For this, we observe Chinese learners' level of pronunciation and intonation in Korean, who are judged objectively as belonging to intermediate to advanced level in terms of Korean listening, writing, and reading. In particular, we have the Chinese learners self-evaluate their speech ability of Korean, which then is listened to and evaluated by Korean native speakers. By comparing self-evaluation of the Chinese learners and the objectively evaluated speech level of them, we obtain the result that the Chinese learners assess their own speech ability higher than the objective speech ability. In addition, the Chinese learners show intonation patterns that are very different from those of the Korean native speakers when performing ‘request' and ‘refusal' speech acts. From this fact, we suppose that the Chinese learners have had little chance to learn the proper intonation for those kinds of speech acts. This also seems to result from the fact that while teaching grammar and lexical expressions is equipped with a consistent and systematic curriculum and syllabus for each level of the Korean Language Education, there is no such systematic syllabus in the teaching of pronunciation and intonation. We suggest that there should be a proper and consistent pronunciation and intonation curriculum for each level of learners in accordance with the level of grammar, lexical expression and sentence types that they are learning. Furthermore, by developing a teaching method for pronunciation and intonation that incorporates speech acts such as question, command, request, and refusal, we expect to help learners of Korean understand and perform speech acts appropriately as well as to increase the naturalness of their Korean.
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배경 및 목적: 구개편도비대는 학령전기 아동에게 매우 흔한 질환으로, 말소리 길의 변형을 초래하여 말 산출에 영향을 미치는 것으로 여겨지고 있다. 이에 구개편도비대 아동과 일반 아동의 말운동 기능과 자음정확도, 음운변동의 종류와 빈도에 차이가 있는지 비교하고, 구개편도비대 아동의 경우, 편도절제술 전과 후에 이와 같은 변인들에 변화가 있는지 살펴보았다. 방법: 조음기관의 구조와 움직임에 제한이 없는 만 5-6세의 일반 아동과 구개편도비대 아동 각 40명을 대상으로 길항반복운동과 아동용 발음평가를 시행하여 말운동 기능, 자음정확도 및 음운변동 특성을 비교하였다. 결과: 구개편도비대 아동은 일반 아동에 비하여 통계적으로 유의하게 더 느린 길항반복운동 속도를 보였으며, 더 낮은 자음정확도를 보였다. 또한 치조마찰음의 치간음화와 같은 일부 음운변동을 더 자주 나타내었다. 구개편도비대 아동의 수술 전과 6주 후의 비교에서는 자음정확도, 음운변동의 종류와 빈도에 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 논의 및 결론: 연구의 결과는 구개편도비대 아동이 일반 아동에 비하여 더 낮은 말운동 기능과 조음음운 능력을 보이고, 수술 후 의미 있는 변화를 보이지 못하여, 구개편도비대로 인한 말소리 길의 변형이 말 산출에 부정적 영향을 미칠 수 있음을 시사한다. 추후 수술 후 6개월 이상의 긴 시간이 경과한 뒤의 말소리 특성에 대한 후속연구가 요구된다. Objectives: Palatine tonsil hypertrophy changes the shape of the vocal tract, which can cause adverse an effect on speech sound production. The purpose of this study was to investigate speech motor function and articulation, along with the phonological characteristics of children with palatine tonsil hypertrophy (TH) and typically developing children (TD), to compare these areas before and after tonsillectomy, and to examine the correlation between diadochokinesis (DDK) and the percentage of consonants correct (PCC) in TH. Methods: Forty TH and 40 TD, aged 60-83 months, were measured for DDK performance and with the Assessment of Phonology & Articulation for Children (APAC). The 40 TH were tested again at 6 weeks after tonsillectomy. An independent t-test, paired t-test, and χ2-test were conducted to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups. Results: The results showed that the DDK and PCC of TH were significantly lower than those of TD, and the number of children who produced phonological processes (interdentalization of fricative, typical intersyllabic cluster simplification, affrication or palatalization) was significantly higher in TH than in TD. But there were no significant changes in PCC and phonological processes in TH after tonsillectomy. Conclusion: These results suggest that the modification of vocal tract related with palatine tonsil hypertrophy can cause adverse effects on speech sound production and that these effects can persist 6 weeks after tonsillectomy.
Background and Objectives : Quality of life(QOL) is a construct representing physical, mental and social well-being. QOL has been used as a device for measuring the severity of health-related condition and treatment outcomes. As the social welfare system develops, the attention to QOL increases as well. The aims of this study was to examine whether the patients with voice disorder perceived significantly more the effects of voice disorder on QOL than nonpatient group did and if any, identify the sociodemographic risk factors influencing QOL of patients. Materials and Methods : This study asked 113 adults with voice disorders who were enrolled in Voice Clinic in the Department of Otolaryngology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between lune 1998 and January 1999 and 111 nonpatients to complete a questionnaire designed to elicit information about the effete of voice disorders on quality of lift. The questionnaire included items concerning sociodemographic areas, voice symptoms, job, effects of voice disorders on QOL domains(work, social, psychological, physical, and communication areas), potential risk factors to exposures, familial and medical history of voice disorders. Results : The sociodemographic characteristics of the patient group are as follows : (1) 75.2% of total patient group were female and the rest were male. (2) Age of total patient group ranged from 20 to 65 years. Hoarseness was the most commonly reported complaints, followed by complaints of high note difficulties during singing and voice fatigue. The patient group perceived effects of voice disorders on the areas of work, social, psychological, physical and communication more adversely than the comparison group did (p<0.05). QOL impairments were evaluated as a function of age, gender, education, and income, controlling other independent effects. The results were that (1) age was significantly associated with work problems and (2) gender and income were significantly associated with psychological problems. Conclusions : The findings indicated that the patients with voice disorders would perceive markedly adverse effect on all QOL domains, that is, work, social, psychological, physical, communicational areas. Therefore, the results of study suggest that lurker investigations about the nature of voice disorders, the prevention, treatment, and coping strategies are needed in the future.