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        Cochlodinium polykrikoides Red Tide Detection in the South Sea of Korea using Spectral Classification of MODIS Data

        손영백,Joji Ishizaka,정종철,김현철,이태희 한국해양과학기술원 2011 Ocean science journal Vol.46 No.4

        To distinguish true red tide water (particularly Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms) from non-red tide water (false satellite high chlorophyll water) in the South Sea of Korea, we developed a systematic classification method using spectral information from MODIS level products and applied it to five different harmful algal bloom events. Red tide and nonred tide waters were classified based on four different criteria. The first step revealed that the radiance peaks of potential red tide water occurred at 555 and 678 nm. The second step separated optically different waters that were influenced by relatively low and high contributions of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (including detritus) to chlorophyll. The third and fourth steps discriminated red tide water from non-red tide water based on the blue-to-green ratio in areas with lower and higher contributions of CDOM to chlorophyll, respectively. After applying the red tide classification (using the four criteria), the spectral response of the red tide water, which is influenced by pigment concentration, showed different slopes for the blue and green bands (lower slope at blue bands and higher slope at green bands). The opposite result was found for non-red tide water, due to decreasing phytoplankton absorption and increasing detritus/CDOM absorption at blue bands. The results were well matched with the discoloration of water (blue to dark red/brown) and delineated the areal coverage of C. polykrikoides blooms, revealing the nature of spatial and temporal variations in red tides. This simple spectral classification method led to increase user accuracy for C. polykrikoides and non-red tide blooms (>46% and >97%) and provided a more reliable and robust identification of red tides over a wide range of oceanic environments than was possible using chlorophyll a concentration, chlorophyll anomaly, fluorescence analysis, or proposed red tide detection algorithms.

      • KCI등재

        Climatological variability of surface particulate organic carbon (POC) and physical processes based on ocean color data in the Gulf of Mexico

        손영백,Wilford D. Gardner 대한원격탐사학회 2011 大韓遠隔探査學會誌 Vol.27 No.3

        The purpose of this study is to investigate climatological variations from the temporal and spatial surface particulate organic carbon (POC) estimates based on SeaWiFS spectral radiance, and to determine the physical mechanisms that affect the distribution of POC in the Gulf of Mexico. 7-year monthly mean values of surface POC concentration (Sept. 1997 - Dec. 2004) were estimated from Maximum Normalized Difference Carbon Index (MNDCI) algorithm using SeaWiFS data. Synchronous 7-year monthly mean values of remote sensing data (sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface wind (SSW), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), precipitation rate (PR)) and recorded river discharge data were used to determine physical forcing factors. The spatial pattern of POC was related to one or more factors such as river runoff, wind-derived current, and stratification of the water column, the energetic Loop Current/Eddies, and buoyancy forcing. The observed seasonal change in the POC plume? response to wind speed in the western delta region resulted from seasonal changes in the upper ocean stratification. During late spring and summer, the low-density river water is heated rapidly at the surface by incoming solar radiation. This lowers the density of the fresh-water plume and increases the near-surface stratification of the water column. In the absence of significant wind forcing, the plume undergoes buoyant spreading and the sediment is maintained at the surface by the shallow pycnocline. However, when the wind speed increases substantially, wind-wave action increases vertical motion, reducing stratification, and the sediment were mixed downward rather than spreading laterally. Maximum particle concentrations over the outer shelf and the upper slope during lower runoff seasons were related to the Loop Current/eddies and buoyancy forcing. Inter-annual differences of POC concentration were related to ENSO cycles. During the El Ni뻩 events (1997-1998 and 2002-2004), the higher POC concentrations existed and were related to high runoffs in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, but the opposite conditions in the western Gulf of Mexico. During La Ni뻕 conditions (1999-2001), low POC concentration was related to normal or low river discharge, and low PM/nutrient waters in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, but the opposite conditions in the western Gulf of Mexico.

