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In this paper, fire and evacuation simulations are conducted for the Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC) factory cleanroom, and a plan to improve performance standards in the field of performance-based design simulation is suggested. Firstof all, fire and evacuation risk factors in the clean room were derived through fire accidents and previous research. Andfire and evacuation simulations were performed using the derived risk factors as variables. As a result of the simulations,it was found that 'air conditioning equipment', 'working capacity', 'door setting method' and 'life safety evaluation method'have an influence on the life safety evaluation. Finally, a plan to improve the standards for fire and evacuation simulationwas suggested to reflect the factors influencing the life safety evaluation. 본 논문에서는 MLCC 공장 클린룸을 대상으로 화재 및 피난 시뮬레이션을 실시하고, 그 결과분석을 기반으로 성능위주설계 시뮬레이션 분야 수행기준의 개선방안을 제시하고자 한다. 우선 화재사고사례 및 선행연구의 고찰을 통해 클린룸의 화재⋅피난위험요인을 도출하였으며, 도출된 위험요인을 변수로 화재⋅피난시뮬레이션을 수행하였다. 시뮬레이션 수행결과 ‘공조설비 작동여부’, ‘근무인원의 수’, ‘출구설정 방법’과 ‘인명안전성 평가방법’이 인명안전성평가에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으며, 최종적으로 본 논문에서는 인명안전성 평가에 영향을 미치는 요인들을반영하기 위한 화재 및 피난시뮬레이션 수행기준의 개선방안을 제시하였다.
Mercury is an element of special concern for human health. Measurements of total mercury levels in fish have been taken into consideration to assess risk. In this study, the Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni was evaluated as a potential safe food source through measurement of total mercury contents. Total mercury concentrations in Antarctic toothfish ranged from 0.101 ± 0.047 mg/kg to 0.139 ± 0.075 mg/kg. The total mercury concentration was significantly correlated with macroscopic values including total fish length, weight, gonadosomatic index, and maturity (P < 0.01 or 0.05). Furthermore, according to the risk assessment, the total mercury body exposure rate from Antarctic toothfish ranged from 2.125% to 2.847% of the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake. Therefore, the Antarctic toothfish could be used as a potential safe seafood source.
Hot torsion tests were carried out to evaluate the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors of hot-extruded AA5083 at various deformation conditions. Flow curves showed the peak followed by the flow softening to the steady-state or to the failure strain, indicating that the DRX occurred during deformation. The peak stress increased as the temperature decreased and the strain rate increased. Constitutive relationship and Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter were used to evaluate the DRX characteristics. Peak and steady-state stresses were generalized by the dimensionless parameter, Z/A, to reveal the DRX mechanism. The empirical relationship of the DRXed grain size with the deformation conditions was established, and decreased with increasing Z parameter. The relationship for the fraction of DRXed grains was established as a function of the effective strain at given deformation conditions from the experimental data. The Avrami relationship based on micro-hardness measurement was used to describe the DRX kinetics, and was fitted well with the observed DRX fraction.
손광태 ( Kwang Tae Son ),조미라 ( Mi Ra Jo ),오은경 ( Eun Gyoung Oh ),목종수 ( Jong Soo Mok ),권지영 ( Ji Young Kwon ),이태식 ( Tae Seek Lee ),송기철 ( Ki Cheol Song ),김풍호 ( Poong Ho Kim ),이희정 ( Hee Jung Lee ) 한국수산과학회(구 한국수산학회) 2011 한국수산과학회지 Vol.44 No.5
Residues of ampicillin and amoxicillin in the muscles of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were investigated after oral doses of 20 mg/kg body weight/day of ampicillin and 40 mg/kg body weight/day of amoxicillin in a first examination and 40 mg/kg body weight/day of ampicillin and 80 mg/kg body weight/day of amoxicillin in a second examination for 5-6 days. The ranges of seawater temperatures in the 1st and 2nd examinations were 13.4-15.6oC and 16.8-21.4oC, respectively. Ampicillin and amoxicillin concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The average recovery rates of ampicillin and amoxicillin in fish samples ranged from 84.8- 95.2% and 100.8-103.8%, respectively. Residual concentrations in the olive flounder peaked on the 5th day, with average concentrations of 0.075 mg/kg and 0.311 mg/kg in the 1st examination, and 0.098 mg/kg and 0.630 mg/kg in the 2nd examination for ampicillin and amoxicillin, respectively, with maximum concentrations in muscle. In the 1st examination, ampicillin concentrations in olive flounder after withdrawals of 1 and 3 days were 0.041 mg/kg and 0.023 mg/kg, respectively, and amoxicillin concentrations after withdrawals of 1 day and 10 days were 0.172 mg/kg and 0.023 mg/kg, respectively. In the 2nd examination, the ampicillin concentrations in olive flounder after withdrawals of 1 and 3 days were 0.041 mg/kg and 0.023 mg/kg, respectively, and amoxicillin concentration after withdrawals of 1 day and 10 days were 0.172 mg/kg and 0.023 mg/kg, respectively. We suggest that the recommended withdrawal periods should be 3 days for ampicillin and 10 days for amoxicillin in the olive flounder.
