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Background : The dried ripe fruits, leaf and root of boxthorn are widely used for medicinal purposes and as a functional food. Among them, frut is the most susceptible to anthracnose in the open field. Currently, there are only 5 fungicides registered in boxthorn anthracnose. In addition, resistance to fungicides caused by frequent use occurred in many open field, Therefore, a study on the fungicide resistance of boxthorn anthracnose was needed. Methods and Results : In 2017, collected anthracnose from boxthorn fruit. The collected samples were isolated by a single spore isolation method and 20 isolates of Collectotrichum spp. were obtained To test for anthracnose fungicide resistance, propineb, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin fungicide were used. Monitoring for fungicide resistance of Collectotrichum spp. causing boxthorn anthracnos to test fungicide were conducted by agar dilution method. The assay concentration were control, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 ㎍/㎖ and strobilurin group of azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin were treated salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the alternative breath suppression at a concentration of 100 ㎍/㎖. In the result, Prevention of fungicide propineb was more than 100 ㎍/㎖ of EC50, and tebuconazole was less than 1 ㎍/㎖ except for 1 isolate of EC50 azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin showed a difference even though they had the same mode of action. Azoxystrobin showed almost no inhibition of mycelial growth except 6 isolates and remaining 6 isolates had EC50 of less than 1 ㎍/㎖, pyraclostrobin was divided into two groups of EC50, 6 isolates were less than 0.1 ㎍ /㎖ and 14 isolates were more than 1 ㎍/㎖. Conclusion : In summary, response to fungicides of anthracnose, azoxystrobin of strobilurin group showed the highest resistance to fungicide. As these fungicide resistance continues to develop, we plan to register a new anthracnose fungicide and improve the control method.
Background : Insect pests damages are increasing on the field of Lycium chinense under organic farming management and especially, pest damage of Gelechiidae (Ilseopsis parki Povolny) is serious. Currently, various organic farming materials are registered, but insecticidal activity against Gelechiidae was not verified. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to screening for effective organic farming materials showing insecticidal activity in Gelechiidae. Methods and Results : Screening for effective organic farming materials (OFM) showing insecticidal activity in Gelechiidae, we screening OFMs through in vitro testing Among them, OFMs showing insecticidal activity were first selected through field test. In the field test method, OFMs was sprayed at the time of moth occurrence, after 5 days of treatment, insecticidal activity was investigated as a result, a total of five OFMs were selected through the in vitro test and the Sophora japonica and three plant extracts showed the best control effect at 81.7%. in 2017. In 2018, the 2017 selected OFM and 4 kinds of new OFMs were field tested. The field test was performed in the same method as before. As a result, 2 kinds of OFMs made of Sophora japonica and three plant extracts extract and Sophora flavescens extract showed high control value of 87.3% and 88.3%, respectively. In contrast one organic agricultural material showed a chemical injury. To determine the timing of control, the extract was treated before and after topping and pretreatment of topping showed better control value by 80%. Conclusion : Insecticidal activity against Gelechiidae was not effective in all tested OFMs, but the 2 OFMs showed a high control value of over 80%. In this study, we selected 2 materials out of 9 OFMs against Gelechiidae, and It was effective to treat OFM before topping.
In-wheel vehicles driven by electrical energy are more efficient and emit less pollutant emissions than conventional vehicles powered by internal combustion engine. However, evaluation system for the in-wheel vehicles is not well established, the absence of the evaluation system for in-wheel vehicles is one of the major obstacles to commercialization of the in-wheel vehicles. In this study, we have suggested a new methodology of dynamometer test for in-wheel vehicle and devised simulators that can analyze the performance of in-wheel vehicles. In general, a new vehicle goes through the performance evaluation on dynamometer test which can simulate a straight motion of vehicles. Due to the characteristics of dynamometer test which simulates only a straight motion, it is not suitable for test for in-wheel vehicle. In the case of in-wheel vehicle, since driving motors on wheels are controlled independently, the stability of in-wheel vehicles during turning is important. Therefore, we have developed an in-wheel vehicle simulator to build a dynamometer test which can simulate turning motions of in-wheel vehicle. Using CarSim & Matlab/Simulink, we realized dynamic motion of a vehicle on a curved 3-demensional road. With this simulator, we could extract the load torque of each wheel during driving on the 3D virtual road. If the derived load torque is applied to motors of dynamometer test, it is possible to simulate driving on real road, through which the performance and the efficiency of in-wheel vehicles can be analyzed before the actual vehicle experiment. Also, we developed another simulator to evaluate the performance and the efficiency of in-wheel vehicles. This simulator allows us to evaluate the performance of in-wheel vehicles by using load torque derived from previous simulator. In this study, we developed two types of simulators to evaluate the performance of in-wheel vehicles in the simulation environment where the load torque for each wheel is different. One simulator derives load torque of each wheel and the other simulator evaluates the performance of in-wheel vehicles.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the structural risk and weakness of a railway tank car through nonlinear collision analysis according to overseas collision safety standards. The goal is to propose a crash safety design guideline for railway tank cars for transporting dangerous goods in Korea. We analyzed the buffer impact test procedure of railway freight cars prescribed in EN 12663-2 and the tank puncture test criteria prescribed in 49CFR179. A nonlinear finite element model according to each standard was modeled using LS-DYNA, a commercial finite element analysis solver. As a result of the buffing impact test simulation, it was predicted that plastic deformation would not occur at a collision speed of 6 km/h or less. However, plastic deformation was detected at the rear of the center sill and at the tank center supporting the structure at a collision speed of 8 km/h or more. As a result of a head-on test simulation of tank puncture, the outer tank shell was destroyed at the corner of the tank head when 4% of the kinetic energy of the impacter was absorbed. The tank shell was destroyed in the area of contact with the impacter in the test mode analysis of tank shell puncture when the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle was reduced by 30%. Therefore, the simulation results of the puncture test show that fracture at the tank shell and leakage of the internal material is expected. Consequently, protection and structural design reinforcement are required on railway tank cars in Korea. 본 연구의 목적은 국내 위험물 운송용 탱크화차의 충돌안전설계 가이드라인 제안을 위해 해외 충돌안전 기준에 따른 국내 위험물 운송화차에 대하여 비선형 충돌해석을 하여 위험성을 평가하고, 구조적 취약부를 분석하는데 있다. 유럽의 EN 12663-2에서 규정하는 화차의 완충시험 및 북미 49CFR179에서 규정하는 탱크 펑크시험기준을 분석하였으며, 상용 유한요소 해석 솔버인 LS-DYNA를 이용하여 각각 기준에 따른 비선형 유한요소모델을 모델링하였다. EN 규격의 완충시험 해석결과 충돌속도 6 km/h 이하에서는 소성변형이 발생하지 않을 것으로 예측하였지만, 8 km/h 이상의 충돌속도에서 중앙연결기를 통한 하중 전달으로 차체의 센터실 후방 및 탱크 중앙 지지부에서 소성변형을 확인하였다. 북미 법규의 탱크 펑크시험 해석결과 국내 탱크화차는 두부 충돌모드에서 충돌차량의 운동에너지를 4 % 이상 흡수시 두부의 코너부에서 탱크 외벽의 파괴가 발생하였으며, 측면 충돌모드에서 운동에너지 30 % 이상 흡수시에 충격체가 접촉하는 탱크 외벽의 파괴가 발생하여 내부 적재물의 누출을 예상하였다. 국내 유류 운송용 탱크화차의 해외 충돌안전 기준의 만족을 위해서는 차체 구조보강 설계 및 탱크 방호설계 수준을 향상시킬 필요가 있다.