      • KCI등재

        Detecting Massive Green Algae (Ulva prolifera) Blooms in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Data

        손영백,민지은,류주형 한국해양과학기술원 2012 Ocean science journal Vol.47 No.3

        The historically massive bloom of the green macroalgae Ulva prolifera reported in June-August 2008 around the Qingdao, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and Japan coasts has recurred in a similar season and region. On June 13, 2011,around Qingdao, China, the world’s first Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) detected an enormous bloom of floating green algae, which originated from the nearshore Subei Bank, China. The large floating green algae patches were observed along and across the Yellow Sea and in the East China Sea during 2011 summer by various oceanic cruises. To detect the massive macroalgae blooms from space, we analyzed their spectral characteristics from in situ optical measurements and satellite-derived green algae spectra. An “Index of floating Green Algae for GOCI” (IGAG) was developed from the multiple spectral band ratios using three wavelengths (555, 660, 745 nm), which the spectral response of green algae reflected at 555, 745, and 865 nm and absorbed at 660 and 680 nm. The results were compared with those obtained by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and Korea Ocean Satellite Center (KOSC) approaches. An advantage of the IGAG method was that muted or subtle signals of floating green algae were enhanced and separated from surrounding complex water signals. Although maps of floating green algae derived by the other approaches delineated dense green algae, they were less sensitive to subtle (less dense) features and in cases of nearby cloudy or complex water conditions. The floating green algae maps from IGAG provided a more robust estimate of wide floating green algae blooms than those derived using NDVI, EVI, or KOSC approaches. The IGAG approach should be useful for tracing and monitoring changes in green algae blooms on regional and global scales.

      • KCI등재

        현장관측 및 원격탐사 자료를 이용한 북동 멕시코 만에서 El $Ni\tilde{n}o$와 La $Ni\tilde{n}a$ 기간 동안 표층 입자성 유기탄소의 시/공간적 변화 연구

        손영백,Son, Young-Baek,Gardner, Wilford D. 한국해양학회 2010 바다 Vol.15 No.2

        북동 멕시코 만에서 particulate organic carbon(POC)의 시/공간적 변화를 조사하기 위하여, 1997년 11월부터 2000년 8월까지 총 9번의 관측이 이루어 졌으며, 같은 기간 동안 위성자료(해색, 표층수온, 해면고도이상, 표층바람)와 주요 강들 의 유출량이 조사되었다. POC 농도는 내 대륙붕과 미시시피 하구 역에서 높은 값을 (>100 $mg/m^3$) 나타내고 대륙붕과 대륙사면으로 가면서 감소된다. POC의 경년 변화는 상대적으로 1997과 1998년(El $Ni\tilde{n}o$)이 1999과 2000년(La $Ni\tilde{n}a$) 보다 상대적으로 증가되어 나타난다. 이런 현상은 미시시피강 및 다른 주요 강들에 영향을 주는 강우량 변화에 따른 담수 유 입의 변화와 직접적으로 연관되어 있으며, 강우량 변화는 ENSO 현상과 같은 세계 기후변화와 관련이 있는 것으로 사료 된다. 북동 멕시코 만 연안으로 유입되는 주요 강들의 방류량은 초봄에 증가되어 여름과 가을에 감소되지만, 공간적으로 확장된 높은 농도의 POC 분포는 여름 조사기간에서 관측되고, 낮은 농도 및 제한된 확산은 가을과 초 봄 관측에서 나타 난다. 여름철 동안 상대적인 강의 유출량은 봄에 비하여 현저하게 감소하지만, 증가된 표층수온은 수층을 강하게 성층화 시키고 표층에서 부력을 증가시킨다. 이런 조건에서 고농도의 POC를 함유하는 저염수는 상부 대륙사면까지 확장되고 이 는 Loop Current와 Loop Current Eddies의해서 조절된다. 봄과 가을 동안 유출량은 보통이거나 이상을 보이지만, 증가된 바람과 낮은 표층수온으로 인하여 수직적 혼합을 유발하고 이는 높은 농도의 POC를 내 대륙붕에 제한 시키는 것으로 사료된다. Surface particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration was measured in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico on 9 cruises from November 1997 to August 2000 to investigate the seasonal and spatial variability related to synchronous remote sensing data (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), and sea surface wind (SSW)) and recorded river discharge data. Surface POC concentrations have higher values (>100 $mg/m^3$) on the inner shelf and near the Mississippi Delta, and decrease across the shelf and slope. The inter-annual variations of surface POC concentrations are relatively higher during 1997 and 1998 (El Nino) than during 1999 and 2000 (La Nina) in the study area. This phenomenon is directly related to the output of Mississippi River and other major rivers, which associated with global climate change such as ENSO events. Although highest river runoff into the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast occurs in early spring and lowest flow in late summer and fall, wide-range POC plumes are observed during the summer cruises and lower concentrations and narrow dispersion of POC during the spring and fall cruises. During the summer seasons, the river discharge remarkably decreases compared to the spring, but increasing temperature causes strong stratification of the water column and increasing buoyancy in near-surface waters. Low-density plumes containing higher POC concentrations extend out over the shelf and slope with spatial patterns and controlled by the Loop Current and eddies, which dominate offshore circulation. Although river discharge is normal or abnormal during the spring and fall seasons, increasing wind stress and decreasing temperature cause vertical mixing, with higher surface POC concentrations confined to the inner shelf.