손광태 ( Kwang Tae Son ),심길보 ( Kil Bo Shim ),임치원 ( Chi Won Lim ),윤나영 ( Na Young Yoon ),서정화 ( Jeong Hwa Seo ),정삼근 ( Sam Geun Jeong ),정우영 ( Woo Young Jeong ),조영제 ( Young Je Cho ) 한국수산과학회(구 한국수산학회) 2014 한국수산과학회지 Vol.47 No.5
We examined chemical changes in oysters Crassostrea gigas and packing water that were sold after storage at 5, 10, and 20℃. The pH of oysters stored at 5℃ dropped to 5.81 after 10 days of storage, while that of oysters at 10℃ and 20℃ dropped to 5.37 after 8 days and to 5.04 after 4 days, respectively. The glycogen content of oysters stored at 5℃ decreased from 718.89 to 421.85 mg/100g during storage, while that of oysters at 10℃ decreased to 351.49 mg/100 g after 4 days. The turbidity and soluble protein in packing water increased slightly. The viable cell count of oysters did not exceed 6 log CFU/g after 10 days of storage at 5℃, but that of oysters at 10℃ did so after 8 days. Additionally, the viable cell count of packing water was lower than that of oysters. We performed a principal component analysis, where the first principal component (55.03%-57.24%) and second principal component (42.76%-44.97%) described most variation. The first principal component included the pH of oysters and packing water, and the glycogen content of oysters. A Pearson correlation between the first two principal components had a higher R value than that between other components. Freshness was evaluated using the pH of oysters and packing water, and glycogen. We found that soluble protein content was significantly associated with a lower pH and glycogen content.
손광태 ( Kwang Tae Son ),권지영 ( Ji Young Kwon ),조미라 ( Mi Ra Jo ),최우석 ( Woo Seok Choi ),강성림 ( Sung Rim Kang ),하나영 ( Na Young Ha ),신진월 ( Jin Wall Shin ),박큰바위 ( Kunbawui Park ),김지회 ( Ji Hoe Kim ) 한국수산과학회(구 한국수산학회) 2012 한국수산과학회지 Vol.45 No.5
To investigate heavy metals (Hg, Pb and Cd) and their potential health risks in commercial dried layer (Porphyra sm), we collected 45 samples from the major production areas on the western and southern coasts of Korea (Hwaseong, Seo-cheon, Gunsan, Muan, Shinan, undo, I-laenam, Wando, Jangheung, Goheung and Busan). The Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS) or a mercury analyzer, The average Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations in the dried layer were 0.006±0, 0.017, 0.196+0.0614 and 0.894+0.4882 mg/kg, respectively, Based on the 2007 Korean Public Nutrition Report, these levels are 0.02, 0.11 and 2.47% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for Hg, Pb and Cd, respectively, established by the FAO/WHO. The hazard quotient (HQ) determined from the ratio of exposure and safe levels were less than 1.0. Therefore, the levels of overall exposure to Hg, Pb and Cd for dried layer were below the recommended JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) levels, which indicate safe levels for public health.
A DRC (design rule checker) algorithm employing λ-based design rule has been developed for CMOS circuits. The bit-language was used for its implementation program. Also, the λ-based DRC algorithm has an ability to indicate error coordinates so as to simplify the design procedure.
This paper introduces software tools for CIF, DECIF, and CIF-plotter required for VLSI CMOS circuit design. CIF program is used for converting VLSI-circuit into CIF files, DECIF program for CIF files to VLSI circuit, and CIF-plotter program for plotting VLSI layout by using CIF files. Results of the transformation of the CIF files and the conversion of the VLSI-circuit were exactly in accordance with the expected forms.