      • KCI등재

        현장관측 및 원격탐사 자료를 이용한 북동 멕시코 만에서 El Niño와 La Niña 기간 동안 표층 입자성 유기탄소의 시/공간적 변화 연구

        손영백,Wilford D. Gardner 한국해양학회 2010 바다 Vol.15 No.2

        북동 멕시코 만에서 particulate organic carbon(POC)의 시/공간적 변화를 조사하기 위하여, 1997년 11월부터 2000년 8월까지 총 9번의 관측이 이루어 졌으며, 같은 기간 동안 위성자료(해색, 표층수온, 해면고도이상, 표층바람)와 주요 강들의 유출량이 조사되었다. POC 농도는 내 대륙붕과 미시시피 하구 역에서 높은 값을 (>100 mg/㎥) 나타내고 대륙붕과 대륙사면으로 가면서 감소된다. POC의 경년 변화는 상대적으로 1997과 1998년(El Niño)이 1999과 2000년(La Niña) 보다상대적으로 증가되어 나타난다. 이런 현상은 미시시피강 및 다른 주요 강들에 영향을 주는 강우량 변화에 따른 담수 유입의 변화와 직접적으로 연관되어 있으며, 강우량 변화는 ENSO 현상과 같은 세계 기후변화와 관련이 있는 것으로 사료된다. 북동 멕시코 만 연안으로 유입되는 주요 강들의 방류량은 초봄에 증가되어 여름과 가을에 감소되지만, 공간적으로확장된 높은 농도의 POC 분포는 여름 조사기간에서 관측되고, 낮은 농도 및 제한된 확산은 가을과 초 봄 관측에서 나타난다. 여름철 동안 상대적인 강의 유출량은 봄에 비하여 현저하게 감소하지만, 증가된 표층수온은 수층을 강하게 성층화시키고 표층에서 부력을 증가시킨다. 이런 조건에서 고농도의 POC를 함유하는 저염수는 상부 대륙사면까지 확장되고 이는 Loop Current와 Loop Current Eddies의해서 조절된다. 봄과 가을 동안 유출량은 보통이거나 이상을 보이지만, 증가된바람과 낮은 표층수온으로 인하여 수직적 혼합을 유발하고 이는 높은 농도의 POC를 내 대륙붕에 제한 시키는 것으로 사료된다. Surface particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration was measured in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico on 9 cruises from November 1997 to August 2000 to investigate the seasonal and spatial variability related to synchronous remote sensing data (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), and sea surface wind (SSW)) and recorded river discharge data. Surface POC concentrations have higher values (>100 mg/m3) on the inner shelf and near the Mississippi Delta,and decrease across the shelf and slope. The inter-annual variations of surface POC concentrations are relatively higher during 1997 and 1998 (El Niño) than during 1999 and 2000 (La Niña) in the study area. This phenomenon is directly related to the output of Mississippi River and other major rivers, which associated with global climate change such as ENSO events. Although highest river runoff into the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast occurs in early spring and lowest flow in late summer and fall, wide-range POC plumes are observed during the summer cruises and lower concentrations and narrow dispersion of POC during the spring and fall cruises. During the summer seasons, the river discharge remarkably decreases compared to the spring, but increasing temperature causes strong stratification of the water column and increasing buoyancy in near-surface waters. Low-density plumes containing higher POC concentrations extend out over the shelf and slope with spatial patterns and controlled by the Loop Current and eddies, which dominate offshore circulation. Although river discharge is normal or abnormal during the spring and fall seasons, increasing wind stress and decreasing temperature cause vertical mixing, with higher surface POC concentrations confined to the inner shelf.

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